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  1. 1. » MANAGING YOURSELF BEST OF HBR1980 A quarter-century ago, John Gabarro and John Kotter introduced a powerful new lens through which to view the manager-boss relationship: one that recognized the mutual dependence of the participants. The fact is, bosses need cooperation, reliabiiity, and honesty from their direct reports. Managers, for their part, rely on bosses for making connec- tions with the rest ofthe company, for setting priorities, and for obtaining critical resources. If the relationship between you and your boss is rocky, then it is you who must begin to manage It. When you take the time to cultivate a productive working re!atlonship-by understanding your bosss strengths and weaknesses, priorities, and work style-everyone wins. In the 25 years since It was published, this article has truly improved the practice of management. Its simple yet powerful advice has changed the way people work, enhanced countless manager-boss relationships, and improved the performance of corporations in ways that show up on the bottom line. Over the years, it has become a staple at business schools and corporate training programs worldwide.Managing Your BossbyJohnJ.Gabarro and John P Kotter . | o many people, the phrase "man- bosses. These studies also show that this a ^ g your boss" may sound unusual or essential aspect of management is some-ifyou forge ties with suspicious. Because of the traditional times ignored by otherwise talented top-down emphasis in most organiza- and aggressive managers. Indeed, someyour boss based tions, it is not obvious why you need to managers who actively and effectively manage relationships upward-unless, supervise subordinates, products, mar-on mutual respect of course, you would do so for personal kets, and technoiogies assume an almostand understanding, or political reasons. But we are not re- passively reactive stance vis-i-vis their ferring to political maneuvering or to bosses. Such a stance almost always hurtsboth of you will apple polishing. We are using the term them and their more effective. to mean the process of consciously work- If you doubt the importance of man- ing with your superior to obtain the best aging your relationship with your boss possible results for you, your boss, and or how difficult it is to do so effectively, the company. consider for a moment the following Recent studies suggest that effective sad but telling story: managers take time and effort to man- Frank Gibbons was an acknowledged age not only relationships with their manufacturing genius in his industry subordinates but also those with their and, by any profitability standard, a very92 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW
  2. 2. » MANAGING YOURSELFeffective executive. In 1973. his strengths carefully-a whole series of misunder- occur regularly in all major corpora-propelled him into the position of vice standings and bad feelings developed tions, and the cumulative effect can bepresident of manufacturing for the sec- between Gibbons and Bonnevie. very destructive.ond largest and most profitable com- For example, Bonnevie claims Gib-pany in its industry. Gibbons was not, bons was aware of and had accepted Misreading thehowever, a good manager of people. He Bonnevies decision to use a new type Boss-Subordinateknew this, as did others in his company of machinery to make the new prod- Relationshipand his industry. Recognizing this weak- uct; Gibbons swears he did not. Fur- People often dismiss stories like the oneness, the president made sure that those thermore, Gibbons claims he made it we just related as being merely cases ofwho reported to Gibbons were good at clear to Bonnevie that the introduction personality conflict. Because two peo-working with people and could com- ofthe product was too important to the ple can on occasion be psychologicallypensate for his limitations. The arrange- company in the short run to take any or temperamentally incapable of work-ment worked well. major risks. ing together, this can be an apt descrip- In 1975, Philip Bonnevie was pro- As a result of such misunderstand- tion. But more often, we have found, amoted into a position reporting to Gib- ings, planning went awry: A new manu- personality conflict is only a part ofthebons. In keeping with the previous pat- facturing plant was built that could not problem - sometimes a very small part.tern, the president selected Bonnevie produce the new product designed by Bonnevie did not just have a different personality from Gibbons, he also made or had unrealistic assumptions and ex-At a minimum, you need to appreciate your bosss pectations about the very nature of boss-subordinate relationships. Specifi-goals and pressures. Without this information, cally, he did not recognize that his rela-you are flying blind, and problems are inevitable. tionship to Gibbons involved mutual de- pendence between two fallible human beings. Failing to recognize this, a man-because he had an excellent track record engineering, in the volume desired by ager typically either avoids trying toand a reputation for being good with sales, at a cost agreed on by the execu- manage his or her relationship with apeople. In making that selection, how- tive committee. Gibbons blamed Bon- boss or manages it ineffectively.ever, the president neglected to notice nevie for the mistake. Bonnevie blamed Some people behave as if their bossesthat, in his rapid rise through the orga- Gibbons. were not very dependent on them. Theynization, Bonnevie had always had good- Of course, one could argue that the fail to see how much the boss needsto-exce!lent bosses. He had never been problem here was caused by Gibbonss their help and cooperation to do his orforced to manage a relationship with a inability to manage his subordinates. her job effectively. These people refusedifficult boss. In retrospect, Bonnevie But one can make just as strong a case to acknowledge that the boss can be se-admits he had never thought that man- that the problem was related to Bon- verely hurt by their actions and needsaging his boss was a part of his job. nevies inability to manage his boss. cooperation, dependability, and honesty Fourteen months after he started Remember, Gibbons was not having from them.working for Gibbons, Bonnevie was difficulty with any other subordinates. Some people see themselves as notfired. During that same quarter, the Moreover, given the personal price paid very dependent on their bosses. Theycompany reported a net loss for the first by Bonnevie (beingfiredand having his gloss over how much help and informa-time in seven years. Many of those who reputation within the industry severely tion they need from the boss in order towere close to these events say that they tarnished), there was little consolation perform their own jobs well. This su-dont really understand what happened. in sayingthe problem was that Gibbons perficial view is particularly damagingThis much is known, however: While was poor at managing subordinates. when a managers job and decisionsthe company was bringing out a major Everyone already knew that. affect other parts of the organization,new product - a process that required We believe that the situation could as was the case in Bonnevies situation.sales, engineering, and manufacturing have turned out differently had Bon- A managers immediate boss can playgroups to coordinate decisions very nevie been more adept at understand- a critical role in linking the manager ing Gibbons and at managing his re- to the rest ofthe organization, makingJohn J. Gabarro is the UPS Foundation lationship with him. In this case, an sure the managers priorities are consis-Professor of Human Resource Manage- inability to manage upward was unusu- tent with organizational needs, and inment at Harvard Business School in Bos- ally costly. The company lost $2 million securing the resources the managerton. Now retired, John P. Kotter was the to $5 million, and Bonnevies career was, needs to perform well. Yet some man-Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Lead- at least temporarily, disrupted. Many agers need to see themselves as practi-ership at Harvard Business School. less costly cases similar to this probably cally self-sufficient, as not needing the94 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW
  3. 3. Managing Your Boss • BEST OF H B Rcritical information and resources a boss get infonnation through memos, fonnal vice president free rein-at least initially.can supply. meetings, or phone calls? Does he or she Based on his previous experience, the Many managers, like Bonnevie, as- thrive on conflict or try to minimize it? new vice president correctly diagnosedsume that the boss will magically know Without this information, a manager is that greater market share was neededwhat information or help their subordi- flying blind when dealing with the boss, for the company and that strong prod-nates need and provide it to them. Cer- and unnecessary confiicts, misunder- uct management was required to bringtainly, some bosses do an excellent job standings, and problems are inevitable. that about. Following that logic, he madeof caring for their subordinates in this In one situation we studied, a top- a number of pricing decisions aimed atway, but for a manager to expect that notch marketing manager with a su- increasing high-volume business.from all bosses is dangerously unrealis- perior performance record was hired When margins declined and the fi-tic. A more reasonable expectation for into a company as a vice president "to nancial situation did not improve, how-managers to have is that modest help straighten out the marketing and sales ever, the president increased pressurewill be forthcoming. After all, bosses are problems." The company, which was on the new vice president. Believingonly human. Most really effective man- having financial difficulties, had re- that the situation would eventually cor-agers accept this fact and assume pri- cently been acquired by a larger corpo- rect itself as the company gained backmary responsibility for their own ca- ration. The president was eager to turn market share, the vice president resistedreers and deveiopment. They make a it around and gave the new marketing the pressure.point of seeking the information andhelp they need to do a job instead ofwaiting for their bosses to provide it. In light ofthe foregoing, it seems tous that managing a situation of mutualdependence among fallible human be-ings requires the following: 1. You have a good understanding ofthe other person and yourself, especiallyregarding strengths, weaknesses, workstyles, and needs. 2. You use this infonnation to developand manage a healthy working rela-tionship-one that is compatible withboth peoples work styles and assets, ischaracterized by mutual expectations,and meets the most critical needs oftheother person. This combination is essentially whatwe have found highly effective manag-ers doing.Understanding the BossManaging your boss requires that yougain an understanding ofthe boss and hisor her context, as well as your own situ-ation. All managers do this to some de-gree, but many are not thorough enough. At a minimum, you need to appreci-ate your bosss goals and pressures, hisor her strengths and weaknesses. Whatare your bosss organizational and per-sonal objectives, and what are his or herpressures, especially those from his orher own boss and others at the samelevel? What are your bosss long suitsand blind spots? What is the preferredstyle of working? Does your boss like to[ANLIARY 2005
  4. 4. » MANAGING YOURSELF When by the second quarter, margins approach replaced a man who was in- trating and inefficient, and the subordi-and profits had still failed to improve, formal and intuitive.The new president nate often found himself thrown offthe president took direct control over all worked best when he had written re- guard by the questions that the presidentpricing decisions and put all items on ports. He also preferred formal meet- asked. Ultimately, this division managera set level of margin, regardless of vol- ings with set agendas. resigned.ume. The new vice president began to One of his division managers realized The difference between the two divi-find himself shut out by the president, this need and worked with the new pres- sion managers just described was notand their relationship deteriorated. In ident to identify the kinds and fre- so much one of ability or even adapt-fact, the vice president found the presi- quency of information and reports that ability. Rather, one ofthe men was moredents behavior bizarre. Unfortunately, the president wanted. This manager sensitive to his bosss work style and tothe presidents new pricing scheme also also made a point of sending back- the implications of his bosss needs thanfailed to increase margins, and by the ground information and brief agendas the other was.fourth quarter, both the president and ahead of time for their discussions. Hethe vice president were fired. found that with this type of prepara- Understanding Yourself What the new vice president had not tion their meetings were very useful. The boss is only one-half of the rela-known until it was too late was that im- Another interesting result was, he found tionship. You are the other half, as wellproving marketing and sales had been that with adequate preparation his new as the part over which you have moreonly one ofthe presidents goals. His direct control. Developing an effectivemost immediate goal had been to make working relationship requires, then, thatthe company more profitable-quickly. you know your own needs, strengths Nor had the new vice president and weaknesses, and personal style.known that his boss was invested in this You are not going to change eithershort-term priority for personal as well your basic personality structure or thatas business reasons. The president had of your boss. But you can become awarebeen a strong advocate of the acquisi- of what it is about you that impedes ortion within the parent company, and his facilitates working with your boss and,personal credibility was at stake. with that awareness, take actions that The vice president made three basic make the relationship more effective.errors. He took information supplied to For example, in one case we observed,him at face value, he made assumptions a manager and his superior ran intoin areas where he had no information, problems whenever they disagreed. Theand - what was most damaging - he bosss typical response was to hardennever actively tried to clarify what his his position and overstate it. The man-bosss objectives were. As a result, he agers reaction was then to raise theended up taking actions that were actu- ante and intensify the forcefulness of hisally at odds with the presidents priori- argument. In doing this, he channeledties and objectives. his anger into sharpening his attacks on Managers who work effectively with the logical fallacies he saw in his bossstheir bosses do not behave this way. boss was even more effective at brain- assumptions. His boss in tum would be-They seek out information about the storming problems than his more infor- come even more adamant about holdingbosss goals and problems and pres- mal and intuitive predecessor had been. his original position. Predictably, thissures. They are alert for opportunities In contrast, another division manager escalating cycle resulted in the subordi-to question the boss and others around never fully understood how the new nate avoiding whenever possible anyhim or her to test their assumptions. bosss work style differed from that of topic of potential conflict with his boss.They pay attention to clues in the bosss his predecessor. To the degree that he In discussing this problem with hisbehavior. Although it is imperative that did sense it, he experienced it as too peers, the manager discovered that histhey do this especially when they begin much control. As a result, he seldom reaction to the boss was typical of howworking with a new boss, effective man- sent the new president the background he generally reacted to counterargu-agers aiso do this on an ongoing basis information he needed, and the presi- ments - but with a difference. His re-because they recognize that priorities dent never felt fully prepared for meet- sponse would overwhelm his peers butand concerns change. ings with the manager. In fact, the pres- not his boss. Because his attempts to dis- Being sensitive to a bosss work style ident spent much ofthe time when they cuss this problem with his boss were un-can be crucial, especially when the boss met trying to get infonnation that he successful, he concluded that the onlyis new. For example, a new president felt he should have had earlier. The way to change the situation was to dealwho was organized and formal in his boss experienced these meetings as frus- with his own instinctive reactions. When-96 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW
  5. 5. Managing Your Boss • BEST OF HBRever the two reached an impasse, he Psychologists call this pattern of re- views ignore that bosses, like everyonewould check his own impatience and sug- actions counterdependent behavior. Al- else, are imperfect and fallible. Theygest that they break up and think about though a counterdependent person is dont have unlimited time, encyclope-it before getting together again. Usual ly difficult for most superiors to manage dic knowledge, or extrasensory percep-when they renewed their discussion, and usually has a history of strained re- tion; nor are they evil enemies. Theythey had digested their differences and lationships with superiors, this sort of have their own pressures and concernswere more able to work them through. manager is apt to have even more trou- that are sometimes at odds with the Gaining this level of self-awareness ble with a boss who tends to be directive wishes of the subordinate - and oftenand acting on it are difficult but not im- or authoritarian. When the manager for good reason.possible. For example, by reflecting over acts on his or her negative feelings, Altering predispositions toward au-his past experiences, a young manager often in subtle and nonverbal ways, the thority, especially at the extremes, islearned that he was not very good at boss sometimes does become the enemy. almost impossible without intensivedealing with difficult and emotional is-sues where people were involved. Be-cause he disliked those issues and real- Bosses, like everyone else, are imperfect andized that his instinctive responses tothem were seldom very good, he devel- fallible.They dont have unlimited time,oped a habit of touching base with his encyclopedic knowledge, or extrasensoryboss whenever such a problem arose.Their discussions always surfaced ideas perception; nor are they evil enemies.and approaches the manager had notconsidered. In many cases, they also Sensing the subordinates latent hostil- psychotherapy (psychoanalytic theoryidentified specific actions the boss could ity, the boss witl lose trust in the subor- and research suggest that such predis-take to heip. dinate or his or her judgment and then positions are deeply rooted in a persons Although a superior-subordinate re- behave even less openly. personality and upbringing). However,lationship is one of mutual dependence, Paradoxically, a manager with this an awareness of these extremes and theit is aiso one in which the subordinate is type of predisposition is often a good range between them can be very usefultypically more dependent on the boss manager of his or her own people. He or in understanding where your own pre-than the other way around. This depen- she will many times go out ofthe way dispositions fall and what the implica-dence inevitably results in the subordi- to get support for them and will not tions are for how you tend to behave innate feeling a certain degree of frustra- hesitate to go to bat for them. relation to your boss.tion, sometimes anger, when his actions At the other extreme are managers Ifyou believe, on the one hand, thator options are constrained by his bosss who swallow their anger and behave in you have some tendencies toward coun-decisions. This is a normal part of life a very compliant fashion when the boss terdependence, you can understand andand occurs in the best of relationships. makes what they know to be a poor de- even predict what your reactions andThe way in which a manager handles cision. These managers will agree with overreactions are likely to be. If, on thethese frustrations largely depends on his the boss even when a disagreement other hand, you believe you have someor her predisposition toward depen- might be welcome or when the boss tendencies toward overdependence, youdence on authority figures. would easily alter a decision if given might question the extent to which your Some peoples instinctive reaction more information. Because they bear no overcompliance or inability to confrontunder these circumstances is to resent relationship to the specific situation at real differences may be making boththe bosss authority and to rebel against hand, their responses are as much an you and your boss less effective.the bosss decisions. Sometimes a per- overreaction as those of counterdepen-son will escalate a conflict beyond what dent managers. Instead of seeing the Developing and Managingis appropriate. Seeing the boss almost boss as an enemy, these people deny the Relationshipas an institutional enemy, this type of their anger-the other extreme - and with a clear understanding of both yourmanager wiil often, without being con- tend to see the boss as if he or she were boss and yourself, you can usually es-scious of it, fight with the boss just for an all-wise parent who should know tablish a way of working together thatthe sake of fighting. The subordinates best, should take responsibility for their fits both of you, that is characterizedreactions to being constrained are usu- careers, train them in all they need to by unambiguous mutual expectations,ally strong and sometimes impulsive. know, and protect them from overly and that helps you both be more pro-He or she sees the boss as someone who, ambitious peers. ductive and effective. The "Checklist forby virtue of the role, is a hindrance to Both counterdependence and over- Managing Your Boss"summarizes someprogress, an obstacle to be circumvented dependence lead managers to hold un- things such a relationship consists of.or at best tolerated. realistic views of what a boss is. Both Following are a few more.JANUARY 2005 97
  6. 6. » MANAGING YOURSELF Compatible Work Styles. Above all or another, so there are advantages to his boss would review with him any pro-else, a good working relationship with including him or her at your initiative. posed changes in personnel or assign-a boss accommodates differences in Other bosses prefer to delegate - they ment policies before taking action. Thework style. For example, in one situa- dont want to be involved. They expect boss valued his advice and credited histion we studied, a manager (who had a you to come to them with major prob- subordinate for improving both the per-relatively good relationship with his lems and inform them about any im- formance ofthe division and the labor-superior) realized that during meetings portant changes. management climate.his boss would often become inatten- Mutual Expectations. The subordi-tive and sometimes brusque. The sub- nate who passively assumes that he orordinates own style tended to be dis- she knows what the boss expects is incursive and exploratory. He would often for trouble. Of course, some superiorsdigress from the topic at hand to deal will spell out their expectations verywith background factors, alternative explicitly and in great detail. But mostapproaches, and so forth. His boss pre- do not. And although many corpora-ferred to discuss problems with a mini- tions have systems that provide a basismum of background detail and became for communicating expectations (suchimpatient and distracted whenever his as formal planning processes, careersubordinate digressed from the imme- planning reviews, and performance ap-diate issue. praisal reviews), these systems never Recognizing this difference in style, work perfectly. Also, between thesethe manager became terser and more formal reviews, expectations invariablydirect during meetings with his boss. To himself do this, before meetings, Ultimately, the burden falls on thehe would develop brief agendas that he subordinate to find out what the bosssused as a guide. Whenever he felt that expectations are. They can be both broada digression was needed, he explained (such as what kinds of problems the bosswhy. This small shift in his own stylemade these meetings more effectiveand far less frustrating for both of them. Some superiors spell out their expectations very Subordinates can adjust their styles explicitly. But most do not. Ultimately, the burdenin response to their bosses preferredmethod for receiving infonnation. Peter falls on the subordinate to find out what the bosssDrucker divides bosses into "listeners" expectations are.and "readers." Some bosses like to get in-formation in report form so they canread and study it. Others work better Creating a compatible relationship wishes to be informed about and when)with information and reports presented also involves drawing on each others as well as very specific (such things asin person so they can ask questions. As strengths and making up for each when a particular project should beDrucker points out, the implications are others weaknesses. Because he knew completed and what kinds of informa-obvious. If your boss is a listener, you that the boss-the vice president of en- tion the boss needs in the interim).brief him or her in person, then follow it gineering- was not very good at moni- Getting a boss who tends to be vagueup with a memo. If your boss is a reader, toring his employees problems, one or not explicit to express expectationsyou cover important items or proposals manager we studied made a point of can be difficult. But effective managersin a memo or report, then discuss them. doing it himself. The stakes were high: find ways to get that information. Some Other adjustments can be made ac- The engineers and technicians were all will draft a detailed memo covering keycordingto a bosss decision-making style. union members, the company worked aspects of their work and then send itSome bosses prefer to be involved in on a customer-contract basis, and the to their boss for approval. They thendecisions and problems as they arise. company had recently experienced a follow this up with a face-to-face dis-These are high-involvement managers serious strike. cussion in which they go over each itemwho like to keep their hands on the The manager worked closely with his in the memo. A discussion like this willpulse of the operation. Usually their boss, along with people in the schedul- often surface virtually all ofthe bosssneeds (and your own) are best satisfied ing department and the personnel of- expectations.if you touch base with them on an ad fice, to make sure that potential prob- Other effective managers will dealhoc basis. A boss who has a need to be lems were avoided. He also developed with an inexplicit boss by initiating aninvolved wili become involved one way an informal arrangement through which ongoing series of informal discussions98 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW
  7. 7. Managing Your Boss • BEST OF HBRabout "good management" and "our boss by finding indirect ways to get the Nor are many managers intentionallyobiectives," Still others find useful in- necessary information to him or her, dishonest with their bosses. But it is easyformation more indirectly through such as a management information sys- to shade the truth and play down issues.those who used to work for the boss and tem. Others see to it that potential prob- Current concems often become futurethrough the formai planning systems lems, whether in the form of good sur- surprise problems. Its almost impossiblein which the boss makes commitments prises or bad news, are communicated for bosses to work effectively if they can-to his or her own superior. Which ap- immediately. not rely on a fairly accurate readingproach you choose, of course, should Dependability and Honesty. Few from their subordinates. Because it un-depend on your understanding of your things are more disabling to a boss than dermines credibility, dishonesty is per-bosss style. a subordinate on whom he cannot de- haps the most troubling trait a subordi- Developing a workable set of mutual pend, whose work he cannot trust. Al- nate can have. Without a basic level ofexpectations also requires that you most no one is intentionally unde- trust, a boss feels compelled to checkcommunicate your own expectations to pendable, but many managers are all of a subordinates decisions, whichthe boss, find out if they are realistic, inadvertently so because of oversight or makes it difficult to delegate.and infiuence the boss to accept the uncertainty about the bosss priorities. Good Use of Time and Resources.ones that are important to you. Being A commitment to an optimistic deliv- Your boss is probably as limited in hisable to infiuence the boss to value your ery date may please a superior in the or her store of time, energy, and influ-expectations can be particularly im- short term but become a source of dis- ence as you are. Every request you makeportant if the boss is an overachiever. pleasure if not honored. Its difficult for of your boss uses up some of these re-Such a boss will often set unrealistically a boss to rely on a subordinate who re- sources, so its wise to draw on these re-high standards that need to be brought peatedly slips deadlines. As one presi- sources selectively. This may sound ob-into line with reality. dent (describing a subordinate) put it: vious, but many managers use up their A Flov« of Information. How much "Id rather he be more consistent even if bosss time (and some of their own cred-information a boss needs about what a he delivered fewer peak successes - at ibility) over relatively trivial issues.subordinate is doing will vary signifi- least I could rely on him." One vice president went to greatcantly depending on the bosss style, the lengths to get his boss to fire a meddle-situation he or she is in, and the confi- some secretary in another department.dence the boss has in the subordinate. Checklist for Managing His boss had to use considerable infiu-But it is not uncommon for a boss to ence to do it. Understandably, the headneed more information than the subor- Your Boss ofthe other department was not pleased.dinate would naturally supply or for the Make sure you understand your boss Later, when the vice president wantedsubordinate to think the boss knows and hisor her context, including: to tackle more important problems, hemore than he or she really does. Effec- • Coals and objectives ran into trouble. By using up blue chipstive managers recognize that they prob- • Pressures on a relatively trivial issue, he had madeably underestimate what their bosses it difficult for him and his boss to meet • Strengths, weaknesses, blind spotsneed to know and make sure they find more important goals.ways to keep them informed through Q Preferred work style No doubt, some subordinates will re-processes that fit their styles. Assess yourself and your needs, sent that on top of all their other duties, Managingthefiowof infonnation up- including: they also need to take time and energyward is particularly difficult if the boss Q Strengths and weaknesses to manage their relationships with theirdoes not like to hear about problems. Q Personal style bosses. Such managers fail to realize theAlthough many people would deny it, • Predisposition toward dependence importance of this activity and how itbosses often give off signals that they on authority figures can simplify their jobs by eliminatingwant to hear only good news. They show potentially severe problems. Effectivegreat displeasure-usually nonverbally- Develop and maintain managers recognize that this part of a relationship thatwhen someone tells them about a prob- their work is legitimate. Seeing them-lem. Ignoring individual achievement, • Fits both your needs and styles selves as ultimately responsible for whatthey may even evaluate more favorably • Is characterized by mutual they achieve in an organization, theysubordinates who do not bring prob- expectations know they need to establish and man-lems to them. Q Keeps your boss informed age relationships with everyone on Nevertheless, for the good of the or- • Is based on dependability whom they depend - and that includesganization, the boss, and the subordi- and honesty the boss. ^nate, a superior needs to hear about • Selectively uses your bosss timefailures as well as successes. Some sub- and resources Reprint RO5OIJordinates deai with a good-news-oniy To order, see pageJANUARY 2005 99