Czech republic

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  • Hezká prezentace, ale moc informací a konec nejlepší:-D
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  • moc dlouhé
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  • pěkný
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  • propracované do detajlu.... a věřím tomu, že kdyby to šlo zvětšit tak by tam bylo vidět i to malé písmo!!!!
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  • Příliš dlouhý text,mnoho nepodstatných informací!
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Czech republic

  1. 1. Czech republic Name The English spelling C zech derives from the Polish spelling of the original Čech. Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech half of the former nation found itself without a common single-word name in English. In 1993, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs suggested the name C z e c h ia as an official alternative in all situations other than formal official documents and the full names of government institutions; however, this has not become widespread, despite the fact that many
  2. 2. History  A c o n tin u o u s h is to r y o f w h a t is c a lle d th e C z e c h R e p u b lic to d a y b e g a n to b e w r itte n in th e e a r ly th ir tie s o f th e 6 th c e n tu r y . T h e fir s t S la v ic a g g lo m e r a tio n is s u p p o r te d b y th e e x is te n c e o f S a m o ’ s E m p ir e in th e m id - s e v e n th c e n tu r y a n d s u b s e q u e n tly b y th e G re a t M o r a v ia n E m p ir e An . im p o r ta n t la n d m a r k in th e o v e r a ll d e v e lo p m e n t of th e S la v o n ic te r r ito r ie s w a s a r r iv a l o f b r o th e r s C yr il a nd M e th o d iu s “ th e , a p o s tle s o f th e S la v s ” , in th e te r r ito r y o f th e G r e a t M o r a v ia n E m p ir e a t th e tu r n o f 8 6 3 a n d 8 6 4 . S in c e th a t tim e , O ld C h u r c h S la v o n ic b e c a m e a la n g u a g e u s e d in a tr a n s la tio n o f th e B ib le a n d in th e litu r g y in te llig ib le to th e S la v s . The G re a t M o r a v ia n E m p ir e
  3. 3. ,, B o řiv o j I , the first, historically documented Duke of Bohemia, ruled from 874 to 891. Prince Bořivoj of the Přemyslids, baptized by A r c h b is h o p M e th o d iu s in the eighties of the 9th century, contributed to a dramatic progress of evangelization in Bohemia. The first church buildings on the territory of the then Bohemia were founded under his rule. The first-ever C h r is tia n c h u r c h building was constructed at Levý Hradec (which is now called Roztoky u Prahy) from where Bořivoj I reigned at that time. Later, he had a little church built and consecrated to the Virgin Mary at the location of a pagan place of sacrifices upon the Vlta v a R iv e r . A site of a fortified settlement, later a princely palace, started to be built at this location under the reign of Spytihněv I, son of Bořivoj I. In fact, this was the beginning of construction of the Prague castle from where Spytihněv I reigned. After his death, it was his younger brother, Vratislav I, father of Václav (Wenceslas) and Boleslav, who assumed the reigns. After Vratislav’s death (in 921), the reign was entrusted to his wife, D r a h o m ír a (Dragomir), until Václav became an adult. Václav took over administration of the country from his mother in about 924. In the latter half of the twenties of the 10th century, Prince Václav established St. Vitus’s Cathedral within the Prague castle acquiring remains of the Saxon nation’s patron saint Vitus from Saxon king Henry. However, there were many quarrels between Václav and
  4. 4. ,, B o le s la v , Václav’s brother, was P r in c e undoubtedly involved in consolidation of the beginning Czech statehood, and thanks to his involvement, a bishopric was established in Prague headed by Vo jtěc h (Adalbert) of the Slavník family since 982 – the founder of the B ře v n o v M o n a s te r y (in 993) – later canonized. Vojtěch endeavoured to harmonize relations between the Church and the society being extremely responsible for Christianization of the Czech as well as Polish and Hungarian regions of Central Europe. Vojtěch or his fellows baptized their future kings. The territory populated by the Czechs had been just a principality until 1212. In that year, the Přemysl duke O ta k a r I received a charter known as the Golden Bull of Sicily from the then king of Sicily Frederick II. The Bull raised the Czech principality to a kingdom while guaranteeing the monarchy to become hereditary. Otakar I became the first Czech king. He was crowned in 1198 and then in 1203 again. Throughout its history, the Czech state consisted of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia (recognized at a Reichstag in Regensburg
  5. 5. ,, After his death, the Přemyslid dynasty ruled just on the distaff side. The Czech throne was mounted by the Luxembourg dynasty. This dynasty ruled until 1436. Clearly the most significant monarch of the Luxembourg dynasty was Charles IV (Karel IV.), king of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. Under his rule, Bohemia experienced the greatest deal of prosperity. Prague became a leading European centre. The Prague Archbishopric, St. Wenceslas’s Crown Jewels and St. Wenceslas’s tradition all emerged. C h a r le s IV founded the P r a g u e U n iv e r s ity. Moreover, the Prague New Town as well as many other important buildings such as Karlštejn castle and Charles Bridge was constructed. After Charles’s death, his son, Václav IV, took the throne. Under his rule, the country fell into chaos. There were religious tumults culminating in burning preacher Jan Hus to death in 1415 because of him standing out against the Roman church and requiring its reform. Subsequently, Bohemia and a part of Central Europe were devastated by the H u s s ite w a r s . In 1526, it is the Habsburgs (Ferdinand I of Habsburg) who came to the Czech throne making Bohemia part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The most important monarch after 1526 is considered to be Roman Emperor R u d o lf II, who was crowned king of Bohemia in 1575 and German king later. Under his reign, Prague enjoys prosperity becoming a modern European centre again. After his death (in 1612), there were several uprisings against the Habsburgs, led by the Czech estates, culminating in their defeat in the Battle of the Wh ite M o u n ta in (Bílá hora) on 8th November 1620. Thus, Europe appeared on the verge of the Thirty Years’ War. Bohemia experienced
  6. 6. ,, After the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, caused by its defeat in World War I, the Czechoslovak Republic was established on 28th October 1918 with To má š G a r r ig ue M a s a r yk being elected its first president. The period between the two world wars (1918–1939) is called the First Republic. At that time, the Czechoslovak Republic ranked among the most economically developed countries in Europe, especially in the area of mechanical engineering. The existence of the Fir s t R e p u b lic was ended by the Nazi invasion of the country in 1939, after conclusion of the Munich accord (9/1939). Czechoslovakia was divided into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and the Slovak State. The country was reunited in 1945 after Germany had been defeated and the Czech government-in-exile headed by E d va r d B e n e š had returned from London. As a result of political settlement in Europe after Wo r ld Wa r II, the territory of Czechoslovakia fell to the so-called Soviet sphere of influence, which, to a great degree, resulted in the communists seizing power after their coup in February 1948. In 1960, the state was renamed “ The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic”. In 1968, some reformers among the communists made an attempt for partial democratization of the society. These efforts were suppressed in August of the same year as the troops of the Warsaw Pact allies invaded the country. After the unsuccessful attempt for democratization, the period of the so-called normalization started during 1969. This was a period when those persons and activities that failed to identify themselves with the Soviet occupation and the subsequent normalization were persecuted by the state machinery. During the early 1980’s, democratization trends started appearing more intensely again in the other East European countries as well – in the countries of the so-called Soviet bloc. In November 1989, the situation in Czechoslovakia culminated in the so-called Ve lve t R e vo lutio n . Under pressure from the public, the communists backed out of the Establishment as well as police operations against the population. On 29th December 1989, the Federal Assembly voted Václav Havel, the candidate and representative of a new democratic block (Civic Forum), who brought the Czechoslovak Federal Republic to the first free election after more than 40 years in June 1990, for president.
  7. 7. Geography The Czech landscape is quite varied. Bohemia to the west consists of a basin drained by the Elbe (Czech: L abe) and the Vltava (or Moldau) rivers, and surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country, Sněžka, at 1,602 m (5,262 ft), is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also quite hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder (Czech: O dra) River. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-metre (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028. Phytogeographically, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of the Czech
  8. 8. Population The vast majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (94.2%). Minorities include the Slovaks (1.9%), Poles (0.5%), Vietnamese (0.44%), Germans (0.4%), and Gypsies. According to the Interior Ministry of the Czech Republic, there were 431,215 foreigners legally residing in the country in October 2008, making up 4.1% of the population, with the largest groups being Ukrainians, Slovaks and Vietnamese. The Czech Republic is home to between 250,000 and 300,000 Roma, who make up the country's second largest minority population after Slovaks.The fertility rate was low at 1.44 children born/woman. In 2007, immigration increased the population by almost 1%.According to the Czech Statistics Office, 130,147 Ukrainians, 74,918 Slovaks, 58,877 Vietnamese, 26,606 Russians and 21,560 Poles lived in the Czech Republic in October 2008.At present, there are almost 6,000 legally working Mongolians in the Czech Republic.The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia (118,000 according to the 1930 census) was virtually annihilated during the Holocaust by the Nazis. As of 2005, there were approximately 4,000 Jews. Religion:The Czech Republic, along with Estonia, has one of the least religious populations in all of Europe. According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is agnostic, atheist, a non- believer or a non-organized believer, 26.8% Roman Catholic and 2.5% Protestant.According to the most recent
  9. 9. Interesting,, Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular. Goose, duck, rabbit and wild game are served. Fish is rare, with the occasional exception of fresh trout, and carp, which is served at Christmas. Aside from Slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, Czechs also produce two uniquely Czech liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non- alcoholic Czech soft drink somewhat similar in look and taste to Coca-Cola, which is also popular.
  10. 10. ,, Sport plays a significant part in the life of many Czechs who are generally loyal supporters of their favourite teams or individuals. The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are football and ice hockey, both drawing the largest attention of both the media and supporters. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, floorball and others. Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event and sinking several days after. The events considered the most important by Czech fans are: the Ice Hockey World Championship, Olympic Ice hockey tournament, the Euro , the football World Cup and qualification matches for such events. In general, any international match of the Czech ice hockey or football national team draws attention, especially when played against a traditional rival: Germany in football; Russia, Sweden and Canada in ice hockey; and Slovakia in both. See also: M usic of the C zech Republic Music in the Czech Republic has roots both in high-culture opera and symphony and in the traditional music of Bohemia and Moravia. Cross- pollination and diversity are important aspects of Czech music: Composers were often influenced by traditional music; jazz and bluegrass music have become popular; pop music often consisted of English language hits sung in Czech. Notable Czech composers include Leoš Janáček, Antonín Dvořák and Bedřich Smetana./wiki/File:Jaroslav_Hasek.jpg/wiki/File:Jaroslav_Hasek.jpg /wiki/File:Jaroslav_Hasek.jpg/wiki/File:Jaroslav_Hasek.jpgJaroslav Hašek, author of The Good Soldier Švejk Czech literature is the literature of the historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and the Czech-speaking part of Silesia, (now part of the Czech Republic, formerly of Czechoslovakia). This most often means literature written by Czechs, in the Czech language, although Old Church Slavonic, Latin, and German were also used, mostly in the early periods. Modern authors from the Czech territory who wrote in other languages (e.g. German) are generally considered separately, and their writing usually existed in parallel with Czech-language literature and did not interact with it. Thus Franz Kafka, for example, who wrote in German (though he also knew Czech rather well), falls within Austrian literature, though he lived his entire life in Bohemia.Czech literature is divided into several main time periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the years of re-Catholicization and the baroque; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the 19th century; the avantgarde of the interwar period; the years under Communism and the
  11. 11. The End Eliška Jandurová  Jana Klaciková 

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