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# Correlational research

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### Correlational research

1. 1. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Reported by: Aileen Mae B. Romero Kristine C. Soltis
2. 2.  Researchers investigate possible relationships among variables without trying to influence those variables. I. The Nature of Correlational Research a. The major characteristic of correlational research is seeking out associations among variables. II. Purposes of Correlational Research a. Correlational studies are carried out either to help explain important human behaviors or to predict likely outcomes.
3. 3. b. If a relationship of sufficient magnitude between two variables, it becomes possible to predict a score on either variable if a score on the other variable is known. III. Complex Correlational techniques a. Multiple regressions b. The coefficient of multiple correlations (R) c. The value of a prediction equation d. When the criterion variable
4. 4. e. Factor analysis f. Path analysis IV. Basic Steps in Correlational Research a. Problem Selection b. Sample c. Instruments d. Design and Procedures e. Data Collection f. Data Analysis and Interpretation
5. 5. V. What do Correlation coefficients tell us? a. The meaning of a given correlation coefficient depends on how it is applied. VI. Threats to internal validity in Correlational Research a. Subject Characteristics b. Location c. Instrumentation d. Data-collector Characteristics
6. 6. e. Data-collector Bias f. Testing g. Mortality VII. Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Studies a. Ask: What are the specific factors that are known to affect one of the variables being correlated or which logically would affect it? b. Ask: What is the likelihood of each of these factors also affecting the other variable being correlated with the first?
7. 7. c. Evaluate the various threats. VIII. An Example of Correlational Research Chapter Objectives Reading this chapter should enable students to:  Describe briefly what is meant by association research;  State the two major purposes of correlational studies;  Distinguish between predictor and criterion variables;
8. 8.  Explain the role of correlational studies in exploring causation;  Explain how a scatterplot can be used to predict an outcome;  Describe what is meant by a prediction equation;  Explain briefly the main ideas underlying multiple correlation, factors analysis, and path analysis;  Identify and describe briefly the steps involved in conducting a correlational study;
9. 9.  Interpret correlation coefficients of the different magnitude;  Explain the rationale underlying partial correlation;  Describe some of the threats to internal validity that exist in correlation studies, and explain how to identify them;  Discuss how to control for these threats;  Recognize a correlational study when they come across one in the educational research literature. Points to Stress Teaching Suggestion and Class Activities
10. 10. The End !  The End ! 