DEFINITIONHISTORYDISEASE CLASSIFICATIONTYPES OF DRUGSDRUGS NAMES
DefinitionAll chemicals other than food that affect living processes
Since the beginning of human race Alcohol Tobacco CoffeeNatural Drugs Being used since 5000 years Using Medicinal plants
A disease is a condition of impaired health resulting from a disturbance in the structure or function of the body.Classified as: Infections Allergic Disease Metabolic Disorders Cancer Toxic Disease
Classification according to chemical structure or pharmacological action.Classified as: Chemotherapeutic agents Pharmacodynamic agents Miscellaneous agents
Route of AdministrationIntravenousOralBuccalSublingualRectalIntramuscularTransdermalSubcutaneousInhalationalTopical
chemical namebrand or trade namegeneric or common name
Blood flow Protein bindinglipid solubility and the degree of ionisation
Actions of drugs are the biochemicalphysiological mechanisms by which thechemical produces a response in livingorganisms.Killing Foreign OrganismsStimulation and Depression
Sites of Drug ActionEnzyme Inhibition• Drugs act within the cell by modifying normal biochemical reactions. Enzyme inhibition may be reversible or non reversible; competitive or non-competitive. Antimetabolites may be used which mimic natural metabolites. Gene functions may be suppressed.
2. Drug-Receptor InteractionDrugs act on the cell membrane by physical and/or chemical interactions. This is usually through specific drug receptor sites known to be located on the membrane. A receptor is the specific chemical constituents of the cell with which a drug interacts to produce its pharmacological effects. Some receptor sites have been identified with specific parts of proteins and nucleic acids. In most cases, the chemical nature of the receptor site remains obscure.
3. Non-specific InteractionsDrugs act exclusively by physical means outside of cells. These sites include external surfaces of skin and gastrointestinal tract. Drugs also act outside of cell membranes by chemical interactions. Neutralization of stomach acid by antacids is a good example.
Pharmacokinetics is the study ofwhat the body does to a drug.Pharmacodynamics is the study ofwhat a drug does to the body
Plasma Site of Dosage Effects Concen. ActionPharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics