The Multiple Roles of
Chinese Trainers
in CorporateTraining & Development
by
Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra,Jiewei Zheng,& Quan He
Ve...
Research Background – Why Considering Cross-
Cultural Differences in Corporate T&D?
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 1
 Asia, particula...
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 2
Three Main Research Questions
?
?
What is the distinctiveness of the Chinese learners?
How to make ef...
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 3
Research Objectives and Questions
Close Understanding of Research Phenomena
In-Depth Interview
Ground...
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 4
Research Method (II)
– Qualitative In-depth Interview
Preparations Interviewees
 Pilot interview
 I...
Effective Learning and Course Instruction Model
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 5
Trainer
Training
Learner
Learning
Multiple Roles
Guid...
Multiple Trainer Roles (I) – Common Part
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 6
Knowledge Transfer
Learning Utilizer
 Knowledgeable
 Senio...
Multiple Trainer Roles (II)
– Chinese Part : Learning Orientator
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 7
Learning Orientator
Description The ...
Multiple Trainer Roles (II)
– Chinese Part : Role Model
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 8
Role Model
Description It means that the trai...
Multiple Trainer Roles (II)
– Chinese Part: Problem Solver
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 9
Problem Solver
Chow (1995), Burba
et al (2...
Multiple Trainer Roles (II)
– Chinese Part: Service Provider
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 10
Service Provider
Chow (1995),
Huang (19...
Internal Relationship between Multiple Roles
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 11
Learning Orientator
Role Model
Problem Solver
Service P...
Multiple Trainer Roles Understanding (III)
– German Part
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 12
Group Facilitator
Gao & Watkins (2002)
– … ...
Brief Summary & Possible Application Suggestions
Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 13
Add Your Text
Add Your Text
Add Your Text
Add Your ...
Contact me at daisy0929@gmail.com
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Different Roles of Chinese Trainer

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In the corporate training settings in China, there are different roles, a Chinese Trainer are expected to take to be effective. Based on the 58 expert interviews in China and Germany.

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Different Roles of Chinese Trainer

  1. 1. The Multiple Roles of Chinese Trainers in CorporateTraining & Development by Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra,Jiewei Zheng,& Quan He Vers.2.0 Hangzhou, March 2010 • School of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences • Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus • 310028 Hangzhou • CHINA • • Phone: ++86 571 8827 3337 • Fax: +86 571 8827 3326 • E-Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn • Homepage: http://www.horatjitra.com •
  2. 2. Research Background – Why Considering Cross- Cultural Differences in Corporate T&D? Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 1  Asia, particularly China: Fast expanding market with large growth potential for a lot of multinational companies  More and more activities (e.g., shared services, global delivery, research & development) are transferred to China  These companies need to deliver trainings to Chinese market (customers, partners, employees)  Cross-cultural differences in learning behavior need to be considered for successful knowledge transfer and training delivery
  3. 3. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 2 Three Main Research Questions ? ? What is the distinctiveness of the Chinese learners? How to make effective learning situation and course instruction in Chinese cultural context? ? What are the most important factors in learning and instructional strategies for successful learning projects?
  4. 4. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 3 Research Objectives and Questions Close Understanding of Research Phenomena In-Depth Interview Grounded Theory Analysis Interview 1 Interview 2 Agreement Disgareement Exception Explanation Better Understanding Research Method (I) – Data Analysis Framework
  5. 5. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 4 Research Method (II) – Qualitative In-depth Interview Preparations Interviewees  Pilot interview  Interviewing and Issues in Interviewing  Respondents and preparation  Interview workshop  Interview instruments Interview data will later be analyzed using the grounded theory approach, facilitated by qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti. Native Chinese experts Having intensive training/teaching experiences At least five years of relevant working experiences International experts Having international working experiences At least five years of relevant working experiences Experts, who have intensive experiences in teaching technology and management as well as consulting and training German experts Major working and learning experiences in Germany  Education in Germany
  6. 6. Effective Learning and Course Instruction Model Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 5 Trainer Training Learner Learning Multiple Roles Guided Involvement Pragmatic Learning Devoted Learner Chinese German Common • Knowledge Transfer • Learning Utilizer • Learning Orientator • Role Model • Problem Solver • Service Provider • Group facilitator Chinese Common German • Process Orientated Chinese German Common • Universal Sharing Chinese German Common •Objective Engagement •Detailed Guideline •Collectivistic Learning •Guided Consolidation • Knowing Background • Flexible Adjustment • Learners’ Diversity • Devoted Diligent • Enthusiastic Absorbing • Respect to Authority • Particular Sharing • “Zhong Yong” (中庸) • Clear Objective • Building Trust • Striving Self-study • Problem & “What” Centered • Optimized Imitation • Need & Follow Guidance • Practical Exercises • Insightful Simulation • Theory & “Why” Focused • Learning from each other Course Design Applicable Objective Chinese • Guidance to Apply • Evaluation & Certification • Demonstrative Support • Hot & Trendy • Feedback Mechanism • Matching the Needs • Detailed Standard Common German
  7. 7. Multiple Trainer Roles (I) – Common Part Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 6 Knowledge Transfer Learning Utilizer  Knowledgeable  Senior Expert  Presentation Skill – Actually what I did for them is the knowledge transfer.(其实的话主要是我给他们做一 下那个…知识传授吧。) – During the process, most time was the trainer did the explanations.(过程中的话基本 上就是说以听老师的讲解.)  Practical Experiences  Application Suggestion – So I was looking for ways that can enable to young people to narrow they on the learning curve to able to really utility what they have learned quickly. – The trainer has working field experience; he could give some constructive suggestions. (因为本身那个讲师他是从实战经验里出来的,……,有些地方的意见 很有建设性的。) Peter (2002), Beishuizen, Hof, Putten, Bouwmeester, & Asscher (2001), Burba et al (2001) - the instructor’s role is to present material in a straightforward manner. Hariss (1998), Burba et al (2001) – effective teachers … are thoughtful and reflective about their practice.
  8. 8. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part : Learning Orientator Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 7 Learning Orientator Description The trainer should point out the learning direction for the learners, not only gives the recommendation about the books or other references that learners could refer to, but also the guidance of how to master the knowledge as quickly as possible according to the learning styles that the learners have. Requirement Point out direction Teach how to learn (understand learners’ learning style) Be patient As our interviewees say … –… it is important to let them (learners) know how to learn and work in the new workplace..(我觉得重要的是告诉他怎么样了解、怎么样习惯他的新角色。) –Help them to decide the (learning) orientation. (这时候你就需要帮他尽快地把方向定下 来。) Watkins & Biggs (1996); Chow (1995) - in many Asian countries, people are used to teacher- centered instruction style while the western people get used to learner- centered style.
  9. 9. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part : Role Model Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 8 Role Model Description It means that the trainer is regarded as the personal example by the learners not only in the specialty area but also in the other daily life areas. Requirement Personal example Authoritative reputation Reach trainer’s level As our interviewees say … –I could teach by personal example, could be the model for them (learners). (我既能教你些知识,我也能就是言传身教,我自己给你些示 范。) –The learners will show respect to the trainer, and regard the trainer as the working guide. Kennedy (2002), Cortazzi & Jin (2001), Pratt, et al. (1998) - … the teacher is a model both of knowledge and morality, …
  10. 10. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part: Problem Solver Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 9 Problem Solver Chow (1995), Burba et al (2001) – management education tends to focus on the technical skills or ‘hard” side of technologies. Description Problem solver is a role that Chinese teachers play a lot because of Chinese learners’ special learning habits. Requirement Give personal support Put in great effort As our interviewees say … –First we have to solve the problems. (但首先的话我们还是要解决问 题。) –The learners want the training to help them solve practical problems.
  11. 11. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part: Service Provider Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 10 Service Provider Chow (1995), Huang (1996) – Before training, should conduct a thorough training- needs and audiences analysis. Description The trainer has to treat the learners as customers, and also pays attention to training needs analysis before the training to facilitate the different interests. Requirement Customer orientation Facilitating different interests As our interviewees say … –They are customers, we need follow their demands. (首先我们以客户 要求为基准。) –We will do that, sometime what we do is like the consultant. (当然我也 帮你做,兼顾一些资讯。)
  12. 12. Internal Relationship between Multiple Roles Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 11 Learning Orientator Role Model Problem Solver Service Provider
  13. 13. Multiple Trainer Roles Understanding (III) – German Part Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 12 Group Facilitator Gao & Watkins (2002) – … learning facilitating … Huang (1996), Hariss (1998), Burba et al (2001) - … apply a lot of group activities in training. Description Group facilitator, who puts in lots of effort in creating “free” atmosphere in the training to encourage learners to express their own ideas and discuss openly with tight inconspicuous “control” in hand. Requirement Group interaction Create “free” environment As our interviewees say … –In the group discussion, I will control the process and topic, although they are very active. –After sharing my own experience, they (the learners) will feel free and safe to talk.
  14. 14. Brief Summary & Possible Application Suggestions Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 13 Add Your Text Add Your Text Add Your Text Add Your Text Trainer Role International interviewees – Complexity of relationship; Importance of goals; Handicap in learning transfer Paradox Chinese learner – They are eager to learn, meanwhile, the trainer should motivate them to learn One of the core job a trainer will have to deal with – Keep the motivation of the learners high & Helping them achieving their goals Chinese learners – Strongly results driven, Eager to learn, Willing to work hard for it, Emphasized relationship Training process – Strongly learner centered, Enable learner independence, Ideally have direct impacts on practice Chinese interviewees – Qualified trainer, Ideal learners, Different roles a trainer have, Complexities of the relationship with the learner & between the learners
  15. 15. Contact me at daisy0929@gmail.com presented at:

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