Obstacles not yet depicted on charts are listed in the Planification Section of the CFR
15 Black Hole Effect At night when there is no lightning before the runway. Approach over water or dark ground. Stronger effect by clear night Perception of being closer to the runway. Start the descent too soon. Numerous aviation involving B727 in the year 1970s. A Human Factors engineer with Boeing observed similarities among these accidents. They landed short of the runway at night in clear visual conditions after an approach made over water or dark ground.
20 As the fluid speed reaches that of the canal the inner ear tells the brain there is no motion. In clouds, when you loss visual cues, your brain will receive false messages. YOU MUST THRUST YOUR INSTRUMENTS. It was proven that pilots with no instrument flight knowledge will put the aircraft in a spin within one minute.
21 Fluid in all three canals is in motion. When the fluid speed reaches that of the semi-circular canals, your brain receives the message that everything is in equilibrium on a vertical plane. When the motion is stopped and the head held upright, the inner ear signals the brain that the body is falling over. SENSATION OF TUMBLING Sensation is stronger when your head turns in the direction opposite to that of the airplane.
22 Ask about the side-effects of any over the counter medication to your aviation medical examiner. Drinking and flying is deadly. Even after 8 hours, there is still alcohol left in the canals’ fluid of the vestibular apparatus - emphasize all sensation of rotary motion. Human senses are not perfect.
TSB expressed its concerns over the frequency and the consequences of CFIT and LOC accidents.
CFIT accidents kill more people than any other type of aircraft accident. Virtually all CFIT are attributable to human error frustrating because the errors leading to CFIT have been identified again and again, but he same accidents keep happening.
It was decided to examine the decisions that resulted in accidents. The study team analyzed 129 Canadian CFIT and LOC accidents that occurred between 1984 and 1995. As a result, they identified six categories of accidents among which Night VFR and VFR flight into IMC.
It is difficult to estimate what minimum visibility is required to preclude loss of control. In fact, control difficulties have been encountered in excellent visibility conditions when there was no contrast on the ground or horizon available to provide external references to the pilots, such as in white-out conditions. In an experiment conducted at the University of Illinois, twenty non-instrument rated student pilots in ground trainers flew into simulated IMC. They loss control of their aircraft in average of 178 seconds . The shortest time to loss of control was 20 seconds and the longest any of them maintained control was 480 seconds .
Hazard recognition and decision times will be extended. Rules regarding minimum visibility are unambiguous, the cues by which a pilot can assess the prevailing visibility are not clear. Determining, with certainty, when visibility has fallen below two miles in VFR flight, or 1 mile in SVFR is beyond the ability of pilots. TRICK The length of the interval from the sighting of the most distant discernible feature until the aircraft is overhead might be useful to in determining whether the flight can be continued safely. If the time available between sighting an obstacle and arriving overhead does not permit these actions to be accomplished, flight is not safe.
Transport Canada Transports Canada Quebec Region Région du Québec Civil Aviation Aviation civileLow Level Flying Brigitte Ouellet System Safety
ContentRecency training requirementsAltitudes and minimum distancesBirdstrikesIllusions and disorientationVFR flights in adverse weatherconditions
Recency Requirementssafety seminar given by TransportCanada Aviationquestionnaire published in AviationSafety Newsletterobtaining a rating, a permit or a license
To minimize the risksNOTAM et ATISStrobe lights and landing lightsWindshield heatingAvoid low level flyingReport bird activity and birdstrikes 1-888-282-2473 or http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/wildlife.htm
Illusions anddisorientation Vestibular apparatus and loss of visual references
TSB RecommendationThe Department of Transportevaluate the adequacy of the marginof safety afforded by current VFRand SVFR regulations.TSB A96-10
CFITWhat is Controlled Flight into Terrain? When the aircraft collide with an obstacle before the pilot can react and avoid it.
Safety of VFR FlightHuman factors assessment related to flyingAircraft performance obstacle avoidancemanoeuvresUnderstanding the process leading to CFIT– identify unsafe act(s) and conditions– determine error type (slip, lapse, mistake)
VFR flight into IMC49 accidents (largest group)Inexperienced pilotsWeather worst than forecastHappened while a/c was turning aroundFailed to delay or land
Violations22 accidents - 36 livesknowingly flew into below minimaweatherfor most of the pilots, was commonpractice
AnalysisAlmost no one crashed « legally »Relatively few « willful violations »Perceptual issue : What does 2 miles look like ?Decision difficulty - selection of actionUse available resources
Human PerformanceNavigation get lostControl of the aircraft Loss of controlObstacle avoidance CFIT
NavigationHow does it work– mental model map or knowledgeDecrease in visibility !!!....– do not recognize landmark LOST– misidentify landmark do NOT KNOW that we are LOST
Control of the aircraftHow does it work ?– attitude, altitude and heading horizon or landmarksDecrease in visibility !!!....– disorientationAt night
To Prevent CFIT Detect the obstacle identify hazard Select and implement evasive actionTIME (critical element) – identify the obstacle as a hazard – select the appropriate action – make control inputs – aircraft response time
Decrease in visibility !!!...– decrease in capability to evaluate distance– need more time for decision making
CountermeasuresAcquire bad weather flying techniquesLearn to turn back / alternate plansOvercome normal human decision makingtendencies « traps »Better weather interpretation and weatherrelated decision making skillsMake PIREPSUse available liveware
Aircraft PerformancesHow much airspeed will you lose if you slam youraircraft into a 45o bank turn ?How much space will you need to do a 180o turn ?How much more space will you need with a 20 knotwind behind you half way round the turn ?If you have to pull up quickly straight ahead, whatairspeed will you have after 300 feet of climb ?
Put the odds on your sideHave a current VFR map of the areayou plan to fly over. N DDo not rely only on your GPS. L ABeware of power lines.Get a complete weather briefing prior to theflight.