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  1. 1. APURUPA AMITY UNIVERSITY INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS MODULE 1 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and basically represents a democratic way of life in industry. It is the process of negotiation between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually agreeable conditions of employment. It is a technique adopted by two parties to reach an understanding acceptable to both through the process of discussion and negotiation. ILO has defined collective bargaining as, negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer and a group of employees or one or more employee, organization with a view to reaching an agreement wherein the terms serve as a code of defining the rights and obligations of each party in their employment/industrial relations with one another. Collective bargaining involves discussions and negotiations between two groups as to the terms and conditions of employment. It is called ‘collective’ because both the employer and the employee act as a group rather than as individuals. It is known as ‘bargaining’ because the method of reaching an agreement involves proposals and counter proposals, offers and counter offers and other negotiations. Thus collective bargaining: is a collective process in which representatives of both the management and employees participate. is a continuous process which aims at establishing stable relationships between the parties involved. not only involves the bargaining agreement, but also involves the implementation of such an agreement. attempts in achieving discipline in the industry is a flexible approach, as the parties involved have to adopt a flexible attitude towards negotiations. For effective collective bargaining, the union
  2. 2. 1. Must be recognized by the employer 2. Must have financial strength 3. Members must have solidarity Registration gives the union the legal right to exist but recognition means employer accepts the union as the rightful representative of his workers. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS – 3 PHASES 1. PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION Monitoring the environment and collecting information Analyzing market practice & industry norms Analyzing the union proposals Determining management’s position Selecting the bargaining team Securing top management approval PHASE 2. FACE-TO-FACE BARGAINING Negotiating with the union Bargaining strategies Signing of the collective agreement PHASE 3. ADMINISTRATIVE OF COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT Briefing of all management staff Adjusting compensation & policies Ensuring compliance from management & union. PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION  Monitoring the environment & collecting information. Know the employment laws Know the court awards Study the current collective agreement Collective agreements of other organizations Documentation of experiences in administration of the agreement Analyzing market practices & industry norms
  3. 3. Understand the economic indicators Learn the practices in other organizations in the industry & surrounding geographical area (includes salary & benefits survey) Analyzing the union proposals Compare it with existing CA Various clauses should be analyzed in detail Determining Management Position Evaluate the union demands & determine what are the realistic clauses Work out the costing of each demands of the union Where increments are concerned, IC Award 117/82 – CPI may be used as a guide to what is reasonable Selecting the bargaining team Should CEO be in the bargaining team? Why & why not? Management team = 3-4 negotiator with a chief negotiator What are the criteria for selection? Securing top management approval Once the management negotiating team has been appointed, they should meet out the goals & strategy for the team Top management should approve the overall bargaining goals or give a mandate to the bargaining team, so that they have a guide to what they can & cannot offer FACE-TO-FACE BARGAINING Negotiating with the union What are the do’s & don’ts of bargaining? How to avoid deadlock? Signing of CA – 10 copies to Industrial Court for cognizance within 1 month of the agreement NEGOTIATION SKILLS Negotiation occurs when conflict exists between groups and both parties are prepared to seek a resolution through bargaining. Negotiation helps to develop mutually beneficial solutions in situation of conflict.
  4. 4. Do you consider yourself a negotiator? What is your strength & weaknesses as a negotiator? Find out the your partner’s negotiation strengths & weaknesses NEGOTIATION – SELF ASSESSMENT Increase Your Self-Awareness: Assess Your Self-Esteem Assess Your Locus of Control Assess Your Negotiation Skills FUNDAMENTALS OF NEGOTIATION 8 Pillars of Negotiation Wisdom 1. Be conscious of the difference 2. Be creative relationship 3. Be fair 4. Be prepared to commit 5. Be an active listener between positions and 6. Be conscious of the interests importance of the 7. Be aware of the BATNAs 8. Enhancing negotiations skills WORKERS PARTICIPATION IN MANAEMENT Workers’ participation in management is an essential ingredient of Industrial democracy. The concept of workers’ participation in management is based on Human Relations approach to Management which brought about a new set of values to labour and management. Traditionally the concept of Workers’ Participation in Management (WPM) refers to participation of non-managerial employees in the decision-making process of the organization. Workers’ participation is also known as ‘labour participation’ or ‘employee participation’ in management. In Germany it is known as co-determination while in Yugoslavia it is known as
  5. 5. self-management. The International Labour Organization has been encouraging member nations to promote the scheme of Workers’ Participation in Management. Workers’ participation in management implies mental and emotional involvement of workers in the management of Enterprise. It is considered as a mechanism where workers have a say in the decision-making. Definition: According to Keith Davis, Participation refers to the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share the responsibility of achievement. According to Walpole, Participation in Management gives the worker a sense of importance, pride and accomplishment; it gives him the freedom of opportunity for self-expression; a feeling of belongingness with the place of work and a sense of workmanship and creativity. The concept of workers’ participation in management encompasses the following: It provides scope for employees in decision-making of the organization. The participation may be at the shop level, departmental level or at the top level. The participation includes the willingness to share the responsibility of the organization by the workers. Features of WPM: 1. 2. Participation means mental and emotional involvement rather than mere physical presence. Workers participate in management not as individuals but collectively as a group through their representatives. 3. Workers’ participation in management may be formal or informal. In both the cases it is a system of communication and consultation whereby employees express their opinions and contribute to managerial decisions. 4. a. There can be 5 levels of Management Participation or WPM: Information participation: It ensures that employees are able to receive information and express their views pertaining to the matter of general economic importance. b. Consultative importance: Here workers are consulted on the matters of employee welfare such as work, safety and health. However, final decision always rests with the top-level management, as employees’ views are only advisory in nature. c. Associative participation: It is an extension of consultative participation as management here is under the moral obligation to accept and implement the unanimous decisions of the employees. Under this method the managers and workers jointly take decisions. d. Administrative participation: It ensures greater share of workers’ participation in discharge of managerial functions. Here, decisions already taken by the management come to employees,
  6. 6. preferably with alternatives for administration and employees have to select the best from those for implementation. e. Decisive participation: Highest level of participation where decisions are jointly taken on the matters relating to production, welfare etc. Objectives of WPM: 1. 2. 3. 4. To establish Industrial Democracy. To build the most dynamic Human Resources. To satisfy the workers’ social and esteem needs. To strengthen labour-management co-operation and thus maintain Industrial peace and harmony. 5. To promote increased productivity for the advantage of the organization, workers and the society at large. 6. Its psychological objective is to secure full recognition of the workers. Strategies / Methods / Schemes / Forms of WPM: 1. 2. Suggestion schemes: Participation of workers can take place through suggestion scheme. Under this method workers are invited and encouraged to offer suggestions for improving the working of the enterprise. A suggestion box is installed and any worker can write his suggestions and drop them in the box. Periodically all the suggestions are scrutinized by the suggestion committee or suggestion screening committee. The committee is constituted by equal representation from the management and the workers. The committee screens various suggestions received from the workers. Good suggestions are accepted for implementation and suitable awards are given to the concerned workers. Suggestion schemes encourage workers’ interest in the functioning of an enterprise. Works committee: Under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, every establishment employing 100 or more workers is required to constitute a works committee. Such a committee consists of equal number of representatives from the employer and the employees. The main purpose of this committee is to provide measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and the employees. Functions: Works committee deals with matters of day-to-day functioning at the shop floor level. Works committees are concerned with: Conditions of work such as ventilation, lighting and sanitation. Amenities such as drinking water, canteens, dining rooms, medical and health services. Educational and recreational activities. Safety measures, accident prevention mechanisms etc. Works committees function actively in some organizations like Tata Steel, HLL, etc but the progress of Works Committees in many organizations has not been very satisfactory due to the following reasons:
  7. 7. Lack of competence and interest on the part of workers’ representatives. Employees consider it below their dignity and status to sit alongside blue-collar workers. Lack of feedback on performance of Works Committee. Undue delay and problems in implementation due to advisory nature of recommendations. 3. Joint Management Councils: Under this system Joint Management Councils are constituted at the plant level. These councils were setup as early as 1958. These councils consist of equal number of representatives of the employers and employees, not exceeding 12 at the plant level. The plant should employ at least500 workers. The council discusses various matters relating to the working of the industry. This council is entrusted with the responsibility of administering welfare measures, supervision of safety and health schemes, scheduling of working hours, rewards for suggestions etc. Wages, bonus, personal problems of the workers are outside the scope of Joint management councils. The council is to take up issues related to accident prevention, management of canteens, water, meals, revision of work rules, absenteeism, indiscipline etc. the performance of Joint Management Councils have not been satisfactory due to the following reasons:  Workers’ representatives feel dissatisfied as the council’s functions are concerned with only the welfare activities.  Trade unions fear that these councils will weaken their strength as workers come under the direct influence of these councils. 4. Work directors: Under this method, one or two representatives of workers are nominated or elected to the Board of Directors. This is the full-fledged and highest form of workers’ participation in management. The basic idea behind this method is that the representation of workers at the top-level would usher Industrial Democracy, congenial employee-employer relations and safeguard the workers’ interests. The Government of India introduced this scheme in several public sector enterprises such as Hindustan Antibiotics, Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd etc. However the scheme of appointment of such a director from among the employees failed miserably and the scheme was subsequently dropped. 5. Co-partnership: Co-partnership involves employees’ participation in the share capital of a company in which they are employed. By virtue of their being shareholders, they have the right to participate in the management of the company. Shares of the company can be acquired by workers making cash payment or by way of stock options scheme. The basic objective of stock options is not to pass on control in the hands of employees but providing better financial incentives for industrial productivity. But in developed countries, WPM through co-partnership is limited. 6. Joint Councils: The joint councils are constituted for the whole unit, in every Industrial Unit employing 500 or more workers, there should be a Joint Council for the whole unit. Only such persons who are actually engaged in the unit shall be the members of Joint Council. A joint
  8. 8. council shall meet at least once in a quarter. The chief executive of the unit shall be the chairperson of the joint council. The vice-chairman of the joint council will be nominated by the worker members of the council. The decisions of the Joint Council shall be based on the consensus and not on the basis of voting. In 1977 the above scheme was extended to the PSUs like commercial and service sector organizations employing 100 or more persons. The organizations include hotels, hospitals, railway and road transport, post and telegraph offices, state electricity boards. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shop councils: Government of India on the 30th of October 1975 announced a new scheme in WPM. In every Industrial establishment employing 500 or more workmen, the employer shall constitute a shop council. Shop council represents each department or a shop in a unit. Each shop council consists of an equal number of representatives from both employer and employees. The employers’ representatives will be nominated by the management and must consist of persons within the establishment. The workers’ representatives will be from among the workers of the department or shop concerned. The total number of employees may not exceed 12. Functions of Shop Councils: Assist management in achieving monthly production targets. Improve production and efficiency, including elimination of wastage of man power. Study absenteeism in the shop or department and recommend steps to reduce it. Suggest health, safety and welfare measures to be adopted for smooth functioning of staff. Look after physical conditions of working such as lighting, ventilation, noise and dust. Ensure proper flow of adequate two way communication between management and workers. Workers’ Participation in Management in India Workers’ participation in Management in India was given importance only after Independence. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 was the first step in this direction, which recommended for the setting up of works committees. The joint management councils were established in 1950 which increased the labour participation in management. Since July 1975 the two-tier participation called shop councils at shop level and Joint councils were introduced. Workers’ participation in Management Bill, 1990 was introduced in Parliament which provided scope for upliftment of workers. Reasons for failure of Workers participation Movement in India: 1. Employers resist the participation of workers in decision-making. This is because they feel that workers are not competent enough to take decisions. 2. Workers’ representatives who participate in management have to perform the dual roles of workers’ spokesman and a co-manager. Very few representatives are competent enough to assume the two incompatible roles.
  9. 9. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Generally Trade Unions’ leaders who represent workers are also active members of various political parties. While participating in management they tend to give priority to political interests rather than the workers’ cause. Schemes of workers’ participation have been initiated and sponsored by the Government. However, there has been a lack of interest and initiative on the part of both the trade unions and employers. In India, labor laws regulate virtually all terms and conditions of employment at the workplace. Workers do not feel the urge to participate in management, having an innate feeling that they are born to serve and not to rule. The focus has always been on participation at the higher levels, lower levels have never been allowed to participate much in the decision-making in the organizations. The unwillingness of the employer to share powers with the workers’ representatives, the disinterest of the workers and the perfunctory attitude of the government towards participation in management act as stumbling blocks in the way of promotion of participative management. Measures for making Participation effective: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Employer should adopt a progressive outlook. They should consider the industry as a joint endeavor in which workers have an equal say. Workers should be provided and enlightened about the benefits of their participation in the management. Employers and workers should agree on the objectives of the industry. They should recognize and respect the rights of each other. Workers and their representatives should be provided education and training in the philosophy and process of participative management. Workers should be made aware of the benefits of participative management. There should be effective communication between workers and management and effective consultation of workers by the management in decisions that have an impact on them. Participation should be a continuous process. To begin with, participation should start at the operating level of management. A mutual co-operation and commitment to participation must be developed by both management and labor. Modern scholars are of the mind that the old adage “a worker is a worker, a manager is a manager; never the twain shall meet” should be replaced by “managers and workers are partners in the progress of business” ILO CONVENTIONS The list of International Labour Organization Conventions totals 190 laws which aim to improve the labour standards of people around the world. There are eight fundamental Conventions (on prohibition of forced labour, child labour, the right to organise in a trade
  10. 10. union, and suffer no discrimination) which are binding upon every member country of the International Labour Organizationfrom the fact of membership, since the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work in 1998. The other Conventions are binding upon member countries whose legislatures have chosen to ratify them. Once ratified, because there is no international labour court as such, Conventions rely for their enforcement upon the jurisprudence of domestic courts. From the 190 Conventions in total, there are 8 fundamental Conventions, binding on every member regardless of ratification, and a further 71 Conventions that are up to date and in force. The subjects covered by the Conventions concern, first and in the most numerous group, individual rights at work, mainly on safety, wage standards, working time, or social security, and the rights to not be forced to work or work during childhood. Second are collective labour rights to participation in the workplace, particularly to join a trade union, collectively bargain and take strike action, as well as direct representation within the management of organizations. Third, there are a series of rights to equal treatment, that are referential to the terms and conditions of people in comparable situations, with special protections for indigenous communities and migrants. Fourth, a set of Conventions promote job security, through standards for dismissals, protection upon an employer's insolvency, regulation of employment agencies and requirements upon member states to promote full and fulfilling employment. Fifth, there are 6 Conventions which require administrative apparatus by governments to enforce and promote labour standards, such as through inspections, collecting statistics, developing training and consulting with unions and employers before passing legislation. Seafarers are the subject of 12 specific Conventions because of the frequently international nature of their work, and a further 6 Conventions relate to conditions in the fishing, plantation, hotels, nursing, home and domestic work, where employees may be particularly vulnerable. Convention No. Content Ratif Subject
  11. 11. Obligation for members to "completely suppress such forced or compulsory labour", with exceptions 177 for military, civil service, court orders, for emergencies and minor communal orders. 1. Servitude Freedom of Association and Protection of the C087 Right to Organise Convention, 1948 Protection against discrimination for joining a trade union and taking collective action. 152 2. Unions Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 C098 The right to collective bargaining with 163 an employer through a trade union. 2. Unions Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 C100 The right to equal pay, without any 171 discrimination on grounds of gender. 3. Equality C105 Positive obligation on member states to ensure that all forced labour is 174 abolished. 1. Servitude Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 C111 The right to not be discriminated against on grounds of "race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin", or other grounds determined by member states, in employment. 3. Equality Minimum Age Convention, 1973 C138 Forced Labour Convention, 1930 Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 C029 172 The requirement that people are at least 15, or a higher age determined 165 by member states, or 14 for member 1. Children
  12. 12. states whose education systems are developing, before working, and 18 years old before dangerous work. Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 C182 Duties upon member states to identify and take steps to prohibit the worst forms of child labour (slavery, 177 prostitution, drug trafficking and other dangerous jobs). Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 C014 119 1. Children 1. Working time Medical Examination of Young Persons C077 (Industry) Convention, 1946 1. Safety Medical Examination of Young Persons (NonC078 Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 1. Safety Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 C081 Also, Protocol of 1995 to the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 P081. 5. Administration Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention, C094 1949 62 1. Wages Protection of Wages Convention, 1949 97 1. Wages C095
  13. 13. Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 C097 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 C102 48 1. Social security Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) C106 Convention, 1957 63 1. Working time Plantations Convention, C110 1958 3. Migrants Also, Protocol of 1982 to the Plantations Convention, 1958, P110. Specific Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 C115 1. Safety Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 C118 3. Equality Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 C120 1. Safety Employment Injury Benefits Convention, 1964 C121 24 1. Social security
  14. 14. Employment Policy Convention, 1964 C122 Requirement to develop "coordinated economic and social policy"" for the aim of full employment. 107 Medical Examination of Young Persons C124 (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 4.Unemployment 1. Safety Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors' Benefits Convention, 1967 C128 Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 C129 5. Administration Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Convention, 1969 C130 1. Safety Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 C131 51 1. Wages Workers' Representatives Convention, 1971 C135 84 2.Representation Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 C139 16 1. Social security 1. Safety
  15. 15. Paid Educational Leave C140 Convention, 1974 34 1. Working time Rural Workers' Organisations Convention, 1975 C141 2. Unions Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 C142 5. Administration Migrant Workers (Supplementary C143 Provisions) Convention, 1975 3. Migrants Tripartite Consultation (International Labour C144 Standards) Convention, 1976 5. Administration Continuity of Employment (Seafarers) C145 Convention, 1976 Seafarers Seafarers' Annual Leave with Pay Convention, C146 1976 Seafarers Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 C147 Also, Protocol of 1996 to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976, P147. Seafarers
  16. 16. Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 C148 1. Safety Nursing Personnel Convention, 1977 C149 Specific Labour Administration Convention, 1978 C150 5. Administration Labour Relations (Public Service) Convention, C151 1978 48 2.Representation Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) C152 Convention, 1979 1. Safety Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981 2. Unions C154 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, C155 1981 Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 C157 1. Safety C156 Maintenance of Social Security Rights Also, Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981, P155. 3. Equality 4 1. Social security
  17. 17. Convention, 1982 Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 Requirement for employers to give a good reason before dismissing a worker. No conclusions on revision. C158 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983 C159 3. Equality Labour Statistics Convention, 1985 C160 5. Administration Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 C161 1. Safety Asbestos Convention, 1986 C162 1. Safety Seafarers' Welfare Convention, 1987 C163 Seafarers Health Protection and Medical Care C164 (Seafarers) Convention, 1987 Seafarers Social Security C165 (Seafarers) Convention Seafarers 36 4. Fair dismissal
  18. 18. (Revised), 1987 Repatriation of Seafarers Convention (Revised), 1987 C166 Seafarers Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 C167 1. Safety Employment Promotion and Protection against C168 Unemployment Convention, 1988 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 C169 8 The right of indigenous and tribal communities to participate in decision 22 making procedures. 4.Unemployment 3. Indigenous Chemicals Convention, C170 1990 1. Safety Night Work Convention, C171 1990 1. Safety Working Conditions (Hotels and Restaurants) Convention, 1991 C172 Specific Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's C173 21 4. Insolvency
  19. 19. Insolvency) Convention, 1992 Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention, 1993 C174 1. Safety Part-Time Work Convention, 1994 C175 3. Equality Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 C176 1. Safety Home Work Convention, 1996 C177 Specific Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, C178 1996 Seafarers Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers C179 Convention, 1996 Seafarers Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning C180 of Ships Convention, 1996 Seafarers Private Employment Agencies Convention, C181 27 4. Agencies
  20. 20. 1997 Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 C183 3. Equality Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, C184 2001 1. Safety Seafarers' Identity Documents Convention C185 (Revised), 2003 Seafarers Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 MLC Seafarers Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety C187 and Health Convention, 2006 1. Safety Work in Fishing Convention, 2007 C188 Specific Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 C189 Specific Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 C001 52 1. Working time
  21. 21. Unemployment Convention, 1919 C002 Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 C003 Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 C011 Workmen's Compensation (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 C012 Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 Positive obligation on member states to establish and maintain public employment agencies. C019 Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, C026 1928 4.Unemployment 34 1. Child care 2. Unions 77 1. Wages 3. Equality 104 1. Wages Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) C030 Convention, 1930 1. Working time Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 1. Safety C045
  22. 22. Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 C047 1. Working time Officers' Competency Certificates Convention, C053 1936 Seafarers Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1936 C058 Seafarers Right of Association (Non-Metropolitan C084 Territories) Convention, 1947 2. Unions Labour Inspectorates (Non-Metropolitan C085 Territories) Convention, 1947 5. Administration Employment Service Convention, 1948 C088 4.Unemployment Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 C089 1. Working time Accommodation of Crews Convention (Revised), 1949 C092 Seafarers
  23. 23. Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949 C096 4. Agencies Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) C099 Convention, 1951 53 1. Wages Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) C117 Convention, 1962 32 1. Social security Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 36 1. Working time C132 Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary C133 Provisions) Convention, 1970 Dock Work Convention, C137 1973 Seafarers Seafarers SOUND LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS THE IMPORTANCE AND OBJECTIVES OF SOUND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS A sound industrial relations system is not capable of precise definition. Every industrial relations system has to take into account, and reflect, cultural factors. Systems cannot change culture, but only behaviour within a cultural environment. As such, one can only describe some of the elements which have generally come to be recognized as contributing to a sound industrial relations system. These elements would constitute a sort of 'check-list'. A relatively sound industrial relations system will exhibit some of these elements.
  24. 24. A sound industrial relations system is one in which relationships between management and employees (and their representatives) on the one hand, and between them and the State on the other, are more harmonious and cooperative than conflictual and creates an environment conducive to economic efficiency and the motivation, productivity and development of the employee and generates employee loyalty and mutual trust. Industrial relations itself may again be described as being concerned with the rules, processes and mechanisms (and the results emanating therefrom) through which the relationship between employers and employees and their respective representatives, as well as between them on the one hand and the State and its agencies on the other, is regulated. Industrial relations seek to balance the economic efficiency of organizations with equity, justice and the development of the individual, to find ways of avoiding, minimizing and resolving disputes and conflict and to promote harmonious relations between and among the actors directly involved, and society as a whole. The rules, processes and mechanisms of an industrial relations system are found in sources such as laws (legislative, judicial, quasi-judicial), practices, customs, agreements and arrangements arrived at through a bipartite or tripartite process or through prescription by the State. (Have to check large topic) GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MACHINERY Not found INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AFTER GLOBALIZATION Dwnlded…. Check on dxttop mba 3rd sem