Best Practices in 
Quantitative Cross-Cultural Research (updated in March 2011)

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Best Practices in Quantitative 
Cross-Cultural Research.

A series of six presentation, introduce scientific research in the areas of cross-cultural, using quantitative approach.

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Best Practices in 
Quantitative Cross-Cultural Research (updated in March 2011)

  1. 1. Hangzhou, March 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Zhejiang University Best  Practices  in   Cross-­Cultural  Research Quantitative Research Methodologies (6/6)
  2. 2. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Three  Classical  Comparative  Studies  in   Cross-­Cultural  Management  and  Psychology 2 Hofstede (1984) Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner (1997) Schwartz (1999) • Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another (Hofstede,1984) . • Clearly,Hofstede’s cultural framework has provided the catalyst for many studies throughout the social sciences,and has helped shape marketing thought.(Jeffrey Blodgett & Aysen Bakir & Gregory Rose, 2008). • However Hofstede model ignores the existence of substantial within-country cultural heterogeneity,his measures are not valid,and culture changes over time rather than being static as suggested by the dimensions (e.g.,Sivakumar & Nakata, 2001). • Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner(1997) believed cultures can be distinguished according to solutions chosen for specific problems,then have developed a model of culture with seven dimensions. • Contrary to the approaches of Hall and Hofstede,Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner do not focus on interaction or cultural status quo only,but mix the two areas,coming up with advice for intercultural business situations next to classifying specific cultures. • However Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner‘s research was criticized from several perspectives,research sample, methodology,and no database (Hofstede,1996). • Schwartz (1999) define values as conceptions of the desirable that guide the way social actors (e.g.organizational leaders,policy-makers,individual persons) select actions,evaluate people and events,and explain their actions and evaluations. • The seven value types are postulated to form three bipolar dimensions that express the contradictions between the alternative resolutions to each of the three issues just described:Autonomy versus Conservatism,Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism,Mastery versus Harmony. • Many of the respective studies have been influenced by Schwartz’(1992) values theory.Following his theoretical reasoning,values can be classified according to their motivational content. (Wolfgang Bilsky,2004) .
  3. 3. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  4. 4. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research Outline 1 Hofstede - Factor Analysis 5 2 Trompenaars - Social Dilemma 8 3 Schwartz - Small Space Analysis 15 4 Bennet - Intercultural Development Inventory 22 5 Process Model of Quantitative Research 28 4
  5. 5. The  Classical  Cross-­Cultural  Value  Study: The  Five  Hofstede  Cultural  Dimensions Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 5 Long – Short Term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Quantity-Quality of life Power Distance Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Individualism – Collectivism • Conducted between 1968 and 1972 • Respondents were 117.000 employees of IBM in 53 countries • Using Factor Analysis
  6. 6. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 6 Hofstede’s Methods and Research Question • What  are  the  components  of  culture,  a  small  set  of  dimensions  or  characteris3cs,   that  enable  us  to  classify  culture-­‐in-­‐the-­‐large  (at  a  na3onal  level)?    And  do  na3ons   differ  and  can  they  be  clustered  into  culturally-­‐similar  na3ons? • What he didn’t ask: Can we capture culture in a small set of dimensions? Is culture stable? Is it a characteristic of individuals? Do people enact culture or have it set on them? • Late  60s,  ques,onnaires  were  distributed  to  thousands  of  IBM  employees  worldwide • The results were subjected to factor analysis • Questions were based on prior work on culture by Inkeles and Levinson (a sociologist and psychologist) • They answered the questions about work modes, methods, and meanings on desirable and desired situations and characteristics
  7. 7. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 7 Some Results of the Study
  8. 8. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders The  Seven  Dimensions  of  Trompenaars 8 Neutral versus Emotional Universalism versus Particularism Individualism versus Communitarianism Specific versus Diffuse Achievement versus Ascription Sequential versus Synchronic Internal versus External Control 1 2 7 6 5 4 3
  9. 9. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 9 Research Methods: Social dilemma Social Dilemma,  a  dilemma  or  paradox  that  commonly  results  from  Collec,ve  Ac,on. The Prisoner's Dilemma( PD):  is  a  short  parable  about  two  prisoners  who  are   individually  offered  a  chance  to  rat  on  each  other  for  which  the  "raEer"  would  receive  a  lighter   sentence  and  the  "raEee"  would  receive  a  harsher  sentence.  The  problem  results  from  the  fact   that  both  can  play  this  game  and  if  both  do,  then  both  do  worse  than  they  would  had  they  kept   silent.  
  10. 10. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 10 Universalism and Particularism in different countries The story of Stouffer and Toby Switzerland Canada USA Sweden United Kingdom Australia Netherlands Germany Czech Rap France Sigapore Japan India China Russia Korea Venezuela 97 93 93 92 91 91 90 87 83 73 69 68 54 47 44 37 32 Friends has no/some right and would not to help
  11. 11. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 11 Universalism VS Particularism  Consistency  Systems, standards&rules  Uniform procedures  Demand clarity Universalism(普遍主义) 1 2 Particularism(特殊主义)  Flexibility  Pragmatic(重实效的)  Make exceptions "It depends"  At ease with ambiguity
  12. 12. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 12 Specific VS Diffuse Public Public Specific Relationship (专一型关系) Private Private Diffuse Relationship (扩散型关系) Public Danger Zone Private Private
  13. 13. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 13 Achievement VS Ascription What You Do Who You Are STATUS Family Age Sex Education
  14. 14. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 14 The result of time orientation in different countries USA JPN UK FRA SPA GER Think of the past, present and future as being in the shape of circles.Please draw three circles represententing past, present and future.Arrange these circles in any way you want that best show how you feel about the relationship of the past, present and the future. You may use defferent size circles.
  15. 15. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 15 Cross-cultural studies on basic human values by the Israelis Psychologist Shalom Schwartz •Text •Text • 1988-­‐1992 • 86  samples  drawn  from  41cultural   group  in  38  na<ons • Smallest  space  analysis Individual- level analyses Culture-level analyses individual- level culture model Country- level culture model
  16. 16. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 16 Research method: Smallest space analysis (SSA) The  most  basic  form  of  MDS, mul3dimensional  scaling,  represent  empirical  rela3onships   in  a  set  of  data  as  points  in  space  with  the  aim  of  making  aspects  of  the  data  that  may  be   obscured  in  the  original  matrix  more  apparent.       The  use  of  MDS  is  par3cularly  favored  as,  unlike  factor  analysis,   it  makes  no  assump3on  that  the  dimensions  or  structures  are   linear.   The SSA procedure  begins  by  calcula3ng  the  associa3on  coefficients  between  pairs  of  items  or  variables.   It  then  represents  the  items  as  points  in  an  n-­‐dimensional  Euclidean  space  such  that  the  rank  of  the   distances  between  the  points  is  the  inverse  of  the  rank  of  the  inter-­‐item  associa3on  coefficients.  Thus,  the   closer  together  two  points  are  in  the  space,  the  higher  their  posi3ve  associa3on  or  greater  their  similarity.  
  17. 17. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 17 Universalism Schwartz’s individual-level model wisdom World  of  beautyUnity  with   nature Broadminded   v Equality   Protec;ng   environment Inner  r  harmony Social  jus;ce World  at  peace True  friendship responsible Loyal   Mature  love Meaning  in  life helpful honest Forgiving   Spiritual  life Benevolence Obedient   Politeness   Self-­‐discipline Honor   parents conformity Detachment   Humble   Devout   Respect  for  tradi;on Moderate   Accep;ng  por;on  in   life Tradition healthy Family  security   Social  order Clean   Reciproca;on  of   favors Sense  of   belonging   Na;onal   security Security   Social  recogni;on   Preserving  public   image wealth Authority   Social  power Power Intelligent   Capable   successful Ambi;ous   Influen;al   Achievement Pleasure   Enjoying  life Hedonism Varied  life Exi;ng  life Daring  Stimulation Self-­‐respect Choosing  own   goals Crea;vity   Curious   Independent   Freedom   Self-direction
  18. 18. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 18 The Ten Dimensions power Social  status  and  pres3ge,  control  or  dominance  over  people   and  resources Achievement Personal  success  through  demonstra3ng  competence   according  to  social  standards Hedonism Pleasure  and  sensuous  gra3fica3on  for  oneself Stimulation Excitement,  novelty,  and  challenge  in  life Self-direction Independent  thought  and  ac3on  choosing,  crea3ng,  and   exploring Universalism Understanding,  apprecia3on,  tolerance,  and  protec3on  for   the  welfare  of  all  people  and  for  the  nature Benevolence Preserva3on  and  enhancement  of  the  welfare  of  people  with   whom  one  is  in  frequent  personal  contact Tradition Respect  for/commitment  to/acceptance  of  the  customs  and   ideas  that  tradi3onal  culture  or  religion  imposes  on  the  self Conformity Restraint  of  ac3ons/inclina3ons/impulses  likely  to  upset  or   harm  others  and  to  violate  social  expecta3ons  or  norms Security Safety,  harmony,  and  stability  of  society,  of  rela3onship  and   of  self
  19. 19. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Schwartz’s  Country-­Level  Seven-­Dimension  Model 19 Harmony       Conserva-sm   Egalitarian   commitment   Intellectual   autonomy   Affec-ve   autonomy   Mastery   Hierarchy   Intellectual Autonomy Affective Autonomy Hierarchy Egalitarianism Mastery Harmony Conservatism Emphasizes maintaining the status quo,propriety,and restraint of actions or inclinations Emphasizes the desirability of individuals pursuing their own their own ideas and intellectual directions independently Emphasizes the desirability of individuals pursuing affectively positive experience Emphasized transcendence of selfish interests in favor of voluntary commitment to promoting the welfare of others Emphasized transcendence of selfish interests in favor of voluntary commitment to promoting the welfare of others Emphasizes getting ahead through active self-assertion Emphasizes fitting harmoniously into the environment
  20. 20. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 20 Mean importance of Culture-level value dimensions in some countries Conserva<sm Affec<ve   Autonomy Intellectual   Autonomy Hierarchy Mastery Egalitarian   Commitmen t   Harmony   Highest   Israel-­‐Druze   France   Switzerland  (Fr) China   China   Portugal   Italy   China 3.97 (21) 3.32 (20) 4.27 (15) 3.70 (1) 4.73 (1) 4.49 (33) 3.71 (28) Germany 3.42 (33) 4.03 (4) 4.75 (5) 2.27 (23) 4.07 (22) 5.37 (7) 4.42 (10) USA 3.90 (23) 3.65 (11) 4.20 (16) 2.39 (19) 4.34 (5) 5.03 (14) 3.70 (29) Israel-Jews 4.08 (16) 3.62 (13) 4.31 (14) 2.69 (14) 4.06 (23) 4.78 (29) 3.01 (36) Lowest Switzerland (Fr) Slovakia Singapore Italy Finland Thailand Isra_Jews
  21. 21. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 21 Lessons Learned from the Schwart’s National Level Value Studies His data do not support a view of the United States as a highly individualist nation Samples from Western European nations are the most individualist nations China is not a prototypical collectivist society and the notion of China as a culture that legitimates hierarchical differentiation is supported Singapore is closest to the pure Hofstede conception of collectivism.
  22. 22. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 22 Ignorance Ethnocentric Ethnorelative “Munich  is  nothing  different  than  Bangalore.“       “Why  do  the  people  talk  and  behave  so   differently  like  I  do?” “In  principle  all  human  beings  are  the  same:  all   of  them  must  eat,  drink  and  sleep.” “The  more  cultures  I  know,  the   beDer  I  can  make  combinaEon.” “I  feel  like  being  a  member  of  the  culture!” “I  feel  at  home  wherever  I  go  cause  I know  how  the  things  going  there.” Defense Trivialize Acceptance Adaptation Integration Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) from Bennet
  23. 23. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 23 IDI – IDI is a statistically highly reliable, cross- culturally valid measure of intercultural competence developed by Hammer and Bennett based Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). – The IDI is a 50-item, theory-based paper and pencil instrument that assesses the major stages of intercultural competence as conceptualized in the DMIS theory. – The instrument is easy to complete, and it can generate a graphic profile of an individual's or groups' predominant stage of intercultural development and textual interpretation of that stage and associated transition issues. – Ques<ons  are  answered  in  five  scales:   – 1=disagree – 2=disagree  somewhat  more  than  agree,   – 3=disagree  some  and  agree  some – 4=agree  somewhat  more  than  disagree – 5=agree. Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI)
  24. 24. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 24 Altshuler’s Research • Expanding  the  use  of  the  IDI  to  a  new  populaEon,  medical  providers •    Describing  normaEve  standards  for  the  medical  providers  group   •    TesEng  the  predicEve  value  of  demographic  characterisEcs  on  the  IDI Research Objective Research design Month 1 measurement Month 2 measurement Month 3 measurement Month 4 measurement Month 5 measurement Group 1- Didactic & Behavioral Rehearsal SP Encounter IDI Didactic & Behavioral Rehearsal SP Encounter IDI SP Encounter Group 2 – Behavioral Rehearsal SP Encounter SP Encounter IDI Behavioral Rehearsal IDI SP Encounter Group 3 – Control SP Encounter SP Encounter IDI SP Encounter
  25. 25. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 25 Results(1): Intercultural Sensitivity Measurement (1) Group profile of intercultural sensitivity… (2) demographic predictors of intercultural sensitivity… Item Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Cognitive adaptation Behavioral adaptation DD AA M(SD) 2.09( 0.85) 2.48(1.05) 4.5(1.08) 5.44(0.84) 4.77(0.98) 4.69(0.68) 2.28 4.86 •There  is  no  gender  difference •There  is  no  region  difference •The  gender  difference  reached  significance  for  the  post-­‐training  AA  scale          (female  M  =  5.43;  male  M  =  4.67;  t  =  2.27;  p  =  0.03).    
  26. 26. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 26 Results(2): Effects of Intercultural Training (3) effect of intercultural training on the six IDI sub-scales through pre/post- training analysis (4) effect of intercultural training through analysis using three factor scores (DD; Minimization; AA) Item Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Cognitive adaptation Behavioral adaptation DD AA Total pre 2.09 2.48 4.5 5.44 4.77 4.69 2.28 4.86 Group 1 Pre 1.82 2.24 4.61 5.56 5.28 4.94 2.03 5.26Group 1 Post 1.97 2.21 4.38 5.72 5.21 4.89 2.09 5.27 Group 2 Pre 2.28 2.84 4.53 5.23 4.31 4.36 2.56 4.63Group 2 Post 2.44 2.97 4.52 4.86 4.57 4.63 2.71 4.69 Group 3 Post 2.12 2.62 4.76 5.34 4.50 4.62 2.37 4.82
  27. 27. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 27 Results(3): Case study (5) case profiles of individual trainee participants… • Participants #2,  The  most  representaEve  cases  of  intercultural  sensiEvity  were        assessed  as  scoring  low  on  DD,  low  on  MinimizaEon,  and  high  on  AA. •  Participant #18,  Low  intercultural  competence  individuals  had  a  configuraEon  of  scores          which  were  high  on  DD,  high  on  MinimizaEon,  and  low  on  AA. •  Participant #14,  The  trainee  who  exhibited  the  greatest  movement  toward  intercultural                sensiEvity  following  the  training  intervenEon •Participant #17,  Who  exhibited  a  substanEal  ‘‘retreat’’  following  training  by  adopEng  a            more  ethnocentric  worldview.
  28. 28. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 28 Process Model of Quantitative Research Ideas, Title, Questions, and Objectives Expose (1-6 Pages) Literature Research Development of Research Instruments Pilot Study & (?) Modification Data Collection & Analyzing Report Research Design & Project Plan Literature Research Proposal
  29. 29. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 29 Expose,Research Proposal & Article Title Subtitle 1. Objectives 2. Ideas / Background (Why) 3. Questions (Hypotheses) 4. Theories (Why) 5. Method 6. Expected Results 7. Application 8. References
  30. 30. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 30 International Project References in the Research Areas of Culture Diversity,Talent Development,and Strategic Change 14  years  in  Germany Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia 8  years  in  China • Building Global Competence for Asian Leaders: Comparative study on intercultural sensitivity of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees. • Applying Social Medias (Web 2.0) in Learning & Development. • International Employability:Development of Intercultural Competence of German and Chinese Young Professionals. • Cross-Cultural Learning Behavior: Effectiveness of the Western Technology Transfer and Learning Approaches in China. • Comparative Studies of Chinese-Indonesian Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity. • Dynamic Decision Making in Chinese and Multinational Teams. • Intercultural Perspectives of International Post-Merger Integration in Europe. • Intercultural Synergy in Professional Team. • ...
  31. 31. Best  Prac*ces  in  Quan*ta*ve  Cross-­‐Cultural  Research 31 Cross-Cultural Research Methodology - Quantitative Research Method (Lecture Series) 1.  Quan;ta;ve  Methods • Introduc;on • Our  Research • What  is  Science 3.  Scales  &  Reliability • Intercultural  Competence  (1) • Scales  &  Variables • Reliability  Analysis 5.  Sta;s;cal  Analysis • Hypothesis  Tes;ng • Inference  Sta;s;c • SPSS  Introduc;on 2.  Research  Design  &  Validity • Complex  Problem  Solving • Designing  Quant.  Research • Good  Quality  -­‐  Validity 4.  Survey  Research • Intercultural  Competence  (2) • Ques;onnaire  Design • Sampling  Method 6.  Research  Ar;cles • Basic  structure  of  ar;cles • Understanding   Scien;fic  Journals
  32. 32. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)

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