Best Practice in Learning & Development in China

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Best Practice in Learning & Development in China. Three studies will introduced: 1) Chinese Learner 2) International Employability 3) Corporate Training Process

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Best Practice in Learning & Development in China

  1. Best Practice in Learning & Development in China Guest lecture at the faculty of psychology, University of Tarumanagara, Jakarta by Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Daisy Zheng August 3rd, 2010
  2. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Dr.Hora Tjitra - Professor for Applied Psychology Zhejiang University Associate Professor of Applied Psychology Mobley Group Pacific Associate Managing Director Tjitra Management Consulting Executive Director Independent Trainer and Consultant Intercultural Communication and Cooperation PricewaterhouseCoopers Plc. Global Diversity,Change Management and eHR-Solution Change International Ltd. International Management Development Asia Pacific Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management
  3. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 3 Project References with Well-known Global Players from Different Industries International Experiences in more than Ten Countries with Business Executives from more than 30 Different Cultures Guest and Visiting Professors at: • CEIBS,China • Sciences Po,France • Euromed Management,France • GSO MI,Germany • IKF,Switzerland • SISU,China • International Islamic University,Malaysia • Padjajaran University,Indonesia • Atma Jaya University,Indonesia • Airlangga University,Indonesia • Surabaya University,Indonesia • etc.
  4. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Agenda 1 Understanding the Chinese Learners 5 2 Learning in Action - International Employability Project 10 3 Six Core Processes of Learning, Training and Development 17
  5. Understanding Chinese Learners • Understand Chinese learnersʼ characteristics in learning • Understand what Chinese learners need for effective learning result
  6. Results presented in Key Factors for Successful Learning & Development in China is based on Research Project Cross-Cultural Differences in Learning Behaviors (sponsored by SAP AG, cooperated with Zhejiang University)
  7. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Learning Belief in Chinese Cultural Context The concept of “Learning”in the traditional Chinese culture contained the meaning of imitation and practice.This learning belief significantly influenced Chinese teaching and learning behaviors. “Xue” originally means that the birdie imitates other birds,later is used as human being’s imitating learning. “Xi” originally means that the birdie practices flying and later is used as human being’s practice or review on learning things. 立志 (Motivation) 博学 (Perception) 审问、慎思、明辨 (Comprehension) 时习 (Review) 笃行 (Practice) By summarizing Chinese traditional learning beliefs on learning process, we found there were five steps in learning process:
  8. Brief Introduction of the Research “Cross-Cultural Differences in Learning Behaviors” Method • 90-minute in-depth interview with 58 training&development experts • All interview data were recorded and fully transcribed in the original language (English or Chinese) • Interview data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach Resource • Native Chinese experts • Having intensive training/teaching experiences • At least five years of relevant working experiences • International expert • Having international working experiences • At least five years of relevant working experiences Experts, who have intensive experiences in teaching technology and management as well as consulting and training • German experts • Major working and learning experiences in Germany • Education in Germany
  9. Chinese LEARNERs are ... ... learning with heart and mind “Chinese learners are more aware to learning and they are hardworking.” ... results driven “Chinese learners bring in a lot of questions from work and expect could solve all from the training or learning program.” ... bringing personal learn enthusiasm “Chinese learners are more willing to learn, they grasp every chance to learn.”
  10. ... additional information ... to practice what he/she learned ... “room” for self study ... time to reflect Chinese LEARNERs NEED ...
  11. Definitions Top performers in science are students proficient at Levels 5 and 6 in the PISA 2006 science assessment (i.e. they have obtained scores higher than 633.33 points). The other levels in science performance are: Level 4 (score of 558.7), Level 3 (score of 484.1), Level 2 (score of 409.5) and Level 1 (score of 334.9). Top performers in reading are students proficient at Level 5 in the PISA 2006 reading assessment (i.e. with scores higher than 625.61). Top performers in mathematics are students proficient at Levels 5 and 6 in the PISA 2006 mathematics assessment (i.e. with scores higher than 606.99).
  12. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 International Employability 12 http://sinauonline.com/bmbf
  13. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 International Employability: German-Chinese Culture Program 13 Program background: • An applied research and learning program, collaboration project between RheinAhr Campus of FH Koblenz (Germany) with the School of Psychology, Zhejiang University (China). • The program is funded by the BMBF as part of the German-Chinese Scientific Year Program. • Getting to know the culture-specific conditions of studying and working in China and Germany. • Defining central competencies necessary for German and Chinese employees to be successful in the foreign job market. • Defining central competencies necessary for German and Chinese students in the foreign science context. • Developing cultural sensitive assessment procedures. • Designing intercultural media for assessment and learning. Main objectives of the program:
  14. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Participants 14 Ten young professionals from RheinAhr, Germany and ten young professionals from Zhejiang University, China participated in the program.
  15. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Program Overview 15 Best Practice Discussion • Company visit in order to learn from the real-world • Round table discussion with senior professionals Classroom Learning • Cross-cultural communication and management • Intercultural competency and sensitivity • Applied I/O psychology in international environment Social Learning • Knowledge search, screening and acquisition on internet • Experience sharing and group cooperation via web 2.0 tools Action Learning • Work in Chinese-German multicultural team • Tasks focused on I/O psychology application in international environment Culture Experience • Ten days in China & Ten days in Germany to explore Chinese and German culture and lifestyles One month One month
  16. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Knowledge Acquisition through Classroom Learning 16 • International study and management research • Working in multicultural environment • Effective communication across cultures • Conflict management across cultures • Intercultural competencies in German-Chinese cooperation • Intercultural assessment and training for German-Chinese cooperation • How to apply the assessment center technique in MNCs • Human capital in German-Chinese cooperation
  17. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Action Learning: Chinese-German Group Work 17 Video-based Learning and Assessment Development of InterculturalAssessment Tools Best Practices inRecruitment Intercultural Impression Management
  18. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Social Learning through Web 2.0 Platform 18 Program website: information release, program agenda update, tips sharing, etc. Online discussion forum via web 2.0 platform: Chinese-German group work communication, result report, experience, reflection and feedback sharing, etc.
  19. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Exploring Culture and Lifestyles 19 Exploring Chinese culture Living in German culture
  20. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Learning from the Real World: Company Visit & Discussion 20 SAP Labs, China BOSCH, China (round table discussion with GM) BMW, Germany Giesecke & Devrient, Germany SAP AG, Germany (round table discussion with former VP of SAP AG)
  21. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change International Employability_v1.0 / 2010-08 Reflection & Feedback from Participants 21 • It is very cool to sit on a round table and have dinner together. • The traffic jam not only occurs in big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, but also in smaller cities, e.g. Hangzhou, Ningbo, etc. • In Germany, everything has its rule and everything should be done in order. • In China, advertisement pictures could be different from the real product, esp. some product declare the differences on the ads. While in Germany, it is considered as illegal. Explore another culture by experiencing it Commonalities and differences across cultures • I found that the Chinese and Germans have a lot in common, it is not that hard to communicate with each other. Meanwhile, the problems or dangers in cross-cultural situations are much bigger than I expected before. • There is a big difference in understanding the gesture between Chinese and German. • Chinese people try to avoid a dispute or an argument. • Young Chinese are not as shy or indirect as I thought before, but they are still more conservative than us (Germans). • Germans are more direct in showing their emotions than us (Chinese). • China is a hierarchical society, even nowadays China is less hierarchical than ten or twenty years ago, we are still more hierarchical than Germany. Sometimes the “face saving” also links with hierarchy issue, but Germans never consider about this, which is quite different from us. • Chinese people have the habit to establish relationship in workplace during the leisure activities, while the Germans prefer to differentiate workmate and playmate clearly.
  22. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 22 Six Core Processes in Corporate Learning & Development
  23. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Six Core Processes for LTD Operational Excellence Needs Change Challenge Business Impacts Strategic Involvement Budget and InvestmentCorporate Commitment Training Administration Needs Assessment Beyond the “Training” Building Commitment to Learning Demonstrating Value Contribution Training Design and Delivery Learning, Training and Development Influencing Metrics Non LTD Process Important LTD Process Excellence LTD Process Remarks: Corporate Figures Performance Metrics: • Organizational Efficiency • Learning impacts • Improved commitment to learning & Culture • Business Performance (HR and business related Award )
  24. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Benchmarking Process and Report *start on the 2nd batch Main Report • LTD Best Practice Indicators • General and Financial Indicators of LTD Functions • LTD Operational Excellence Additional Information • Participant Profile • LTD Portfolios • Summary of LTD Evaluation • Backup - LTD Core Processes Report Manual* • Guideline on how to use the report • Explanation on different terms used in the report Data Analysis & Report Partner Discussion & Meeting Data Collection & Verification Participant Visit & Discussion Sharing Workshop 1 2 3 4 5
  25. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 How does LTD spend their time / use their capacity in the different processes? Your Company Administration Need Analysis Design & Delivery Beyond“Training” Demonstrating Value Contribution Building Learning Commitment
  26. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Training Needs Analysis Process Needs Events Changes Challenges Budgeting Approach Investment Culture Strategic Involvement Training Design & Delivery Analytical Frameworks Analysis Levels Data Sources Tools & Instruments Training Needs Analysis Analysis Report:Product / Service Portfolios Budgeting Approval: Decision Process Strategic Alignment Prioritization &Selection
  27. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Analytical Framework Comprehensive Index NeverNever SeldomSeldom SometimesSometimes OftenOften Very OftenVery Often In most casesIn most cases AlwaysAlways Competency model drivenCompetency model drivenCompetency model driven Professional requirementProfessional requirementProfessional requirement Policy procedurePolicy procedurePolicy procedure Talent management drivenTalent management drivenTalent management driven Public relation / BrandingPublic relation / BrandingPublic relation / Branding No specific analytical frameworkNo specific analytical frameworkNo specific analytical framework Corporate (N=4) Mid-size enterprise (N=10) Small enterprise (N=11)
  28. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Learning Barriers Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5 Rank 6 Total Lack of line manager support Small enterprise 1 1 3 1 2 1 9 Lack of line manager support Mid-size enterprise 0 0 1 3 0 1 5Lack of line manager support Corporate function 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 Organizational culture Small enterprise 1 1 0 1 1 4 8 Organizational culture Mid-size enterprise 3 0 1 0 0 1 5Organizational culture Corporate function 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 Pressure of time Small enterprise 4 2 1 0 1 1 9 Pressure of time Mid-size enterprise 4 3 0 0 2 0 9Pressure of time Corporate function 1 2 1 0 0 0 4 Lack of commitment from senior management Small enterprise 0 4 1 1 1 0 7 Lack of commitment from senior management Mid-size enterprise 1 1 2 2 0 0 6 Lack of commitment from senior management Corporate function 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 Lack of resource Small enterprise 3 2 1 0 2 2 10 Lack of resource Mid-size enterprise 1 4 2 0 1 1 9Lack of resource Corporate function 1 0 1 1 0 0 3 Lack of employee motivation Small enterprise 2 1 0 4 0 1 8 Lack of employee motivation Mid-size enterprise 0 1 3 0 1 1 6Lack of employee motivation Corporate function 0 1 0 0 0 2 3
  29. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Non-Learning Solution ... NeverNever SeldomSeldom SometimesSometimes OftenOften Very OftenVery Often In most casesIn most cases AlwaysAlways • Providing guideline to perform the work • Providing guideline to perform the work • Providing guideline to perform the work • Providing equipment other than tools to perform • Providing equipment other than tools to perform • Providing equipment other than tools to perform • Improving timely and/or clear feedback about worker performance • Improving timely and/or clear feedback about worker performance • Improving timely and/or clear feedback about worker performance • Clarifying responsibility about who should be doing what • Clarifying responsibility about who should be doing what • Clarifying responsibility about who should be doing what • Clarifying organizational plans• Clarifying organizational plans• Clarifying organizational plans • Providing rewards for performing• Providing rewards for performing• Providing rewards for performing • Clarifying who reports to whom• Clarifying who reports to whom• Clarifying who reports to whom Corporate (N=4) Mid-size enterprise (N=10) Small enterprise (N=11)
  30. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Key Benefits and Six Levels of Evaluation • Satisfy client needs • Justifying budgets • Improve program designs and processes • Enhance the transfer of learning • Eliminate of expand • Enhance the respect and credibility of LTD staff • Increase support from managers • Strengthen relationship with key executive and administrators • Set priorities for learning and development Key Benefits of Measurement and Evaluation LevelLevel Measurement Focus 0 Input & Indicators Measures input such as volume and efficiencies 0 Input & Indicators Q: What is the number of participants,hours,and programs and what are the costs? 1 Reaction & Planned action Measures participant satisfaction with the project and captures planned actions 1 Reaction & Planned action Q:Was the participants happy with the program? Did the participants plan to use the content in the program? 2 Learning & Confidence Measures changes in knowledge,skills,and attitudes 2 Learning & Confidence Q:Did participants increase or enhance knowledge,skills,or perceptions and have confidence to use them? 3 Application & Implementation Measures changes in on-the-job behavior or action 3 Application & Implementation Q:What did the participants do differently in the job context? Was the program implemented effectively? 4 Impact & Consequences Measures changes in business impact variables 4 Impact & Consequences Q:What are the consequences of the application in terms of output,quality,cost,time,and satisfaction? 5 ROI Compares project benefits to the costs 5 ROI Q:Did the monetary benefits of the learning program exceed the investment in the program?
  31. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 High Financial Investment does not always guarantee a better performance 8 Tough Child 4 Glorious Child 6 Ignored Child 9 Spoiled Child Performance Indicator Resource Indicator • Tough and spoiled Child lesson learned: • Senior HR who are committed to LTD as an instrument for organizational performance enhancement or the LTD full-timer professional has enough experiences & seniority. • Balanced between volume & quality as well as internal & external solutions • Good documentation / Quality control
  32. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Challenges and Barrieres for a Business Driven LTD Techniques for an Effective Needs Analysis Creative LTD solutions & LTD trends Building commitment to learning - Balance working and learning Small size enterprises LTD evaluation - Value justification,reporting and ROI Portfolios management - What LTD program? - Quality vs.Quantity Commonality of from all participated companies Resource Allocation - Finance,Capacity, Infrastructure Talent management & Leadership development Strategic positioning - Business alignment Corporate function & Mid-size enterprises Building commitment to learning - LTD selling skills
  33. Excellence through Culture, Talent and Change Corporate Learning,Training and Development/2010-08 Performance-oriented & business-driven LTD needs ... MONEY is NOT ALL what a business-driven LTD need Results-oriented LTD needs skill,knowledge & experiences of the LTD professionals CONTROL on your LTD investment and its impact is a MUST. CHINESE LEARNER want to see an instant impact on their Career Development and Life Quality.
  34. @ Tjitra,2010 Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@mac.com Follow me @htjitra (twitter) 34 http://sinau.me http://horatjitra.com Guest lecture at the faculty of psychology, University of Tarumanagara, Jakarta

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