Doing Qualitative Interview (updated jan 2011)


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Introduction lecture to qualitative data collection. Doing interviewing, what are important, what to pay attention to, what different types of interviewing, critical discussion on doing qualitative interviewing.

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Doing Qualitative Interview (updated jan 2011)

  1. 1. Hangzhou, January 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Zhejiang University Doing  Qualitative   Interviewing   访 谈 方 法 - An Introduction
  2. 2. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 2 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  3. 3. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing Outline 1 Qualitative data collection - interview 4 2 Qualitative Interview 6 3 Different types of (qualitative) interview? 13 4 Doing qualitative interviewing? 17 5 Quality criteria for a good interview 22 3
  4. 4. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 4 Data Collection Preparation Process Analyzing Process Process of Qualitative Research Single Case Analyses Document Analyses Action Research Field Research Qualitative Experiments Qualitative Evaluation Qualitative Research Process: From Ideas (Questions) to Results (Theory) Writing Qualitative Research Report Qualitative Research Design The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses)
  5. 5. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 5 Qualitative Data Focus Group 聚焦小组 Interview 访谈 Observation 观察, Ethnography 民族志, Visual Data可视数据 Qualitative Data Collection 定性数据收集
  6. 6. Whom  of  you  have  any   experiences  in  doing  interview?   as  interviewer  or  interviewee? ?
  7. 7. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 7 Life world Meaning Qualitative Specificity DeliberateDescriptive Focused Ambiguity Change Sensitivity Interpersonal Situation Positive Experience The Purpose of Qualitative Research Interview treated is to obtain descriptions of the lived world of the interviewees with respect to interpretations of the meaning of the described phenomena. Aspects of Qualitative Research Interviews
  8. 8. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 8 Interviewing is a concern with subjective meaning rather than with eliciting responses Interviews can permit exploration of issues that maybe too complex to investigate through quantitative means. Doing interview is a salutary lesson in research involvement and practice. The questions of power relations in the research. 1 2 3 4 Four main reasons for conducting interviews 实施访谈的四个主要理由
  9. 9. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 9 Knowledgeable Qualification Criteria for the Interviewer Structuring Clear Gentle Sensi4ve Open Interpre4ng Remembering Cri4cal Steering Qualification Criteria for the Interviewer 访谈者的资格标准
  10. 10. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 10 Thematizing Formulate the purpose of an investigation and describe the concept of the topic to be investigated before the interviews start. Designing Considerate all seven stages to obtain the intended knowledge and taking into account the moral implication. Interviewing Base on interview guide, reflective approach to the knowledge sought and the interpersonal relation of the interview situation Transcribing Prepare the interview material for analysise, including a transcription from oral speech to written text. Analyzing Decide methods of analysis 1 2 3 4 5 Reporting A readable product 7 Verifying Ascertain generalizability, reliability, validity 6 Seven Stages of Interview Investigation
  11. 11. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 11 1.  Which  form  of  learning  mo1va1on  dominates   in  high  school? 2.  Do  the  grades  promote  an  external,  instrumental   mo1va1on  at  the  expense  of  an  intrinsic  interest   mo1va1on  for  learning? 3.  Does  learning  for  grades  socialize  to  working  for   Do  you  find  the  subjects  you  learn  important? Do  you  find  learning  interes1ng  itself? What  is  your  main  purpose  in  going  to  high  school? Have  you  experienced  a  conflict  between  what  you   wanted  to  read  (study)  and  what  you  had  to  read  to   obtain  a  good  grade? Have  you  been  rewarded  with  money  for  good  grades? Do  you  see  any  connec1on  between  money  and  grades? Research and interview questions: Learning motivation and performance
  12. 12. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 12 • Basic descriptive questions – Can you talk to me about your car accident? Tell me what happened on that evening? – Describe how you felt that evening? • Follow-up questions – You mentioned that “planning time” is important to you. Can you tell me how you use planning time? • Experience/example questions – You mentioned that you loved going to London. Can you give me an example or two of what made you love London? – Talk about your impressions of London. • Simple clarification questions – You have used the term “constructivist teacher” today. Can you clarify that for me? What exactly can you talk about regarding your constructivist teaching? • Structural/paradigmatic questions – You state that this class was a problematic one. What would you describe as the cause of these problems? – Of all the things you have told me about being a critical care nurse, what is the underlying premise of your work day? In other words, what keeps you going everyday? • Comparison/contrast questions – You said there was a big difference between a great principal and an ordinary principal. What are some of these differences? Can you describe a few for me? Types of interview questions 访谈问题的类型
  13. 13. How  many  kind  of  interviews do  you  know  or  aware  of?      -­  what  are  the  main  differences   between  them  ? ?
  14. 14. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 14 Semi-structured Interview 半结构化访谈 Narratives as data Focused Interview Semi-standardized Interview Expert Interview Problem-centred Interview Ethnographic Interview Narratives Interview 叙述式访谈 Episodic Interview 插话式访谈 Adapted from Flick, 2002 Interviewing method as an effective qualitative verbal data
  15. 15. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 15 • It  is  regarded  as  a  specific  forms  of  applying  semi-­‐structured  interviews.  In  contrast  to  biographical   interviews,  here  the  interviewee  is  of  less  interest  as  a  (whole)  person  than  in  his  or  her  capacity  o   being  an  expert  for  a  certain  field  of  ac1vity. • The  interview  guide  has  a  much  more  stronger  direc1ve  func1on  with  regard  to  excluding   unproduc1ve  topics. Some possible problems in conducting the interviews: • The  expert  blocks  the  interview  in  its  course,  because  he  or  she  proves  to  be  not  an  expert  for  this   topic  as  previously  assumed. • The  expert  tries  to  involve  the  interviewer  in  ongoing  conflicts  in  the  field  and  talks  about  internal   maLers  and  intrigues  in  his  or  her  work  field  instead  of  talking  about  the  topic  of  the  interview. • He  or  she  oMen  changes  between  the  roles  of  expert  and  private  persons,  so  that  more  informa1on   results  about  him  or  her  as  a  person  than    about  his  or  her  expert  knowledge. • As  an  intermediate  form  between  success  and  failure,  the  “rhetoric  interview”  is  men1oned.  I  this,  the   expert  gives  a  lecture  on  his  or  her  knowledge  instead  of  joining  the  ques1on-­‐answer  game  of  the   interview.  If  the  lecture  hits  the  topic,  this  form  of  interac1on  makes  it  more  difficult  to  return  to  the   actual  relevant  topic. Meuser and Nagel (1991, pp. 449-450) The expert interview from Meuser and Nagel (1991)
  16. 16. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 16 • This  interview  method  is  generally  used  in  combining with participative observation in the context of field research. • The  method  should  help  how  to  shape  conversa1ons  arising  in  the  field  into  interviews  in  which  unfolding   of  the  other’s  specific  experiences  is  aligned  with  issue  of  the  research  in  a  systema1c  way. • It  is  best  to  think  of  ethnographic  interviews  a  series  of  “friendly  conversa1ons”  into  which  the  researcher   slowly  introduces  new  elements  to  assist  informants  to  respond  as  informants. Some elements which distinguish ethnographic interviews from such “friendly conversations”: • A  specific  request  to  hold  the  interview  (resul1ng  from  the  research  ques1on) • Ethnographic  explana1ons,  in  which  the  interviewer  explains  the  project  (why  an  interview):   these  are  completed  everyday  language  explana1ons  and  interview  explana1on  and   explana1on  of  certain  type  of  ques1ons. • Ethnographic  ques1ons,  I.e.  descrip1ve  ques1ons,  structural  ques1ons  and  contrast   ques1ons. Spradley (1979, pp 59-60) The Ethnographic interview(民族志访谈) from Spradley (1980)
  17. 17. Qualitative Research Method @ Tjitra,2010 What are the most important factors in doing good qualitative interviewing? 17 ?
  18. 18. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 18 The Interviewing Relationship is a Research Partnership • The  interviewer  and  the  respondent  will  work   together  to  produce information useful  to   the  research  project. • The  interview  will  define  the  areas  for   explora9on  and  will  monitor  the  quality  of   the  material.  The  respondent  will  provide  the   kind  of  report  that  is  needed,  accep9ng  the   interviewer’s  guidance  regarding  topics. • The  interviewer  will  not ask  ques9ons  out  of   idle  curiosity. • The  interviewer  will  respect  the  respondent’s   integrity. • Respondent  will  not be damaged  or   disadvantaged  because  of  the  par9cipa9on  in   the  interview.  
  19. 19. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing Guidelines to know the needed information and to help respondents provide it Scenes   and  events External  to  the   respondent Respondent’s   own  thoughts   and  feelings concrete descriptions  of  something   he  or  she  has  witnessed What  is  it  you  want  to  obtain? • Asking respondents to particularize  (Last  1me  you  went  to  court)  just  what    happened?   •  Discussion of the most recent occurrence   •Be wary of the generalized present or generalized past to get a density of detail (  what  happens  while  you’re  wai1ng  to  be  called?  or  What  happened  while  you  were  wai1ng   to  be  called?  The  later  one  is  beLer.) • Questions to ask  (Helping  respondents  develop    informa1on,    markers,  etc.) • Managing the interview  (Intrusions,  talking  about  yourself,  etc.)
  20. 20. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 20 The effects of interviewing on respondent and interviewer What is it like to be a respondent?              Interviewing  provides  respondents  with  an opportunity  to  talk  about  maLers  of  emo1onal   importance  while  remaining  at  an  emo1onal   middle  distance:  close  enough  to  the  emo1ons  to   experience  them  but  distant  enough  to  maintain   self-­‐control.    Interviewing  may  cause  someone  to  reflect  on   his  or  her  life  and    make  changes.  One  risk  is  a  consequence  of  the  1me-­‐limited   nature  of  the  interviewing  rela1onship.  The   experiencing  a sense of loss.  A  respondent  regreLed  having  talking  too  freely   in  the  interview  is  a  very  few  occasions.  They  may   concerned  that  they  will  be  iden1fiable  in  the   publica1ons.    If  the  study  is  needed,  an  interviewer  do  have  the   right  to  ask  respondents  about  poten1ally  painful   material. What is it like to sit and listen?  Sometimes exhilarated, sometimes only a task. Feel privileged to have been admitted in to someone else’s private experience.  Feel in tune with the other person’s rhythm of speaking and thought, to see the world through the other person’s eyes.  Emotionally understand someone’s account without allowing my attention to be captured by my own feelings and thoughts.  “ I am totally in the interview, aware of it and nothing more.” ( Csikszentmihalyi )  Usually tiring. It take energy to maintain an unswerving attention. Some interviews leave me feeling washed out.
  21. 21. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 21 Issues of Validity: Do respondents tell the truth,the whole truth,and nothing but the truth?  I did not invent events that had not occurred.  Nor can we be sure we will be told the precise truth.  There are some kinds of events that we are unlikely to hear about unless we have established an interviewing relationship in which there is extraordinary trust. People will not endanger themselves to contribute to social truth.  Information is context dependent.  Our best guarantee of the validity of our material is careful, concrete level, interviewing within the context of the a good interviewing relationship.
  22. 22. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 22 Quality criteria for an interview 一 个访谈的质量标准 • The  extent  of  spontaneous,  rich,  specific,  and  relevant   answers  from  the  interviewee. • The  shorter  the  interviewer’s  ques4ons  and  the  longer  the   subjects’  answer,  the  beIer. • The  degree  to  which  the  interviewer  follows  up  and  clarifies   the  meaning  of  the  relevant  aspects  of  the  answers. • The  ideal  interview  is  to  a  large  extent  interpreted   throughout  the  interview. • The  interviewer  aIempts  to  verify  his  or  her  interpreta4ons   of  the  subject’s  answers  in  the  course  of  the  interview. • The  interview  is  “self-­‐communica4ng”  -­‐  it  is  a  story   contained  in  itself  and  that  hardly  requires  much  extra   descrip4ons. Kvale, 1996
  23. 23. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 23 The qualitative research interview is NOT: 1. Scientific, but only reflects common sense 2. objective, but subjective 3. trustworthy, but biased 4. reliable, it rests upon leading questions 5. intersubjective, different readers find different meaning 6. a scientific method, it is too person dependent 7. scientific hypothesis testing, only explorative 8. quantitative, only qualitative 9. generalizable, there are too few subjects 10.valid, it relies on subjective impressions Discussion: Standard reactions to qualitative interview
  24. 24. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 24 Individualistic IdealisticIntellectualistic Cognitivist Immobile Verbalizing Alinguistic Arhetorical Atheoretical Insignificant Interview Research Ten Internal Critiques of Interview Research
  25. 25. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Interviewing 25 Final Summary  Get  started  with  the  easy  ques/ons,  step by step,  maybe  to  do  the  interview  with  Chinese   respondents,  we  should  spent  more  /me  to build the research relationship  Pay  your  a:en/on  on  the  two  important   Guidelines:  questions to ask & managing the Interview  Matching interviewers to respondents,   we  should  consider  this  point  the  Project.  Esp.   on  the  race,  cultural  background  and  ethnicity
  26. 26. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)