Advance research methods


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This assignment is related with the introduction to research methods. it gives an over view and brief introduction of research, types of researches, methods to collect research data. useful for research students of business management, commerce studies, social work and for general over view to understand research.

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Advance research methods

  1. 1. Advance Research Methods basic methods are used for reasoning Lecture – 1 9-10-2012 or getting results.Q1 Knowledge and the sources of 1. Induction knowledge 2. Deduction Facts, information, and skills acquired Induction: Induction is the by a person through experience or method of reasoning from particular to education; the theoretical or practical general; the mental process involved understanding of a subject is called in creating generalization from knowledge. observed phenomena or principle.Epistemology Example: Today, I left for work at Epistemology is the study of knowing. eight’s clock and arrived on time. It deals with the nature of knowledge, Therefore, everyday that I leave the how do we know things, what do we house at eight, I will arrive at work on know, why we know, is what we know time. true, and what are the limits of Deduction: Deduction is the knowledge.Generally speaking, method of reasoning in which, we use epistemology deals with the nature of top-to-bottom approach and use knowledge and not the how-to of general to specific method. We knowledge. In other words, what is observe a large amount of data and the relationship between truth and make a specific argument. reality versus how do I build a cabinet. Example:Sources of knowledge All oranges are fruit. 1. Experience All fruits grow on trees. We get knowledge through our Hence, all oranges grow on trees. experience. We observe, learn and do any work through our hands and learn Limitations of Scientific Method new things. So, by doing some activity Clearly, the scientific method is a with our hands, we get experience, powerful tool but it does have its gives us direction to understand the limitations. These limitations are based way of doing such general or specific on the fact that a hypothesis must be work. In other words, such types of testable, falsifiable, experiments and experience increase our knowledge. observations be repeatable. Scientific 2. Sensory knowledge method is incapable of making value We get knowledge through use of our judgments. It cannot say anything sensory organs. These are ears, eyes, about supernatural powers. nose, hands and tongue. These What is Refutability? sensory organs gives us knowledge It means that the hypotheses must be about something happening but not questionable and be supported by 100% perfect or complete knowledge some evidence. that can be used for decision making. Types of Research Designs 3. Scientific knowledge Quantitative Research Scientific method is a body of Quantitative research refers to the techniques used for investigating systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena, acquiring new knowledge phenomena via statistical, mathematical or or correcting and integrating previous computational techniques. The objective of knowledge. Scientific method gives us quantitative research is to develop and the empirical and measurable results, employ mathematical models, theories and/or which can be tested and verified again hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The and again. Scientific method based on process of measurement is central to logic. Logic is the system of reasoning, quantitative research because it provides the which helps in choosing right one fundamental connection between empirical option from lots of option. In logic two observation and mathematical expression of
  2. 2. quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is and can cause corresponding changesany data that is in numerical form such as in other variables, and (2) Dependentstatistics, percentages, etc. In laymans variable: that can take different valuesterms, this means that the quantitative only in response to an independentresearcher asks a specific, narrow question variable.and collects numerical data from participants Functions of Researchto answer the question.What is meant Phenomenon? 1. It obtains the scientist knowledge about all 1. A fact or situation that is observed to educational problems. It also helps in obtaining exist or happen, esp. one whose cause specific knowledge about the subjects involved or explanation is in question. in the study. 2. Within boundaries of time and space, 2. In action research, the researchers are anything which is happening or teachers, curriculum workers, principals, occurring is called phenomenon. supervisors or others whose main task is to Qualitative Research A set help, provide good learning experiences for of research techniques in which data is pupils. obtained from a relatively small group of 3. In it, a person tries to enable him to realize respondents and not analyzed with his purposes more effectively. For example: A statistical techniques. Qualitative teacher conducts his teaching more effectively. research is a method of inquiry An administrator, in the education department employed in many different academic performs his action to improve his disciplines, traditionally in the social administrative behavior. sciences, but also in market research. It 4. Action research is a procedure which tries to is used to make sense of unstructured keep problem solving in close contact with information. reality at every stage. Analytical Research 5. In educational system it conduits for the The distinction between descriptive and progress of the technique of teaching. analytical research is based on the 6. It strengthens and emphasizes the work of question it asks. Descriptive research the teacher. attempts to determine, describe, or 7. It has a great utility of creating new interest identify what is, while analytical research and new confidence in the ability of the attempts to establish why it is that way individual teacher. or how it came to be. The descriptive 8. Action research provides practical utility. For research uses description, classification, class-room teacher, he applies his own measurement, and comparison to observations into his class-room practices to describe what phenomena are. The make the observed problems solved. Minor analytical research usually concerns problems in the class-room can be solved by itself with cause-effect relationships. For applying the teachers intelligence. example Examining the fluctuations of U. 9. to explain existing observed phenomenon, S. international trade balance during to gather up to date, current information on a 1974-1995 is an example of descriptive particular field, research is important and the research; while explaining why and how foundation for sustainable development in any U.S. trade balance move in a particular country because industries depend on existing way over time is an example of research information to innovate. In science, analytical research. research is a prerequisite to the approval of What is Variable? any postulated theory, and in politics generally A characteristic, number, or quantity that research is mandatory to prove a political view increases or decreases over time, or or standpoint. takes different values in different Types of Research situations. Basic Research Two basic types are (1) Independent Pure research, basic research, variable: that can take different values or fundamental research is research carried
  3. 3. out to increase understanding of fundamental Prepositionprinciples. It is not intended to yield immediate A word governing, and usually preceding, acommercial benefits; pure research can be noun or pronoun and expressing a relation tothought of as arising out of curiosity. However, another word or element in the clause, as inin the long term it is the basis for many “the man on the platform,” “shecommercial products and applied research. arrived after dinner,” “what did you do it for?”Pure research is mainly carried out by Difference b/w Concept and Constructuniversities. Concept: An abstract idea; a general notion Applied Research Construct: Build or erect (something, typicallyApplied research can be defined as the a building, road, or machine)methodic search for solutions to practical Concept Constructproblems of the modern world. The main Already maintained Maintained andmotivation in applied research is to apply the standards based on establish by ownknowledge and solve practical problems for knowledgecompanies and all kinds of institutions. Based on practical Based on perception Descriptive Research workingsDescriptive research, also known as statistical Examples : Theories, Job satisfaction,research, describes data and characteristics rules employeeabout the population or phenomenon being performance etcstudied. However, it does not answerquestions about e.g.: how/when/why thecharacteristics occurred, which is done underanalytic research.Although the data description is factual,accurate and systematic, the research cannotdescribe what caused a situation. Thus,Descriptive research cannot be used to createa causal relationship, where one variableaffects another. In other words, descriptiveresearch can be said to have a lowrequirement for internal validity.The description is used for frequencies,averages and other statistical calculations.Often the best approach, prior to writingdescriptive research, is to conduct a surveyinvestigation. Qualitative research often hasthe aim of description and researchers mayfollow-up with examinations of why theobservations exist and what the implications ofthe findings are.Define TheoryA set of statements or principles devised toexplain a group of facts or phenomena,especially one that has been repeatedly testedor is widely accepted and can be used to makepredictions about natural phenomena. Behavioral ResearchResearch that involves the application of thebehavioral and social sciences to the study ofthe actions or reactions of persons or animalsin response to external or internal stimuli.