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13 genetic engineering bw


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13 genetic engineering bw

  1. 1. Genetic Engineering
  2. 2. - Archeological evidence shows that humans began cultivating plants and animals for food about 10,000 years ago- Specific organisms were bred to improve future generations- Simple form of applied genetics
  3. 3. CONTROLLED BREEDINGManipulates the characteristics of the offspring by selecting parents with specific phenotypic traits
  4. 4. Types of Controlled Breeding1. Selective Breeding Process of choosing a few individuals to serve as parents for next generation - Luther Burbank: Californian plant breeder (early 1900s) - responsible for 800 new plant varieties Ex: seedless grape Spineless cactus Burbank potato Daisies - Corn: bred for 7000 years - Small horses, dogs, cats: bred for different breeds
  5. 5. Types of Controlled Breeding2. Inbreeding Process of crossing individuals with similar characteristics so those characteristics appear in offspring - purpose: to maintain or intensify desireable traits - individuals closely related (same species) - more risk of passing recessive genetic defects ex: poodles: joint deformities maine coon cats: heart murmurs
  6. 6. Types of Controlled Breeding3. Hybridization Process of crossing individuals of different but related species - produces hybrids - hybrid vigor: offspring are hardier than parents (grow faster, larger, and are healthier) Ex: cattle - disease resistant corn – yield 10 times more than old varietiesbroccoflower liger zonkey leopon tangelo
  7. 7. Types of Controlled Breeding1. Induced Mutations (1927) Polyploidy: common in plants, deadly in animals - plants treated with chemicals to prevents cell plates - resulting cells have multiple sets of chromosomes - results in larger fruit and vegetables
  8. 8. • Techniques were forerunners modern genetic engineering• Today geneticists engineer changes directly into an organismsDNA
  9. 9. GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE SPLICING/GENE CLONING)• Process of direct gene manipulation• Goal: to introduce new characteristics into organisms to increase its usefulness• Basic steps of genetic engineering involve: 1. isolation of gene 2. manipulation of gene/cloning gene -PCR 3. reintroduction of DNA into model organisms animation: steps in cloning a gene
  10. 10. Genetic Engineering TechniquesI. Making Recombinant DNA1. Restriction enzymes cut DNA into fragments that can be isolated and separated - very specific proteins, recognizes and cuts DNA at specific sequence into pieces Ex: EcoRI – cuts DNA whenever C-T-T-A-A-G sequence occurs2. Production of recombinant DNA - DNA composed of fragments of DNA segments from at least two different organisms - restriction enzymes cut bacterial plasmids (extra circular DNA molecules in bacteria) - plasmids have “sticky ends” (unpaired bases) - original DNA is attached to plasmid sticky ends
  11. 11. Genetic Engineering Techniques3. reintroduction of DNA into bacterial vector - recombinant DNA taken up with bacterial DNA and now produced by bacterial cell - recombinant DNA is isolated and CLONED - PCR (polymerase chain reaction) induced - purpose: to make 1000s of recombinant plasmids PCR animation• DNA sequencing - Process of reading exact order of bases in fragment of DNA - makes it possible for scientists to make sure gene of interest has been cloned rDNA: animation
  12. 12. Genetic Engineering TechniquesII. Microinjection - Process of injecting genetic material containing the new gene into the recipient cell - direct gene transfer, no use of vectors - in large cells done with fine tipped glass needle - somehow injected genes find the host cell genes and incorporate themselves among them Ex: most common method of making genetically altered mice
  13. 13. Genetic Engineering TechniquesI. Bioballistics I. Electro and Chemical Poration - projectile methods that use metal slivers to deliver the - process that creates pores genetic material to the or holes in the cell interior of the cell. membrane to allow direct entry of new genes - small slivers coated with genetic material - done by bathing cells in solutions of special chemicals or weak electric - once in the cell, genetic current material is transported to nucleus where it is incorporated among the host genes
  14. 14. TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS /GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMO’s)• organisms that contain foreign genesTransgenesis The use of recombinant DNA techniques to introduce new characters (ie. genes) into organisms (including humans) that were not present previously.
  15. 15. Types GMO’sI. Bacteria-human DNA inserted in bacterial plasmid-recombinant produces large volumes of proteins Ex: human growth hormone (HGH), insulin
  16. 16. Types GMO’sII. Plants - 1986: Howell - inserted gene to producer enzyme luciferase (fireflies)into tobacco plant - enzyme in fireflies - only produces enzyme in conditions without light (gene expression) - cloned cells reproduced tobacco plant that glowed in the dark
  17. 17. Making Transgenic Crops Steps 2. extracting DNA 3. cloning a gene of interest 4. designing the gene for plant infiltration 5. transformation 6. plant breeding
  18. 18. Other Transgenic PlantsBT corn(bacillus thuringiensis)Soil bacterium that resistsinsecticidal toxins: makescorn resistant to pests andless need for pesticides
  19. 19. Other Transgenic Plants Calgene tomato “Flavr Savr” stays fresh longer because enzyme to break down pectin are reduced by genetic alteration
  20. 20. Types GMO’sIII. Animals
  21. 21. Transgenic sheep:human gene for milkproduction inserted intosheep and now producesproteins of human milk
  22. 22. Oncomice(cancer mice)Used in medicalresearch to find curesfor cancer
  23. 23. Other examples of transgenic animals:Transgenic chickens:- grow faster and larger in close quarters- produce more protein in their egg whites- produce human protein drugs in their eggs Transgenic pigs: - produced by fertilizing normal eggs with sperm cells that have incorporated foreign DNA - may someday be able to produce transgenic pigs that can serve as a source of transplanted organs for humans video
  24. 24. Cloning Animals1997 Wilmut (Scottish) - cloned sheep “Dolly” - process: nucleus of egg is replaced with nucleus of adult , resultant organism identical to adult - now companies are making cloning available to pet owners for their beloved pets who die - is this ethical? Genetic Savings and Clone
  25. 25. Ethics of GMOs and Cloning• Imagine cloning humans to make armies.• Could clones and GMOs be patented?• Are genetically modified livestock and agriculture harmful?• Would only perfect genetically engineered infants be desirable.
  26. 26. APPLICATIONS OF G.E.The first genetic fingerprint 1. DNA Fingerprinting 1984 (used in forensics) Process of identifying and distinguishing DNA of individuals - each person has unique repeat sequences and numbers of non coding introns - sample is taken and DNA is extracted - fragments of repeats of introns are labeled and put into a gel electrophoresis where they separate - create banding patterns whichElectrophoresis Animation Detail are unique for every human
  27. 27. APPLICATIONS OF G.E.- Once banding patterns are apparent they are transferred to a Southern Blot for identification Southern blot animation
  28. 28. Applications of Genetic Engineering DNA Fingerprinting
  29. 29. Applications of Genetic Engineering DNA Fingerprinting Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
  30. 30. Applications of Genetic Engineering DNA Fingerprinting
  31. 31. APPLICATIONS OF G.E. Microarray
  32. 32. APPLICATIONS OF G.E.• Gene therapy Creating transgenic humans to erase genetic diseases - recombinant DNA put directly into human cells or through virus vectors
  33. 33. APPLICATIONS OF G.E. 1. Pollution control - genetically altered bacteria used to decompose garbage sewage, and petroleum productsUnlike the left tower, which uses chemicals, the tower on theright at this wastewater-treatment plant now uses bacteria-covered foam blocks (inset) to eliminate the hydrogen sulfidebubbling from treated sewage.Deshusses/PNAS
  34. 34. APPLICATIONS OF G.E.1. Medicines and Vaccines produced by bacteria and viruses - E coli: used to make human insulin - hamster cell cultures: used to make TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)- dissolves blood clots in heart attacks - EPO (erythropoiten): increases red blood cell production - interferon: fights viral infections, increases immunity - vaccines vaccine animation
  35. 35. APPLICATIONS OF G.E.5. Agriculture and livestock - hardier, disease and environmentally resistant fruits and vegetables - larger sturdier animals
  36. 36. HUMAN GENOME PROJECT• begun in 1990: coordinated by US Dept of Energy and NIH• purpose: - to identify the 20-25,000 genes in human DNA - to determine sequences of 3 billion DNA base pairs - to license info to biotech companies to foster new medical applications• international: US, England, China, France, Germany, Japan• used combined genomes of anonymous small number of people
  37. 37. Study for the test !