Chinese Learning Effectivness

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A study on the expectation of Chinese learners, in order for them to learn in most effective ways. Comparison between employees and graduate students on their effective learning behavior.

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Chinese Learning Effectivness

  1. 1. Behavior Expectation Model of Chinese Learning Effectiveness in The Higher Education & Workplace Environment by Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra,Thomas Jenewein & Wang Huiqi Vers.2.0 Hangzhou, March 2010 • School of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences • Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus • 310028 Hangzhou • CHINA • • Phone: ++86 571 8827 3337 • Fax: +86 571 8827 3326 • E-Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn • Homepage: http://www.horatjitra.com •
  2. 2. Tjitra, 2007 Learning Belief in Chinese Cultural Context The concept of “Learning” in the traditional Chinese culture contained the meaning of imitation and practice. This learning belief significantly influenced Chinese teaching and learning behaviors. “Xue” originally means that the birdie imitates other birds, later is used as human being’s imitating learning. “Xi” originally means that the birdie practices flying and later is used as human being’s practice or review on learning things. 立志 (Motivation) 博学 (Perception) 审问、慎思、明辨 (Comprehension) 时习 (Review) 笃行 (Practice) By summarizing Chinese traditional learning beliefs on learning process, we found there were five steps in learning process:
  3. 3. Tjitra, 2007 Typical Characteristics of Chinese Learner in Former Studies In our literature review, we found some key studies about Chinese learner: Key words Literatures Rote learning/ Repetition Yee (1989), Martinsons & Martinsons (1996), Biggs (1994), Dahlin & Watkins (2000) Passive learning/Lack of participation in classroom activities Chow (1995), Scollon and Scollon (1994), Chan (1999), Biggs (1994) Chinese-style group work Jin & Cortazzi (1998), Biggs (1994), Chan & Watkins (1994), Tang (1996) Extrinsic motivation Watkins & Biggs (1996), Salili (1996) Exam oriented Gao & Watkins (2000) Teacher/trainer-centered Kirkbrede & Tang (1992), Biggs (1998) Authority relationship between teachers and students Ginsberg (1992),Chan (1999), Pratt (1999)
  4. 4. Tjitra, 2007 Research Questions Question 2 What are the differences in learning behaviors between Chinese learners in the higher education and workplace environment? Question 1 What are the distinctive characteristics of Chinese learners based on the cultural context?
  5. 5. Tjitra, 2007 Research Method—Focus Group Discussion Focus group discussion with Chinese learners on how they used to learn and how would they like to be trained: Duration -90-120 minutes semi-structured group discussion in Chinese-90-120 minutes semi-structured group discussion in Chinese Number of groups -30 group discussions have conducted. Each group will consist of four to five participants -15 employee groups and 15 student groups -30 group discussions have conducted. Each group will consist of four to five participants -15 employee groups and 15 student groups Analysis - The whole discussions were video recorded. The flipcharts have been totally transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Later all the video data will be analyzed with the help of atlas.ti software. - The whole discussions were video recorded. The flipcharts have been totally transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Later all the video data will be analyzed with the help of atlas.ti software. Participants Students Employees Requirements - Native Chinese - Postgraduate students from different majors -Native Chinese -Got main education in China -At least 3 years working experiences -Further he/she should have been participated in corporate training / learning programs. -Employees of big corporation in China Composition - Randomly sampling -Randomly sampling
  6. 6. Tjitra, 2007 Research Method – Focus Group Discussion Guideline Group Discussion Introduction Introduce the project information and get familiar with each other Questionnair e Finish our questionnaire regarding learning style and technologies Short Learning Movies Watch three movie fragments concerning teaching and learning Q1: Could you describe learning situations which impressed you most? Why? Q2: While you are learning, what are the most important factors that make it effective? Q3: What are your expectations of a best teaching situation? Q4: What is the most effective learning process for you? Closing Acknowledgment and send gifts to our participants
  7. 7. Tjitra, 2007 Participant Profile 41.00% 59.00% Male Female 38% 22% 19% 21% Dalian Chengdoo Shanghai Hangzhou Gender Location A Equal Gender and Location Representation – A Young Target Group Coming from Various Backgrounds – 8% 2% 30% 22% 21% 18% Management Social Science & Language Engineering Computer Art Science
  8. 8. Tjitra, 2007 Profile of Participants Shows a Young Target Group Coming from Various Backgrounds 8% 2% 30% 22% 21% 18% Management Social Science & Language Engineering Computer Art Science Age 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 Student 55 17 0 0 Employee 10 37 17 4 Total 65 54 17 4 Lowest Highest Average S Student 20 29 23.6 1.54 Employee 21 37 28.2 3.78 Total 20 37 25.8 3.67 8
  9. 9. Tjitra, 2007 Research Method (II) – Data Analysis Framework Discussion Research Questions Inductive Content Analysis -Flipchart Data Pre-structure  What are the prior learning experiences and expectations of Chinese learners and what is the most effective learning process for them in the higher education and workplace? Corp. Group Stud. Group G1 G1 G2 G2 G4 G4 G7 G7 G15 G15 Chinese effective learning pre-structure Deductive Content Analysis -Transcription Data Final Results Discussion Corp. Group Stud. Group G1 G1 G2 G2 G4 G4 G7 G7 G15 G15 Final distinctive Chinese effective learning structure
  10. 10. Tjitra, 2007 Research Method (III) – Inductive Content Analysis Procedure 1. Dimension level: e.g. Person 2. Sub-dimension level: e.g. Ideal Teacher 3. Item level: e.g. Passion & Effort Item level (Experienced/Expected) Sub-dimension level Dimension level  Key words in Flipchart The pre-structural categories Determination of Category Definition Step by Step Formulation Structure for Each Group  Integrate relevant keywords into the same sub-dimension  Integrate relevant sub- dimension into the same dimension
  11. 11. Tjitra, 2007 Research Method (IV) – Deductive Content Analysis Procedure Theoretical based definition of main categories, sub categories Theoretical based formulation of definitions, quotations and coding rules for the categories Collection them in the coding book Revision of categories and coding book Interpretation of the results • Start from the pre-structure • Recode the original video data by Atlas.ti • Collect the quotations for each sub categories • Recheck the wording and frequencies • Modify the whole structure • Relate the results to Chinese culture and other literatures
  12. 12. Tjitra, 2007 Data Analysis Sample
  13. 13. Tjitra, 2007 Important Expectations of Learners concerning Learning Effectiveness Characteristics The Effective Learning Characteristics in Chinese Cultural Context (Employee-867 / Student-723) ① PERSON (38.7% / 37.3%) PROCESS (41.3% / 46.6%) Self Studying * (12% / 19.6%) Knowledge Delivery ** (21% / 7.7%) Mentoring Support (36% / 36.2%) Stimulating Learning (32% / 37.1%) Qualified Learner (14% / 18.1% ) Ideal Teacher (44% / 34.5%) Interpersonal Relationship * (8% / 20%) Learning Motivation (34% / 27.4%) CONTEXT * (20% / 16.1%) Course Materials (36% / 32.8%) Instructional Media (38% / 42.2%) Infrastructure & Environment (26% / 25%) ① The left numbers represent the frequency of the employee, and the right ones represent that of the student. * p<.05, ** p<.01 (Mann-Whitney)
  14. 14. Tjitra, 2007 Expectations towards Personal Factors Qualified Learner (13% / 16% ) Ideal Teacher (43% / 33%) Interpersonal Relationship * (9% / 19%) PERSON (380/403)  Pre-Knowledge & Experience (15/14)  Mental & Physical Readiness (18/24)  Devoted Diligence (18/25)  Authoritative Reputation (44/31)  Appropriate Appearance (21/11)  Vivid Expression * (23/7)  “Hao-ren” (34/37)  Passion & Effort (22/34)  Openness & Humorous (19/13)  Friend-like Non Hierarchical Relationship outside the Class (18/29)  Familiarity with others (6/1)  Hierarchical Relationship in the class (6/1)  Partner Learning ** (6/45) Learning Motivation (34% / 33%)  Personal Enthusiasm (51/47)  Learning Reward (31/24)  Future Perspective (11/14)  Face (Mian-zi) (6/8)  External Pressure (31/38) * p<.05, ** p<.01, ***p<.001 (Mann-Whitney)
  15. 15. Tjitra, 2007 Expectations towards Process Factors Knowledge Delivery ** (19% / 10%) Mentoring Support (39% / 42%) PROCESS (403/421)  Logical & Clear Demonstration *** (44/10)  Give Example (16/5)  Visualize the Knowledge (8/13)  Relate Theory to Practice (10/13)  Providing Resources (19/12)  Utilizing Aptitudes * (52/22)  Giving Guidance (44/61)  Feedback Mechanism (25/44)  Inspiration & Encouragement (19/36) Self Studying * (12% / 20%)  Self Information Searching (17/21)  Self Reading & Reviewing (15/25)  Self Exercise (15/19)  Learning Route ** (3/21) Stimulating Learning (29% / 28%)  Participative Interaction (48/58)  Sharing Experiences (28/16)  Free Atmosphere (12/11)  Hands-on Practice (28/34) *topic mentioned by (Employee / Student)
  16. 16. Tjitra, 2007 Expectations towards Context Factors Course Materials (34% / 32%) Instructional Media (40% / 45%) Infrastructure & Environment (26% / 23%) CONTEXT * (172/111)  Novel & Interesting Content (14/14)  Relevance to the Jobs ** (22/0)  Native Language (7/0)  Overload - Briefly & Systematic * (16/6)  Insufficient information - Abundant & Accurate ** (0/15)  Interactive Media (12/19)  Visualization (Visually Attractive) (13/12)  Accessibility & Easiness (18/9)  Openness & Flexibility (13/5)  Up-to-Date & Different Ideas (9/5)  Variety of the Media (4/0)  Physical Infrastructure (15/16)  Affordable Finance (7/2)  Time Management (22/8) *topic mentioned by (Employee / Student)
  17. 17. Tjitra, 2007 Group Discussion Brief Summary  There are several different categories in our Chinese effective learning structure between participants in higher education and workplace environment although the major dimensions are similar.  The learner pointed out the significant influences of the person, process and context in effective learning. They postulated what good learner and ideal teacher should have as well as what advantageous context should incorporate. Learning process should be driven actively by the teacher and qualify the learner to learn by themselves.  Employees referred to the overload of information and highlighted the practical relevance of the learning content, the variety of the media used, and the issues of the time.  Students emphasize external supervision from others (teacher or schoolmate) to encourage themselves learning and the desire to have a deep insight on what they learn.
  18. 18. Cross-cultural Learning Behavior @ Tjitra,2010 Thanks for your interest Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@mac.com 18 presented at:

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