“The specification of the flow or sequence of operations and processesto be followed in producing a particular manufacturing lot”- Alfred andbetty. Routing determines what work will be done on a product or part aswell as where and how it will be done.
The machines are to be operated at full capacityThe product passes through those work centers whichare manned by best possible for people the route should be short and economical.The person in charge should be well acquainted withvarious operations.
“The determination of the time that should be requiredto perform each operation and also the time necessaryto perform the entire series are noted makingallowance for all person concerned.”-kimball andKimball.Production scheduling is the detailed planning ofmaterials, labour and machines time so that materialsand parts will be at the right time so that a job can becomplete within the time planned and in accordancewith the requirements.
Preparation of individual job schedule.Assign “start” and “finish” dates to each of theoperation on the job schedule.Post each schedule into the load chart.Setting delivery date for an item.
REDUCING SCHEDULINGPROBLEMS Production simplification Job enlargement programme Sub-contracting Relocation of resources to suit work content Minimization of rush orders. Creating controlled work in process. Reducing job split ups Simplifying available resources
Despatching is the routine of settingproductive activities in motion throughthe release of orders and instructions, inaccordance with previously plannedtime and sequences, embodied in routesheets and scheduled charts
PRINCIPLE FUNCTIONS OFDESPATCHINGDespatches assign work to definite machines orwork places and men in order of priority and propersequence.Assignment of authority.Release of necessary orders and production forms.The responsibility of guiding and controllingmaterials and operations in processing.Contacting the routing and scheduling sections.
o simple ruleo earliest due dateo first come first reservedo Minimum slacko Critical
THE CONCEPT PLANNING: consideration of all input variables to achievepredetermined output goals; a pre-production activity to determineoptimal production schedule, operation sequence, economic batchquantity, etc. CONTROL: remedial action to prevent variance of output fromplanned levels; tracking operations to ensure compliance withplanned levels
PRODUCTION PLANNING STAGES Defining objectives Setting priorities to attain objectives Examining internal & external environments of planned system Determining achievable targets Determining inputs needed to achieve targets
OBJECTIVES of PPC• Effectiveness: goods to fulfill customer’s needs• Maximizing output: maximum output with minimum input• Quality control: Product/service quality meets planned quality specifications• Minimize the time: conversion of RM to FG in minimum time• Capacity: plan for current & future needs• Reduce bottlenecks: solve production problems early• Maximize profit: minimize cost• Production schedules: as per plan• Routes & schedules: to optimize use of men, material & machinery• Maintain performance: maintain standards
FUNCTIONS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING Product selection & design Process selection & planning Facility location Facility layout & materials handling Capacity planning Systems & procedures Estimating quantity/costs of production, men Routing operation sequence Job scheduling & loading
SCOPE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL Material: RM, components, spares, right quantity, right time Methods Machines & equipments Manpower Routing Estimating Loading & scheduling
Planning: Pre-planning – product planning & development; demandforecasting; resource planning; facilities planning; plant location & layout. Active planning – quantity planning; product mix; routing; scheduling;material planning; process planning; capacity planning; tool planning.Action phase: execution – dispatching; progress functionControl phase; status reporting; material control; tool control;inventory control; quality control; labour output control; cost control
BENEFITS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL• Better resource utilization• Reduced inventory• Reduced manufacturing cycle time• Higher quality and lower production cost• Faster delivery and better customer service• Lower capital investment• Improved sales turnover• Improved market share and profitability• Competitive advantage• Flexibility• Dependability• Lower prices
LIMITATIONS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL Based on assumptions Resistance to change Time consuming Difficult due to rapid environment changes
REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL Sound organizational structure Delegation of authority Reliable, up-to-date feedback Standardization Trained people Flexibility to adapt Appropriate management policies Accurate assessment of manufacturing/procurement lead times Adequate plant capacity