Ukrainian Language Vs. English Language By Eric Hoopengardner
History• Ukrainian language is written in a form of Cyrillic alphabet and is closely related to Russian and Belorussian, from which it was indistinguishable until the 12th or 13th century. (Ukrainetrek.com)• After the fall of Kievan Rus in the 13th century, the dialectal characteristics that distinguished Ukrainian language from its sister languages emerged, but for many centuries there after the language had almost no literary expression owing to Ukraine’s long political subordination. (Ukrainetrek.com)
History• It was not until the end of the 18th century that moden literary Ukrainian language emerged out of the colloquial Ukrainian tongue. . (Ukrainetrek.com)• The modern Ukrainian literary language is the mixture of the elements of the three main dialects, with the domination of Poltava dialects. The basis of the vocabulary is formed with the words of the general Slavonic origin, but there are also many words, which emerged in Ukrainian in the period of its independent historical development. . (Ukrainetrek.com)
Main Features of Ukrainian• The Ukrainian language is printed and written in the Cyrillic alphabet.• Ukrainian grammar does not use articles in sentences.• In Ukrainian language there are three tenses: Present, Past, and Future which indicate the action, which coincides with the moment of speaking, precedes or follows it. (Lingua Sourcs, 1)• The present day Ukrainian tense category is expressed by three tense forms for the imperfective verbs and two tense forms for the perfective verbs; there is no present tense of the perfective verbs. (Lingua Sourcs, 1)
English vs. Ukrainian Language English Language Ukrainian Language• The English Language is based off • The Ukrainian language is based off the the Latin alphabet and consist of Cyrillic alphabet and has 33 Cyrillic letters . letters. • Ukrainian is a largely phonetic language.• The English language has two This means that a words pronunciation can articles a / an and the. be predicted from its spelling and its spelling from its pronunciation.• When looking at English it is made up of three tenses also, • Ukrainian grammar does not use articles in however depending on the sentences. situation there can be up to six: simple present, present perfect, • The present day Ukrainian tense category is simple past, past perfect, future, expressed by three tense forms for the and future perfect. imperfective verbs and two tense forms for the perfective verbs; there is no present• English uses auxiliaries such as tense of the perfective verbs. be, can, do, shall, which help in forming of certain tenses • Ukrainian language does not have auxiliaries, and omit them.
English Alphabet vs. Cyrillic Alphabet English Alphabet Cyrillic AlphabetA B C D E F G HI J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W XY Z
Maria from Ukraine• The person used for research. Name: Maria Sex: Female Age: 26 Language: Ukrainian Country: Ukraine Hometown: Kharkov Years Speaking English: 10 Years Languages Maria is fluent in English, Russian, Ukrainian, and Norwegian.
Analysis of Maria’s Mistakes Spelling Errors What Maria Wrote Correct Form ErrorI buy alot of cookbooks and even I buy a lot of cookbooks and even Alot is spelled incorrectly shouldget to use them from time to time. get to use them from time to time. be “a lot”I’m such a fun of hiking I’m such a fan of hiking Fun should be “fan”usually get surprized when surprised Suprized should be “surprised”I’ve learnt to cook learned Learnt should be “learned”to the curios tourists. to the curious Curios should be “curious”It not like It’s not like Wrong form of it, should be “it’s”
Analysis of Maria’s Mistakes Article Errors What Maria Wrote Correct Form ErrorI get urge to cook fancy dinner. I get an urge to cook a fancy dinner. Missing the article “an”I guess the biggest holidays in I guess the biggest holidays in the Missing the article “the” in front ofUkraine are New Year’s Eve, Easter, Ukraine are New Year’s Eve, Easter, Ukraineand Independence Day and Independence Day.things I do on daily basis are things I do on a daily basis are Missing the article “a”That’s why city has a unique That’s why the city has a unique Missing the article “the”architecture architectureKiev is beautiful city Kiev is a beautiful city Missing the article “a”English could be useful for me in English could be useful for me in the Missing the article “the”future futureboth in school and at university, both in school and at the university Missing the article “the”middle of Ukrainian nowhere middle of the Ukrainian nowhere Missing the article “the”
Analysis of Maria’s Mistakes Verb Tenses What Maria Wrote Correct Form Error I like go to the cinema with my I like going to the cinema with my Go needs an “ing” endingfriends. friends.We are used to it Use Wrong verb tense of used, should be “use”I like to go to school I liked going to school Verb tense past should be “liked”if the person will end up somewhere if the person would end up Wrong verb tense should be somewhere “would”
Analysis of Maria’s Mistakes Sentence Structure Errors What Maria Wrote Correct Form ErrorMaybe because this way I can sit I do this because I can sit quietly The sentence needs restructuringquietly and observe people that and observe people that pass by. run-on sentences and hard topass by, Maybe because sometimes Sometimes some of those people understand.some of those people happen to be passing by are people I know andsomeone I know, and they stop by we end up having a conversation.and we have in many waysunexpectedly nice conversation.I always take them first of all to I always take my friends to Kiev Sentences needs restructuring toKiev, which is the capital which is the capital make better sense.My native language is Russian, I My native language is Russian, I Sentence restructuring speak alsospeak also Ukrainian fluently. also speak Ukrainian fluently. need to be swapped to “also speak”I speak also English I also speak English Sentence restructuring speak also need to be swapped to “also speak”There are many universities and There are also many universities Sentence restructuring moved alsoscientific research centers there and scientific research centers to beginning of sentence.also. there.some seminars and stuff like that some seminars and stuff like thatthat were in English. were in English.
Impacts of L1 on development of English• Ukrainian students learning English will initially struggle with learning the phonological system of English language. – Ukrainian language consists of 5 vowel sounds, with no differentiation between short and long vowels. This contrasts with English which has 12 vowel sounds (5 long, 7 short), plus 8 diphthongs.• Ukrainian learners will struggle with auxiliaries in verb tenses and article usage. For example when asking the question ‘How do you do that’ a Ukrainian learner might say ‘How you do that.’• Ukrainian learners will also struggle with article usage, since they do not exist in their language
Instructional Implications• There are significant differences between the English language and the Ukrainian language and educators and parents should be aware of the challenges faced when learning English.• In terms of grammar, Ukrainian has a complex morphology. Ukrainian, like German and Latin, is an inflected language. This means that nouns, adjectives and pronouns must have case endings to indicate their function (subject, object or indirect object) in a sentence. – English is not an inflected language; therefore, students require considerable time and practice to acquire grammatical understanding in modeled, structured and unstructured situations
Instructional Implications• Due to the vast differences between the Latin and Cyrillic alphabet, “many younger students confuse the Latin and Cyrillic letters and transfer incorrectly between languages.• It is important to understand that additional time is required for students with Ukrainian as a first language to develop fluency in English because of its complexity and unique characteristics.
References• Alberta Education, L. (2008). Ukrainian Language Arts Grades 4-6: Guide to Implementation. Alberta Education.• Berry, C., Brizee, A., & Angeli, E. (2010). Sequence of Tenses. Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/01/.• Lingua Source. (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://lingua- source.com/2011/05/26/grammatical-categories-of-english-and-ukrainian-verbs/.• The differences between English and Ukrainian. (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/ukranian.htm.• Ukrainian. (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ukrainian.htm.• Ukrainian Language. (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://www.ukranianlessons.net/.• Ukraine: The Ukrainian language. (2010). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://where.org.ua/ukraine.php?r=The-Ukrainian-Language• Ukrainetrek (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2011. From http://ukrainetrek.com/about-ukraine-culture/ukrainian-language.