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Cosonants 1 lecture 3


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Cosonants 1 lecture 3

  1. 1. SPEECH ARTICULATION Consonants
  2. 2. What we are trying to do? <ul><li>We are trying to characterize the inventory of sounds in a language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Systems We Have Looked At <ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Phonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Sounds </li></ul>
  4. 4. Speech sounds can be divided into three main types: <ul><li>Stops (or plosives) and affricates </li></ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels and approximants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symbols <ul><li>We assign symbols to these sounds; in addition, we want to characterize them as best we can articulatorily and acoustically. </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds can be divided into two major groups, consonants and vowels; or set along a continuum known as the sonority hierarchy: </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sonority hierarchy <ul><li>Vowels </li></ul><ul><li>Glides </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. We will first focus on stops and fricatives which are classified according to <ul><li>The place in which they are articulated </li></ul><ul><li>Whether they are voiced or not (vibration of vocal folds) </li></ul><ul><li>Whether they are oral or nasal (for stops only) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Places of articulation <ul><li>1. Bilabial </li></ul><ul><li>2. Labio-dental </li></ul><ul><li>3. Interdental </li></ul><ul><li>Dental </li></ul><ul><li>4. Alveolar ridge </li></ul><ul><li>5. Post-alveolar </li></ul><ul><li>6. Palatal </li></ul><ul><li>7. Velar </li></ul><ul><li>8. Glottal </li></ul><ul><li>9. Uvula </li></ul>9
  9. 9. Voicing: A consonant may be <ul><li>Voiced (lenis) </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceless (fortis) </li></ul>
  10. 10. A stop is composed of three phases <ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Hold (the passage of air from the lungs is blocked) </li></ul><ul><li>Release – the difference in air pressure between the area behind the closure and the atmosphere results in a small explosion </li></ul>
  11. 11. The place of articulation is where the passage of air is blocked <ul><li>For example /t/ and /d/ are both produced by blocking the passage of air at the alveolar ridge/dental region </li></ul>
  12. 12. English oral stops <ul><li>/p/ and /b/ are voiceless and voiced bilabials i.e. produced with both lips </li></ul><ul><li>/t/ and /d/ are voiceless and voiced alveolars </li></ul><ul><li>/k/ and /g/ are voiceless and voiced velars </li></ul>
  13. 13. What consonant pair is this?
  14. 14. That’s right! /p/, /b/
  15. 15. And this?
  16. 16. /k/, /g/
  17. 17. What is the difference between these two slides?
  18. 18. In the first (/b/, /p/) the passage of air to the nose is blocked by the raised velum, in the second this passage is open, giving us a nasal. What consonant is it?
  19. 19. It’s /m/
  20. 20. Let’s look at other positions – in the alveolar position we have /t/ and /d/, and the nasal /n/ :
  21. 21. In a similar way at the velum we have /k/ and /g/, and the nasal /  /:
  22. 22. Fricatives <ul><li>Are created by forming a constriction through which air from the lungs may pass, but not freely. </li></ul><ul><li>This lack of freedom causes audible turbulence, or friction, hence the name fricative. </li></ul><ul><li>As for stops they may be voiceless or voiced . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Let’s look at a fricative pair which causes non-native speakers of English a lot of trouble  and /  / :
  24. 24. Air passes through a small gap between the tongue and the upper teeth causing a low friction sound:
  25. 25. In the alveolar fricatives /s/ and /z/, the friction noise is quite loud, as air hits the upper teeth causing a hiss.
  26. 26. What fricative pair is represented here?
  27. 27. That’s right - /f/,and /v/
  28. 28. And here?
  29. 29. This is the post-alveolar pair /  / and /  /. Note that a small shift of the tongue from the /s/, /z/ position directs the flow of air onto the alveolar ridge.
  30. 30. Affricates These may be considered as stop + fricative
  31. 31. An affricate is composed of the following stages <ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Hold </li></ul><ul><li>A small opening instead of the complete opening of the stop. </li></ul><ul><li>This small opening causes friction just like a fricative </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The place of articulation is always the same for both stages </li></ul><ul><li>Affricates are always either voiced or unvoiced </li></ul>
  33. 33. In English we have two affricates: <ul><li>/  / church and /  / George </li></ul><ul><li>Both are realised in the post-alveolar position </li></ul>
  34. 34. Here are the two main phases. 1. Hold
  35. 35. 2. Release with constriction
  36. 36. Here is the IPA consonant chart White represents standard British English consonants, light blue possible allophones, and dark blue exotic consonants