Drug Action

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All chemicals other than food that affect living processes are called drugs.
This presentation will give a brief introduction of drugs and their action.

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Drug Action

  1. 1. DEFINITIONHISTORYDISEASE CLASSIFICATIONTYPES OF DRUGSDRUGS NAMES
  2. 2. DefinitionAll chemicals other than food that affect living processes
  3. 3. Since the beginning of human race Alcohol Tobacco CoffeeNatural Drugs Being used since 5000 years Using Medicinal plants
  4. 4. A disease is a condition of impaired health resulting from a disturbance in the structure or function of the body.Classified as:  Infections  Allergic Disease  Metabolic Disorders  Cancer  Toxic Disease
  5. 5. Classification according to chemical structure or pharmacological action.Classified as:  Chemotherapeutic agents  Pharmacodynamic agents  Miscellaneous agents
  6. 6. Route of AdministrationIntravenousOralBuccalSublingualRectalIntramuscularTransdermalSubcutaneousInhalationalTopical
  7. 7. chemical namebrand or trade namegeneric or common name
  8. 8. Blood flow Protein bindinglipid solubility and the degree of ionisation
  9. 9. Actions of drugs are the biochemicalphysiological mechanisms by which thechemical produces a response in livingorganisms.Killing Foreign OrganismsStimulation and Depression
  10. 10. Sites of Drug ActionEnzyme Inhibition• Drugs act within the cell by modifying normal biochemical reactions. Enzyme inhibition may be reversible or non reversible; competitive or non-competitive. Antimetabolites may be used which mimic natural metabolites. Gene functions may be suppressed.
  11. 11. 2. Drug-Receptor InteractionDrugs act on the cell membrane by physical and/or chemical interactions. This is usually through specific drug receptor sites known to be located on the membrane. A receptor is the specific chemical constituents of the cell with which a drug interacts to produce its pharmacological effects. Some receptor sites have been identified with specific parts of proteins and nucleic acids. In most cases, the chemical nature of the receptor site remains obscure.
  12. 12. 3. Non-specific InteractionsDrugs act exclusively by physical means outside of cells. These sites include external surfaces of skin and gastrointestinal tract. Drugs also act outside of cell membranes by chemical interactions. Neutralization of stomach acid by antacids is a good example.
  13. 13. Pharmacokinetics is the study ofwhat the body does to a drug.Pharmacodynamics is the study ofwhat a drug does to the body
  14. 14. Plasma Site of Dosage Effects Concen. ActionPharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics

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