Nonverbal communication


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Nonverbal communication

  1. 1. Nonverbal Communication: Codes of communication consisting of symbols that are not words, including non word vocalizations. Comparing Verbal & Nonverbal Communication Similarities Both are symbolic Both are rule-guided Can be intentional or unintentional Are cultural-bound Differences NV communication is "more believable" Nonverbal can be multi-channeled Nonverbal is continuous 4 Principles of Nonverbal Communication supplements or replaces verbal communication regulates interaction establishes relationship-level meanings (responsiveness, liking, power) reflects & expresses cultural value Types of Nonverbal Communication Kinesics - body position & motion Haptics - touch Physical appearance Artifacts - personal objects Environmental factors Proxemics - use of space Chronemics - time Paralanguage - how we speak Silence
  2. 2. Give me an example of... Emblems Illustrators Affect Displays Regulators Adaptors Facial Commnication Management Techniques Intensifying Deintensifying Neutralizing Masking Eye Communication Functions o Monitor Feedback o Maintain Interest and Attention o Regulate the Conversation o Signal the Nature of the Relationship o Compensate for Physical Distance Touch Many meanings Touch more in intermediate stages than in initial or established relationships Facilitates self-disclosure Playfulness Power and Control Ritualistic (shake hands, etc.) Task-related o interesting -- more touch, more tips Touch Avoidance Avoidance & Communication Apprehension Low self-disclosers tend to avoid touch
  3. 3. Gender Issues With Touch Men avoid touching other men; Women are less likely to avoid same-sex touch Women have higher avoidance of opposite-sex touch. As we age we avoid opposite sex touch Women initiate opposite sex touch more often than men. Especially in married relationships. Opposite sex friends touch more than same-sex friends. Cultural Issues Muslim children are not to touch the opposite sex. Korean�s avoid touch in public (store owner) Japanese students touch 1/2 less than American students. Smell Communication Attraction Messages Taste Messages Memory Messages Identification Messages Use of Space Spatial Messages Personal Space Space that surrounds a person in which they are made comfortable or uncomfortable. It is a personal bubble of space that moves with you. o Halls Distances  Intimate distance: 0-18 inches  Personal Distance: 18-48 inches  Social Distance: 4-12 feet  Public Distance: beyond 12 feet Territoriality
  4. 4. o o our need to establish and maintain certain spaces as our own. (nonverbal indicators that signal ownership) In a dorm room- items on the common desk mark territory. Personal Space Theories Protection Theory o you establish a protective body buffer zone Equilibrium Theory o intimacy and distance vary together Expectancy Violations Theory o explains what happens when you < or > distance. Territoriality and Types Primary o areas you call your own (your room, desk, office) Secondary o do not belong to you, but you occupy and are associated with (a regular parking spot at work, a table you sit at) Public o open to all people (movie theater seat) Territoriality and Ownership Signals Ownership Home Field Advantage (get raise, win argument in your space!) Markers o Central Markers -- items placed somewhere your drink at the table o Boundary Markers -- show the division like bar placed in check-out lane o Ear markers -- "branding" like a name tag, initials on shirt or briefcase Territoriality and Status Who has the right to invade territory? Who has more? Who has what? Male and Female Tendencies
  5. 5. Women exhibit less discomfort with small space and tend to interact at closer range. Men have higher territorial needs, especially where it�s short in supply. Women and children seem to desire more relational closeness than do men Space and Children As children grow older their perceptions of crowding will increase. Personal space requirements grow with age, and that once that personal space is invaded we consider the perception of crowding. Overcrowding Personal Space As our personal space gets smaller, our perception of feeling comfortable becomes minimized. Tension builds up and conflict arises Sometimes personal items become a factor and an uneasiness of security of personal items sets in. Personal Space Europeans: Don�t need as much personal space. French: Emphasis on outside and public space Arabians: Like to have high ceilings, out of normal line of vision, and an unobstructed view. Asians: Place higher focus on functional space. Differences in Gender Theory: generally, females use more nonverbal gestures than males in order to express themselves and give feedback Artifactual Communication Space Decoration o What you have and where Study of beautiful, average and ugly rooms Color Communication Clothing and Body Adornment
  6. 6. o o Formaly dressed professor = prepared, knowledgeable and organized Informally dressed = friendly, fair, enthusiastic and flexible Temporal Communication Cultural Time Technical Time = precise, scientific time Formal Time = manner in which a culture defines time. Informal time = forever, right away, soon, etc. Time... Displaced time o views time exactly. Diffused time orientation o approximate rather than exact. Time is Cultural, for example: o Japan -- clocks were exact and fastest walkers o England, Italy, Taiwan and US in between o Indonesian -- slowest walkers and least exact. Monochronic and Polychronic Monochronic o Does one thing at a time. o Time is very serious! o Job tends to be more important than family even. o Privacy is extremely important.  Seldom borrows or lends  Works independentl Polychronic o Does several things at a time. o Time is important but not sacred. o Family and interpersonal relationships are more important than work. o Actively involved with others. Cultures... Monochronic o United States, Germany, Scandinavia and Switzerland. Polychronic
  7. 7. o Latin Americans, Mediterranean people, Arabians. Psychological Time Importance placed on the past, present or future. Past Orientation -- reverence to the past�good ole� days Present Orientation -- Live in the present for the present. o less $$ -- tend to be happy with what they have. Future Orientation -- Focus on future o more $$ -- tend to look down on other orientations as lazy, unmotivated. Time and Status... More Status you have, the more freedom you have! o Dinner� Less status eat sooner More status wait... 2 Guidelines for Improvement of Your Nonverbal Communication Skills! 1. monitor your nonverbal communication 2. be tentative interpreting others� nonverbal communication More Tips on Improving Nonverbal Communication: Self-awareness o being aware of the ways in which you communicate, and realizing different people have different ways of using nonverbal comm.  monitor behavior, take note of your posture, movements, and objects  ask friends for feedback  videotape yourself in a conversation or speech Expand your repertoire of nonverbal activities o by expanding your own vocabulary for sending messages, you will expand your ability to decode the messages of others Remember that good communication focuses on the receiver of the message
  8. 8. You can send appropriate signals to amplify or intensify your verbal messages Introduction: Proxemics is what brings us together, today. The term ``proxemics'' was coined by researcher Edward Hall during the 1950's and 1960's and has to do with the study of our use of space and how various differences in that use can make us feel more relaxed or anxious. I. Proxemics comes in two flavors, A. physical territory, such as why desks face the front of a classroom rather than towards a center isle, and B. personal territory that we carry with us, the "bubble" of space that you keep between yourself and the person ahead of you in a line. II. I plan to examine two aspects of proxemics and the important role they can play in our interpersonal communication. These two areas are the use ofcolor in our environment, and how cultural differences in the use of personal territory can make us feel discomfort. Body: I. Let's begin with colors. As we briefly discussed in class, colors can have a major impact on our comfort level in a given situation. A. You would not, for instance, take a business client out to lunch atMcDonalds, due at least in part to the bright reds and yellows used in their color scheme. These colors cause people anxiety and cause them to rather rush in, consume their food, and rush back out, than stay and chat. B. You would be more likely to take that client to Denny's with its muted color scheme, or better yet to Marie Callender's where you can relax in a homey pastel colored environment. C. Furthermore, studies have shown that bright colors are disturbing not only to restaurant patrons, but also to their employees. Restaurants with brightly colored interiors such as Taco Bell and McDonalds have the highest employee turnover in the food service industry.
  9. 9. II. Another important aspect of proxemics is the use of Personal territory. Let me briefly outline the four areas of personal territory; public, social, personal, and intimate, that we Americans intuitively respect and use. A. Public space ranges from 12 to 25 feet and is the distance maintained between the audience and a speaker such as the President. B. Social space ranges from 4 to 10 feet and is used for communication among business associates, as well as to separate strangers using public areas such as beaches and bus stops. C. Personal space ranges from 2 to 4 feet and is used among friends and family members, and to separate people waiting in lines at teller machines for example. D. Finally, intimate space ranges out to one foot and involves a high probability of touching. We reserve it for whispering and embracing. III. Personal territories, however, can vary both culturally and ethnically. A. Take Saudi Arabia for example, you might find yourself almost nose to nose with a business associate because their social space equates to our intimate space. You would probably find yourself backing away trying to regain your social space while your associate persues you across the floor trying to maintain his. Finally, you would come away from the encounter thinking he was "pushy", and he thinking you were "standoff-ish." B. If, on the other hand, you were visiting a friend in the Netherlands, you would find the roles reversed, you would be doing the chasing because their personal space equates to our social space. C. As a final example, let me examine our use of public transportation. We Americans tend to pull in our elbows and knees and try not to touch or even look at one another while riding the bus. In Japan, a country with a population half the size of the United States cramed into an area half the size of California, subway passengers are literally pushed into the cars until not even one more person will fit. You cannot help but be pressed against someone else's sweaty body. Conclusion: As you can see by the examples I have given, cultural differences and the use of color in our physical environment can have a great impact upon our interactions with others. But these are only two of more than twenty major aspects of proxemics such as eye-contact, facial expression, smells, body warmth, gender, number of people involved, subject matter, and goals of the communication, for which we continuously and automatically adjust our use of space. In conclusion, it
  10. 10. is my hope that I have made you more aware of the ways in which proxemics can affect the success of our interpersonal communication. VISIBLE CODE KEY ASPECTS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Gesture Gesture is one of the main component of the visible code of Non verbal communication. Gesture is the communication made with some part of human body knowingly or unknowingly. People all over the world knowingly or unknowingly express their emotions, feeling and thoughts through various gestures. Shrugging of shoulders, Nodding of head, flourishing of hands all these are various gestures which represent various thoughts and feelings. Sometimes speech is very well coordinated by gestures. This adds a new flavor to the speech and increases the influence of the speaker greatly.Left sided gestures may indicate negative affect while right sided gestures indicate positive affect,and this depends on whether a person is right or left handed. Body language or posture Body Language forms part of the category of paralanguage in which communication is done using body movements or gestures. It is mostly used to determine a participant’s attention or interest in the discussion.Direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, and body openness are the various posture characteristics which tell about the persons attentiveness to the speech. This body language gestures can be both voluntary as well as involuntary. Winking and slight movement of the eyebrows can be involuntary sometimes while general body movements are voluntary. Facial expression Facial expressions are a primary means of conveying information of social
  11. 11. importance among humans. Actually emotions are intrinsic part of facial expressions. Our face is most expressive part. As expressions are closely tied to emotion, they are more often involuntary.For example- A Smile, a frown ,raising eyebrows can add to the meaning conveyed through verbal means. It is very tough to control these expressions and mostly the hurting one.No matter how much a person tries,their is always a bit of expression on face after any event related to him/her. Studies have shown depression decreases when one smiles more often. Eye contact Eye Contact is an event when two people look at each others eyes at the same time.Eye contact and facial expressions provide important social and emotional information.Different cultures adopt different eye contact perceptions .A good eye contact is a means of gaining feedback. Eye contact or gazing tells a lot of things about people. People which try to avert a eye contact shows that they are worried or scared of something whereas positive eye contact shows the confident and influential nature of communicator.An example of eye contact feature in communication can be- when a professor is giving a lecture, a student may communicate disinterest by looking away outside instead of listening to the professor's lecture. Clothing, hairstyles or even architecture Research shows that the clothing that a person wears, hairstyle he adopts or even the physique he has, all these thing send non verbal messages to others. It is quite fascinating to see that the people which are taller are more impressive mostly according to our psychology. Even our dressing sense tells lot of things about us. Our behavior, interests all are reflected by our clothing. Color choices tells us about our mood at a given instant. Touch Touch can be positive (e.g. patting) or negative (e.g. beating). Touch can be a handshake, hug, pat, brushing, kissing or even high fives. Different civilizations and cultures have different meanings to touch. For example- Kissing on hand or cheek is quite common in European countries as well as American countries but
  12. 12. you will find it a odd practice in Asian countries. Mostly the main aim of this kind of positive touches is confidence and moral building and are mostly seen as psychological boosters. Time perceptions Time perceptions include punctuality, the speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen. Their are various kind of perceptions of time in different parts of the worlds. Some societies give more influence on doing one thing at a time but doing it precisely whereas their are some counter thoughts that one can do various works at single instance of time without impacting preciseness. So the way the persons gives importance to time is really important to figure out his behavior in social world and can be used as a advantage by others to start a successful communication. I think this discussion on the various key features of Non verbal communication will be quite useful in changing the style of our day to day communication. Surely people would be able to express their thoughts, ideas, feelings and emotions in a better way after reading this article. Paralinguistic Communication Mark Allen Peterson Paralanguage refers to verbal communications that have meaning but are not part of the system of words and grammatical rules we call language. Paralanguage includes such elements as pitch, amplitude, rate, and voice quality. Laughter, imitatitive speech, and prosody are also forms of paralanguage. Paralanguage emphasizes the fact that people convey meaning not only in what they say, but also in how they say it. Paralinguistics is a crucial component in all human communication. In any verbal interaction, we employ sets of culturally constituted codes to make a series of inferential judgments that interpret what is being said. These interpretations occur at several levels, including linguistic and paralinguistic, as well as kinesic, musical, interactional and others. Paralinguistic communication often operates as a metamessage to alert communicants as to how to interpret a message. For example, in American English, a simple change in tone and stress can determine whether a linguistic ...