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Summer Training Project
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
Award of degree of
Master of Business Administration
Submitted by: Submitted to:
Gaurav Garg Mr. Jayesh Joshi
MBA Part II
Year 2012 – 2013
I express my sincere thanks to my project guide, Mr. /Dr./Ms./Mrs.
_________________, Deptt______________., for guiding me right
from the inception till the successful completion of the project. I
sincerely acknowledge him/her/them for extending their valuable
guidance, support for literature, critical reviews of project and the
report and above all the moral support he/she/they had provided to
me with all stages of this project.
I would also like to thank the supporting staff
___________________________ Department, for their help and
cooperation throughout our project.
(Signature of Student)
Name of the Students
1. Industry Profile
1.1 What is retailing?
Retailing is a distribution channel function, where one organization
buys products from supplying firms or manufactures products
themselves, and then sells these directly to consumers.
In majority of retail situations, the organization, from whom a
consumer buys, is a reseller of products obtained from others, and
not the product manufacturer. However, some manufacturers do
operate their own retail outlets in a corporate channel arrangement.
Retailers offer many benefits to suppliers and customers as
resellers. Consumers, for instance, are able to purchase small
quantities of an assortment of products at a reasonably affordable
price. Similarly, suppliers get an opportunity to reach their target
market, build product demand through retail promotions, and
provide consumer feedback to the product marketer.
The India Retail Industry is the largest among all the industries,
accounting for over 10 per cent of the country GDP and around 8
per cent of the employment. The Retail Industry in India has come
forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with
several players entering the market. But all of them have not yet
tasted success because of the heavy initial investments that are
required to break even with other companies and compete with
them. The India Retail Industry is gradually inching its way towards
becoming the next boom industry.
The total concept and idea of shopping has undergone an attention
drawing change in terms of format and consumer buying behavior,
ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retailing has
entered into the Retail market in India as is observed in the form of
bustling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and the huge
complexes that offer shopping, entertainment and food all under
A large young working population with median age of 24 years,
nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing
workingwomen population and emerging opportunities in the
services sector are going to be the key factors in the growth of the
organized Retail sector in India. The growth pattern in organized
retailing and in the consumption made by the Indian population will
follow a rising graph helping the newer businessmen to enter the
India Retail Industry.
In India the vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry
are the key attractive forces for global retail giants wanting to enter
into newer markets, which in turn will help the India Retail Industry
to grow faster. Indian retail is expected to grow 25 per cent
annually. The Food Retail Industry in India dominates the shopping
basket. The Mobile phone Retail Industry in India is already a US$
16.7 billion business, growing at over 20 per cent per year. The
future of the India Retail Industry looks promising with the growing
of the market, with the government policies becoming more
favorable and the emerging technologies facilitating operations.
1.3 The Indian retailscene
India is the country having the most unorganized retail market. The
Indian retail sector is estimated at around Rs 900,000 crore, of
which the organized sector accounts for a mere 2 per cent
indicating a huge potential market opportunity that is lying in the
waiting for the consumer-savvy organized retailer.
Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is growing and
branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, Cosmetics,
Shoes, Watches, Beverages, Food and even Jewelers, are slowly
becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban
Indian consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth
and aiming to grow, diversify and introduce new formats have to
pay more attention to the brand building process. The emphasis
here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers selling brands. The
focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their
preparation to face fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers
must come to recognize the value of building their own stores as
brands to reinforce their marketing positioning, to communicate
quality as well as value for money. Sustainable competitive
advantage will be dependent on translating core values combining
products, image and reputation into a coherent retail brand
There is no doubt that the Indian retail scene is booming. A number
of large corporate houses have already made their foray into this
arena, with beauty and health stores, supermarkets, self-service
music stores, new age book stores, every-day-low-price stores,
computers and peripherals stores, office equipment stores and
home/building construction stores. Today the organized players
have attacked every retail category. The Indian retail scene has
witnessed too many players in too short a time, crowding several
categories without looking at their core competencies, or having a
well thought out branding strategy.
1.4 StrategiesTrends & Opportunities
Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the
next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered in
terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a
revolution in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as
seen in sprawling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and huge
complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one
roof. The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the
growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the
Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory. The
Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its
demographics. A large young working population with median age
of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing
workingwomen population and emerging opportunities in the
services sector are going to be the key growth drivers of the
organized retail sector in India.
1.5 Growth of Retail sector in India
Retail and real estate are the two booming sectors of India in the
present times. And if industry experts are to be believed, the
prospects of both the sectors are mutually dependent on each
other. Retail, one of India’s largest industries, has presently
emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries of
our times with several players entering the market. Accounting for
over 10 per cent of the country’s GDP and around eight per cent of
the employment retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward
becoming the next boom industry.
As the contemporary retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling
shopping centers, multiplex- malls and huge complexes offer
shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of
shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying
behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This has
also contributed to large-scale investments in the real estate sector
with major national and global players investing in developing the
infrastructure and construction of the retailing business. The trends
that are driving the growth of the retail sector in India are
Low share of organized retailing
Falling real estate prices
Increase in disposable income and customer aspiration
Increase in expenditure for luxury items
Another credible factor in the prospects of the retail sector in India
is the increase in the young working population. In India, hefty pay
packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing
working-women population and emerging opportunities in the
services sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of
the organized retail sector in India which now boast of retailing
almost all the preferences of life - Apparel & Accessories,
Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home & Office
Products, Travel and Leisure and many more. With this the retail
sector in India is witnessing rejuvenation as traditional markets
make way for new formats such as departmental stores,
hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores.
The retailing configuration in India is fast developing as shopping
malls are increasingly becoming familiar in large cities. When it
comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier II
cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till
2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with
139 malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities.
India is being seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from
over the world and latest research has rated India as the top
destination for retailers for an attractive emerging retail market.
India’s vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are
key attractions for global retail giants wanting to enter newer
markets. Even though India has well over 5 million retail outlets, the
country sorely lacks anything that can resemble a retailing industry
in the modern sense of the term. This presents international
retailing specialists with a great opportunity. The organized retail
sector is expected to grow stronger than GDP growth in the next
five years driven by changing lifestyles, burgeoning income and
favorable demographic outline.
1.6 Industry Evolution
Traditionally retailing in India can be traced to:
The emergence of the neighborhood Kirana stores catering to the
convenience of the consumers
Era of government support for rural retail: Indigenous franchise
model of store chains run by Khadi & Village Industries
Commission1980s experienced slow change as India began to
open up economy.
Textiles sector with companies like Bombay Dyeing, Raymond's, S
Kumar's and Grasim first saw the emergence of retail chains
Later Titan successfully created an organized retailing concept and
established a series of showrooms for its premium watches
The latter half of the 1990s saw a fresh wave of entrants with a shift
from Manufactures to Pure Retailers.
Post 1995 onwards saw an emergence of shopping centers mainly
in urban areas, with facilities like car parking targeted to provide a
complete destination experience for all segments of society
Emergence of hyper and super markets trying to provide customer
with - Value, Variety and Volume
Expanding target consumer segment: The Sachet revolution -
example of reaching to the bottom of the pyramid.
At year end of 2000 the size of the Indian organized retail industry
is estimated at Rs. 13,000 crore
1.7 Retailing format in India
The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in
metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts. Ranges from 60,000 sq
ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. They lend an ideal shopping
experience with an amalgamation of product, service and
entertainment, all under a common roof.
Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety
of consumer needs. Further classified into localized departments
such as clothing, toys, home, groceries, etc.
Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel
business from exclusive brand showrooms.
Large self-service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are
termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential
high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food
grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can further be
classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft
and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft.
having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales.
These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near
residential areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover
convenience products and are usually open for extended periods
during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to
the convenience premium
India is rated the fifth most attractive emerging retail market: a
Multiple drivers leading to a consumption boom:
o Favorable demographics
o Growth in income
o Increasing population of women
o Raising aspirations: Value added goods sales
Food and apparel retailing key drivers of growth
Organized retailing in India has been largely an urban
Phenomenon with affluent classes and growing number of double-
More successful in cities in the south and west of India. Reasons
range from differences in consumer buying behavior to cost of real
estate and taxation laws.
Rural markets emerging as a huge opportunity for retailers reflected
in the share of the rural market across most categories of
IT is a tool that has been used by retailers to radically change
buying behavior across the globe.
1.9 Challenges & Opportunities
Retailing has seen such a transformation over the past decade that
its very definition has undergone a sea change. No longer can a
manufacturer rely on sales to take place by ensuring mere
availability of his product. Today, retailing is about so much more
than mere merchandising. It’s about casting customers in a story,
reflecting their desires and aspirations, and forging long-lasting
relationships. As the Indian consumer evolves they expect more
and more at each and every time when they steps into a store.
Retail today has changed from selling a product or a service to
selling a hope, an aspiration and above all an experience that a
consumer would like to repeat.
For manufacturers and service providers the emerging
opportunities in urban markets seem to lie in capturing and
delivering better value to the customers through retail. However,
manufacturers and service providers will also increasingly face a
host of specialist retailers, who are characterized by use of modern
management techniques, backed with seemingly unlimited financial
resources. Organized retail appears inevitable.
Retailing in India is currently estimated to be a US$ 200 billion
industry, of which organized retailing makes up a paltry 3 percent or
US$ 6.4 billion. By 2010, organized retail is projected to reach US$
23 billion. For retail industry in India, things have never looked
better and brighter. Challenges to the manufacturers and service
providers would abound when market power shifts to organized
The retail sector has played a phenomenal role throughout the
world in increasing productivity of consumer goods and services. It
is also the second largest industry in US in terms of numbers of
employees and establishments. The India Retail Industry is the
largest among all the industries, accounting for over 10 per cent of
the country’s GDP and around 8 per cent of the employment. The
Retail Industry in India has come forth as one of the most dynamic
and fast paced industries with several players entering the market.
But all of them have not yet tasted success because of the heavy
initial investments that are required to break even with other
companies and compete with them. The India Retail Industry is
gradually inching its way towards becoming the next boom industry.
The retail sector in India, which is dominated by small and
unorganized entrepreneurs consisting of standalone stores,
boutiques and kirana stores are radically changing its face. There
has been a massive development of new retail formats such as
malls, hypermarkets, supermarkets and lifestyle stores. As the
spending power in the economy is growing fast, this Development
has gained importance not only in the metropolitan cities but also in
the Tier II and III towns. There is a need to understand the
changing behavior of consumers towards shopping in this
organized retail outlets. Also, due to the limited success of these
outlets, it is necessary for retailers to be aware of shoppers’
motivations and to understand ways of attracting the consumers. In
this project, I attempt to investigate the shopping behavior of the
consumers, particularly with the new retail formats emerging. This
study would concentrate on the behavior the consumer exhibits
while visiting or making purchases in the newly opened malls. It
would explore the purpose and motive behind the consumers’ visit
to these newly established shopping malls, the values they derive
from the shopping trip and their shopping behavior in terms of
impulse purchases, time and money spent at the shopping mall,
etc. A final objective is to establish a baseline for examining
changing behavior in future as developments continue.
1.1 Definition of Shopping
It is considered as a household task as well as a form of recreation,
relaxation and entertainment. Shopping can be a leisure pursuit and
with the rapid development of shopping centers, both retailers and
developers are trying to make it more of a pleasure activity.
1.2 Consumer BuyingBehavior
The traditional shopping choice behavior of consumers was related
to need recognition, when the consumer comes to know that he
wants to purchase a product. Once the need has been recognized,
then he moves on to search for information about the product and
evaluates the alternatives available to him before finally makes a
decision to purchase the product. He might visit certain outlets
stocking that product, consult his friends, buying guides or store
employees about it. Even after making the purchase, he might
reevaluate it. Shopping behavior of different consumers is different
in. The reasons of this varying shopping behavior are the diverse
cultures and the changing economies. A study of the various kinds
of shopping behaviors therefore needs to be done, covering the
various shopping contexts.
There are four types of purchase behaviors namely, planned,
unplanned, impulse and compulsive buying behavior. Planned
buying behavior involves information search about the product to be
bought, evaluation of alternatives and then rational decision
making. This is time consuming. Unplanned buying behavior does
not involve this kind of an initial planning. It arises when the
consumer is unfamiliar with the store layout, has a shortage of time
or just remembers to buy the product when he sees it on the store
shelf. Impulse buying behavior occurs when a consumer finds a
product on the store shelf and is unable to resist the urge of buying
it. It accounts for a large quantity of products sold that are bought
every year and also covers a wide range of product categories.
Repetitive and excessive shopping by consumers due to anxiety,
boredom and tension is referred to as compulsive buying behavior.
Many other factors may also affect purchase decisions. A person is
likely to be influenced in making his/ her purchase decisions if he/
she are accompanied by another individual while making a
shopping trip. That a person will tend to shop more and spend more
money when going out with someone. Other situational factors can
also have an impact on shopping behavior and purchase decisions.
They include task definition, antecedent states, social and physical
surroundings and temporal perspectives. For example, scarcity of
time, any pre-existing affects choice of the retail outlet. Shopping
frequency is also a significant concept while studying consumer
shopping behavior. It is defined as the number of incidences when
a product is purchased by someone in person. The shopping
frequency is subjective to the time and effort that is put by a person
and his/ her gender and shopping responsibility for the household.
It is also determined by the shopping context.
A shopping mall is typically, a shopping complex connected by
walkways. It provides shopping as well as entertainment options to
the target consumers. It generally, contains one anchor store,
which consumes twenty five percent of its retail space. In addition a
mall contains specialty stores for clothes, accessories, home
needs, books, as well as food court, multiplexes and entertainment
zones. A shopping mall is a place where a wide mix of retail outlets
are situated under one roof, and is usually anchored by one or
more stores like departmental stores, which also helps to attract
consumer traffic to that place. Shopping malls have grown larger
over the years and have expanded to include service outlets and
entertainment providers. They are advertised as both shopping
and recreation centers. An added advantage of the shopping mall is
that all merchandise, entertainment such as a theatre or
amusement park, food, services and atmosphere in the mall are all
available under one roof and it is environmentally protected. This
advantage also acts as a crowd puller. Moreover, the consumer
can shop without the tensions of any traffic congestions or parking
problems, security issues or crime districts. The collection of shops
in the shopping mall is managed together and is taken as one
Shopping malls are supposed to be a place where one goes to buy
goods, people can stroll on the shiny floors of these shopping
havens, peeping through the many glass windows and frequently
ending up buying the things they like or need. But right here in the
provinces mall hopping has become more than a favourite pastime
for many; the air-conditioned centres are perfect places to escape
the oppressive heat. People can not only spend time during the
long opening hours for their customary shopping, but also watch
movies, dine, play video games or just roam around with family and
friends. However, a great number of people are trying to escape
from their otherwise poor living conditions and are wandering
around the crowded aisles and stores just following their nose and
watch people and the world go by or only visit the place for the
pleasure of window shopping. Glancing at the goods they cannot
afford today but maybe one day when times are better. There are
many youngsters, also known as “mall rats”, which are rambling
about the malls after school, primarily to chum with schoolmates
and cronies, spending three or more hours every day because the
place is large, convenient, it is free, the food courts have various
inexpensive eating opportunities, it is the ultimate place to find
somebody to flirt with and the place is clean and safe. These
juveniles feel free from harm; several armed security guards politely
opening the entrance and exit doors, checking bags and patrolling
the malls are providing safety and protection for their customers.
Dozens of young boys are maintaining the malls, devotedly
washing the store windows, sweeping and scrubbing the floors and
stairs, whipping the tables in the food court and collecting the
garbage. The screaming children that are wildly playing unattended
up and down the escalators give the impression not to be a
hindrance to staff and visitors, these kids are caught up in their
game; it looks like the mall around them does not exist
anymore. Probably their roving parents are too pre-occupied and
fascinated as well with all the awe-inspiring impressions that are
present. The smell of new clothing, the fragrance of perfumes and
leather goods makes many shopping addict heart beat faster,
realizing that these oversized warehouses are indeed a shopper’s
paradise on earth. The aroma of all kinds of mouth-watering food
coming from the distinctive eating outlets is a strong reminder never
to shop on an empty stomach.
All together these malls resemble a giant beehive that is full of
activity and savour, with a cacophony of voices, music and
machines now and then interfered by some squeaky murmur
clanging out of the malls broadcasting system. On top of
everything, customers will be pleasantly entertained from the
beginning to the end with country-classical sweepstakes that are
organised a couple of times a year. When spending a certain
amount of money in the mall, raffle tickets are given to the buyers
who can win a large sum of prize money and other fantastic gifts. At
the end of the promotional period, the lottery draw is always
attracting a large audience of contestants, all of them eager to win
the main prize. Usually local artists will perform and show off their
musical chops during the draw, additionally a singing contest is
held for upcoming talent, making these kinds of competitions very
popular among the general public.
The many fascinating festivals that are organized in mall are a
dynamic, integral part of daily life; these festivities are rooted
deeply within the people and their culture. With high spirits,
enormous vitality and great enthusiasm, different kinds of creative
activities, big or little ceremonies are held all year round.
1.4 Determinants for Choice of ShoppingMall
Store choice behavior of a consumer is considered a cognitive
procedure. It is believed to be a process of information processing
as the brand choice or any purchase decision is considered. It is
very similar to the decision of making a brand choice except the
fact that store choice is influenced by the location factor, which
does not need to be considered when making a selection of brands.
The choice of store by the consumer was differentiated by the
nature of the task that had to be executed by him. The different
tasks that were described by the respondents included urgent
purchases, large quantity purchases, difficult job, regular purchases
and getting ideas. Store choice decision is also driven by other
tangible and intangible characteristics provided by the store. They
include the store size, format, and distance from home and
environment. Store choice can also be influenced by situational
factors such as time constraints and gift versus self shopping,
further which can be classified as the competitive setting, the
individual’s situational set and the shopping occasion. However, if
store choice is evaluated by the nature of situational factors, then
these factors need to be studied for each shopping visit of the
consumers to the various stores, also looking into the costs
incurred and the benefits made by them during the shopping task.
The major determinants of store choice behavior to be external
factors such as retail floor space distance, parking facilities, etc.
Location is an important aspect of marketing and a good location
can be a source of competitive advantage for the retail outlet .Some
researchers have even shown that, while good business practices
may not compensate for poor location, good location may
compensate for poor business practices. In relation to the location
of the shopping mall, accessibility and visibility are the two
determinants which need to be noted.
1.4.2 Shopping Experience
The prime advantage of an experience product is the experience
that the shopper goes through by purchasing that product or
service. Consumers derive value from purchasing these goods or
services because of their unique qualities and are ready to pay a
little extra for them. Mall developers have also tried to cope up in
the experience economy by providing the consumers with good
store ambience as well as entertaining and amusing experiences
apart from shopping. They have added movie theatres or keep
organizing live performances for the consumers in which they can
get engaged and enjoy their experience while shopping in the mall.
The age group of teenagers also preferred going to a shopping mall
whose atmosphere was friendly and made them feel welcomed.
They wanted a mall which provided cool stores, entertainment
options, attractive designing and a good place to spend time with
friends, on the whole a good shopping experience. Consumers
these days are becoming very variety seeking and searching for
novel and unique experiences. They see malls as a source and
venue for recreation. Thus the overall shopping experience which
includes shopping, leisure as well as entertainment is a key
determinant of mall attractiveness.
1.4.3 Shopping Mall Image
The image of the shopping mall is also related to the frequency of
customer visits to that mall. Shopping mall image has been defined
as the total of consumers’ perceptions of a shopping mall based on
functional and emotional attributes. Shopping mall developers
should expend resources towards the communication of the right
image of the shopping mall and this communication should be
driven towards improving its image and thus frequency of visits.
The image is also subject to the presence of anchor stores and
other physical characteristics.
After discussion of the factors influencing choice of shopping malls,
it is worth mentioning that the effect of some of these factors like
retail floor space, number of shops and distance weaken over time,
whereas the effects of other factors like anchor stores, tourism site
strengthen over time. A healthy assortment of all these factors
increases the attractiveness of the shopping mall. However,
studying individual choice decisions would not help us to
understand the behavior of the market as a whole.
2. Research Methodology
Many attempts have been made to provide a formal definition of the
research activity. “Research is a collection of methods people use
systematically to produce knowledge”. Research has also been
defined as an organized and deliberate effort to collect new
information or to utilize existing knowledge for a new purpose,
seeking to answer worthwhile and fundamental questions, by
employing valid and reliable techniques. In addition, research
involves the use of more appropriate tests to justify the methods
employed, and provides logical and objective data collection where
conclusions can be drawn.
Ultimately, it contributes to the gaining of new knowledge and a
better appreciation for the issues involved by the researcher. Every
piece of research has its own aims. Keeping in mind those aims,
the research objectives and the method to accomplish these
objectives should be derived. It is necessary for the researcher to
know the suitability and the limitations of choosing the appropriate
method so as to be able to take necessary precautions for
increased validity, reliability and generalizibility of the research
The use of appropriate methodology is very essential as it is an
important part of a research investigation. A well-defined
methodology is a crucial step in activities that require concrete
results as the process of achieving the result can both be studied
2.1 Objectives of the study
The study has the following objectives:
• How are the consumers’ shopping habits changing with upcoming
retail formats, specifically malls?
• What are the determinants of consumers when choosing between a
shopping mall and the unorganized market?
To determine the relative importance of criteria which influence the
overall attractiveness of mall
To assess the reasons for visiting the mall and their expenditure
To propose a model depicting shopping mall Attractiveness
With the help of the data that I have collected, I would compare the
past trend with the present trends with respect the gradual
movement in the consumer shopping habits in the country and the
factors leading to it. With the continuing drift in their shopping
habits, the future prospects of organized retailing.
2.2 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative and quantitative research methods are two major
approaches employed by researchers. These two methods
are distinct from each other. Qualitative research seeks to
describe and decode the meaning of naturally occurring
phenomena in the social world through interpretative
approaches, and thereby provides “well-substantiated
conceptual insights that reveal how broad concepts and
theories operate in particular cases”. On the other hand,
quantitative research “emphasizes measurement and
analysis of causal relations among variables” and tests
general propositions using the hypothetical deductive
model. Quantitative research “imposes scientific meanings
on members to explain a singular, presumed-to-be true
“Qualitative research thus has an inherently literary and humanistic
focus, whereas quantitative research is grounded in mathematical
and statistical knowledge”. The former uses richly descriptive
words, talk, and texts as meaningful representations of concepts;
the latter, in contrast, seeks significant representations of concepts
through coding, counting, and quantifying phenomena. The choice
of research methods is not always an either-or question, rather a
careful evaluation of the suitability for research purpose and the
type of questions posed. In effect, both of research methods can be
used in a single piece of work to deal with different types of
research questions. However, qualitative research methods have
been used by me in order to conduct this research because
qualitative research can provide ‘in-depth’ understandings of
research subjects in comparison with quantitative research.
Quantitative research methods were also analyzed while choosing
a method of research for this study, however the behavior of
consumers cannot be quantified and thus it would be difficult to
analyze. Thus qualitative research methods have been used.
2.3 Data Collection
Both primary and secondary data were used in order to conduct
2.3.1 Secondary Data
Secondary data is very important in research because this can help
the researcher to avoid duplication on research that has already
been conducted. This saves the researcher’s time and cost in
conducting repetitive work. By conducting secondary research prior
to primary research, the researcher can assess the availability of
information and use it as a basis to design the methods to collect
the primary data. In addition this can only enable a researcher to
develop a hypothesis or assumptions about the topic. Secondary
research also has the benefit of being carried out in privacy without
anyone knowing about it (Wright and Crimp, 2000). This is a cheap
and impersonal form of research compared to primary research as
this can be done at the researcher’s own convenience, either at
home or at the university. The data sought from secondary forms of
research are historical as they are from the past, thus meaning that
comparisons can be made by comparing the past and current
situations. This research was carried out by using news paper
articles, internet reports, textbooks, industry reports, etc. Data from
academic journals and textbooks was particularly useful in
reviewing the existing literature on consumer buying behavior and
their choice determinants for shopping malls. However, one of the
major drawbacks of this method of research is that sometimes the
information gathered may not directly fit into your research area
and some data can also be out of date and not valid at the present
moment (Kemp, 2002). The information gathered from the sources
can have an impact on the level of bias and in addition may not be
very accurate. Some research reports about companies or retailers
can be confidential and thus not published and difficult to obtain.
2.3.2 Primary Data
Primary research as “Data collected specifically for the research
project undertaken”. The three main types of primary research that
can be used are observation, interviews and surveys. For the
purpose of this research I have used interviews as a form of
Interviewing has been one of the most widely used research
approaches among a variety of qualitative methods. Interviews can
be used conducting various techniques such as telephone
interviews, face to face interviews and focus group interviews.
Interviews are a very common and flexible form of gathering
qualitative data and are an effective form of conducting exploratory
research, which can allow opinion of those with expertise in areas
related to the subject matter under investigation to be examined. In
social research there are four main types of interviewing
techniques. Firstly, fully structured interviews are where the
situation is fully controlled by the questionnaire in terms of
questions and potential answers. Secondly, semi structured
interviews are where open ended questions are used and the
interview’s job is to probe for more depth answers. Thirdly,
unstructured interviews are where neither the interviewer nor the
interviewee has set questions. Instead, a topic guide forms the
basis of the interview, and the interviewee is encouraged to explore
his/ her thoughts on the topic of research. Finally, in the in depth
interviews, the respondent is encouraged to go deeper and deeper
into their levels of thinking to develop into the subject area.
For conducting the interviews, two different sample populations
were chosen. The first sample consisted of retailers who had
already opened their outlets in the shopping mall. For conducting
these interviews, purposeful sampling was used. Purposeful
sampling selects information rich cases for in depth study. This
could be a help as most of these retailers already had their outlets
in the unorganized markets before opening shop in the shopping
mall. Thus, they could give their views on the consumers’ shopping
habits in the mall and how was it different from the outlets in the
markets. Qualitative research typically uses a relatively small
sample yet focuses in depth on it. Therefore, a sample size of 15
respondents was chosen for taking the interviews of retailers.
For choosing the second sample, a simple random sampling
technique was used. A simple random sample is obtained by
choosing elementary units in search a way that each unit in the
population has an equal chance of being selected. A simple
random sample is free from sampling bias. This sample consisted
of consumers, who have seen a drastic change in the organization
of the retail scenario and are familiar with it. Random people were
chosen from family, friends and employees who are a part of the
consumer group and are a witness to this transition. To get a wider
view, the respondents that were chosen belonged to diverse age
groups and income levels. The sample size for this was 20.
In order to perform a successful research, it is very important to
have a well defined procedure of carrying it out. To start this
research I started reading a literature that was relevant to my area
of study, which took a very long time. Reading that, I formulated
the literature review which consisted mostly of consumer buying
behaviour and their choice determinants for choosing a shopping
mall. After a careful examination of the literature, questionnaires
were formulated for conducting the interviews from the retailers
who had opened their outlets in the malls and the Indian
Conducting the interviews from the retailers was not a very easy
task to do. Even though I approached them in their non peak sale
time of the day, they seemed to be busy and disagreed to give the
interviews. Furthermore, most of the retailers who agreed to be
interviewed by me were reluctant of giving recorded ones.
However, I got hold of 15 retailers from mall and conducted their
interviews and writing down their responses side by side. For the
interviews of the consumers, approaching them was quite easy as
most of them were familiar with my area of study. Face to face
interviews with some and telephonic interviews with the others
helped me complete my field research. Gaining trust was a crucial
part of the whole process of conducting the interview because if the
researcher is not trusted the interviewee may not refuse to give the
interview but may desire and act such that the interview gets over
as quickly as possible with enough detail to satisfy the researcher
that she is getting something of value but without saying anything
that touches the core of what is actually being believed and cared
about in the research. Thus the purpose of the interview and the
study was explained clearly too each interviewee before taking the
interview the data that was collected was then analyzed and results
were evaluated. Some recommendations for the future were then
suggested for the developers and the retailers.
2.4.1 Sample size:
Samples are devices for learning about large masses by observing
a few individuals. A sample size of 15 respondents was chosen for
taking the interviews of retailers. Random people were chosen from
family, friends and employees who are a part of the consumer
group and are a witness to this transition. To get a wider view, the
respondents that were chosen belonged to diverse age groups and
income levels. The sample size for this was 20.
2.4.2 Methods of Sampling:
The method adopted here is random sampling method. A Random
sample is one where each item in the universe has as an equal
chance of known opportunity of being selected.
2.5 Scope of the study:
It will help the mall to understand the level of customer happiness.
It will help the mall to retain the service.
It will help the mall to evaluate strength and weakness.
This study will also reveal the customers attitude towards mall.
2.6 Limitations of the study:
As no person is perfect in this world, in the same way no study can
be considered as fully reliable at one glance. There are a number of
uncontrollable factors acting as limitations in conducting the study.
Some of such limitations encountered by me in our study are -
Time factor was the main limitation for the study as the project was
restricted to small period.
The research was limited only to the Kota city so the result can’t be
generalized to the whole market.
The sample taken for research was concerned only for few
customers rather than millions of customers.
Since the project has to be completed within a short period of time
the information collected could be biased.
Some of the premium segments could not be met due to time lack
and by not obtaining prior appointment due to tight schedule of the
Non - availability of secondary data compelled me to start from the
very minute information.
Some respondents gave biased responses. This may have
influenced the results.
Some people were afraid and showed complete reluctance to give
responses to some questions.
3. Analysis & Interpretation
The analysis and interpretation of the data that is collected has
been carried out. The interviews have been broken down into
themes aiming to carry out a comprehensive in-depth analysis. This
part has been broken down into two sections – the retailer’s point of
view and the customers’ perspectives.
The interviews that had been taken from the retailers who had
already opened their retail outlets in the mall have been analyzed in
the following section. The responses by the retailers have been
listed below and then analyzed later.
Q1. How long has it been since you have opened the shop in this
Many retailers who were interviewed had opened their outlets in the
malls since a period of less than 2 years except few.
Q2. Why did you choose to open your outlet in the mall other than
the unorganized market?
Different retailers gave different responses to this question. The
most common reasoning that was given by them was the upcoming
trend of mall shopping and the changing customer preferences. As
all their needs get fulfilled under one roof and they get the required
quality, price and environment, they are attracted more towards the
mall. Another reason for the customers getting fascinated to the
mall is the hot and rainy weather conditions. Other responses
included bigger retail space which is not available in the congested
unorganized markets, and also for the separation of the commercial
establishments from the residential areas.
Q3. Do you have another retail outlet other than in this mall?
Some retailers had their outlets in unorganized markets of different
areas and some retailers only had outlet in mall.
Q4. Do you reach the targeted sales level in this outlet or as much
as the other outlets?
There was a mixed response of this question. Some of the
interviewed retailers were happy with the amount of sales level that
they were getting in their mall outlet as their target was being
achieved. Some retailer was achieving the best sales level in that
outlet out of all others. The reasoning that was given by them was
that the customers were attracted by their brand name. However,
the other retailers were not achieving as much sales as they did in
the unorganized market outlets. Different explanations were given
for it. They said that the outlets in the markets were very old and
well known to the customers. Other reasons were mall specific
such as not much foot fall in the mall.
Q5. What do you do to attract customers to your outlet?
A variety of promotional tools were being used by the retailers to
get the customers’ attention towards their outlets in the mall. End of
season sales was the most common form of the promotional
schemes being used. Customer databases were maintained by
most of the retailers and different schemes were provided to them
by different retailers. These included informing the clients regularly
about change of stock and in store promotions, coupon schemes,
etc. Some of the bigger country wide known brands were also
advertised in magazines, newspapers as well as television. Word of
mouth and brand loyalty were also used as other modes of
Q6. What do you think can be done to attract customers to a mall?
Attraction of customers is the most important for the success of
malls. According to the responses provided by various retailers,
location, having a good mix of brands within the mall, having an
ambassador for promoting the mall or the various branded outlets
present in it, timely promotions using banners and posters,
economical prices of merchandise, provision of regular weekend
and monthly schemes to keep the customers loyal, organization of
events and programs within the mall, positive behaviour of the staff,
cleanliness, promotion of the mall as a whole instead of the
different retail outlets present in the mall are the various methods of
pulling the customers towards the mall. One of the retailers also
held a fashion show within the mall to promote their outlet.
Q7. What do you think of consumers’ perception of mall shopping?
Majority of the retailers say that a major part of the customer base
still perceives that the merchandise in the mall is highly priced.
According to one of the retailers, “50 percent of the consumers
think that products in the malls are expensive and so they just hang
out in the mall and go. For shopping they go to the markets which
they perceive to be cheaper”. However, some of them also believe
that the mindset of the consumers is changing and they are getting
more convinced about the prices. Also, the prices of branded
products are found to be similar in the mall as well as the
unorganized markets. The customers also tend to receive many
benefits if they come to the mall for shopping which compensates
for the high price factor. These include better infrastructure, comfort
of one stop shopping, good experience and ambience, protection
from the harsh Indian weather conditions, etc.
Q8. What benefits do consumers obtain from coming to a mall
rather than the unorganized market? What effect do these benefits
have on sales?
Several facilities are made available to the consumers when they
visit a mall. Firstly, “they can shop for so many things at one place,
they can eat and hang out and entertainment places like PVR are
available, all this can be done along with shopping”. Other than this,
comfort, security, parking facilities, air conditioned environment,
neat and clean atmosphere and easier commuting are the other
benefits that a customer can get when he/ she comes to a mall.
Unlike the markets, this also saves time and the customers also get
rid of traffic jams. All these factors affect sales because “this is why
people come to mall”. “If people don’t have to shop then also they
can come to just hang around with friends. This sometimes an ects
sales as some people end up purchasing goods.” According to
another retailer, “When people come to a mall, they are mentally
prepared to spend money.”
Q9. If you have to open a new outlet, would you choose to open it
in the upcoming malls?
Few of the respondents have mentioned various criteria for this
decision, the major being location of the mall or the market, foot fall
of the mall, consumer preferences for the mall and government
policy. However, a good number of the retailers would prefer to
open their next outlet in the upcoming malls of the country as
“markets are doing better currently but in the future malls would be
the only thing” and “the coming time will see an end of the
markets”. “It will take time for the malls to develop and grow;
patience is required to get sales in the malls however the future
prospects are bright”.
To get the Indian consumers’ viewpoint on the upcoming trend of
shopping in the malls, interviews that were taken from the
consumers have to be analyzed. The respondents’ views have
been generalized as the views of the consumer population in India.
These interviews have been analyzed in the following section
taking one question at a time and quoting consumer responses.
The current preferences of consumers between the shopping malls
and the unorganized markets were asked. On the one hand,
majority of the consumers’ preferences had now shifted from
unorganized markets to shopping malls as development is taking
place in diverse parts of the country including smaller lesser
developed cities and in different areas within a city. Many
respondents have also stated various criteria for choosing between
the malls and the locality markets which have been stated in the
following quotes listed below. “The choice between unorganized
and malls depends upon a number of other factors such as mood,
type of shops etc.” “Price is the factor associated with the choice.
For items priced equally in the malls I would prefer the malls or else
the markets.” “It depends on the weather if it is really hot I would
like to shop in a mall. It also depends on when I am looking to buy
and what is my budget. If I am looking for something special then
maybe I will prefer a mall but if I am looking for something which
is available every where I would buy for the place which is nearest.”
“Depends on the purpose, if I have time to spare and want to
spend an entire day shopping, eating, watching a flick then mall
would be the preferred choice because it would be convenient, if
only shopping for a particular item or grabbing a bite then local
markets will be more convenient”
On the other hand, few of the respondents also preferred the
unorganized markets over malls as they did not think that malls that
have currently been opened in India can offer everything that a
consumer needs and also a majority of the population stayed away
from the malls due to high prices of the products. This mixed
response indicates that the consumers in India are changing and
are overall beginning to prefer the malls instead of the markets.
Probably, it is dependent on the income group the consumers
belong to. A higher income group consumer would indicate a higher
preference for mall and vice versa.
A very mixed response was obtained when the consumers were
questioned about the frequency of their mall visits for the purpose
of shopping. Few of the respondents visited only the mall whenever
they would move out with the intention of shopping. Others visited a
mixture of both, which must be dependent on various factors. From
the responses it can be analyzed that the customers who initially
visited only the unorganized markets with the shopping motive in
mind has also started to consider the malls for specific product
categories or brands. This again indicates a gradual change in the
consumer preference for mall. The following are some responses of
“In a week I go around 3 to 4 times for shopping and all the time in
“Once in a fortnight I go out for shopping. And alternatively I go to
mall and markets.”
“At least once a week in the unorganized market and once a month
“I go out for shopping five to six times a month - 80% to local
markets and rest of the time to malls”
“Around 4 times monthly, and twice to malls.”
There is also a difference in the kind of merchandise that a
consumer buys from the mall and that he/ she buys from the
unorganized markets. The Indian consumer has been very used to
picking up products from the local markets which are proximity of
their homes. Although, they are getting used to visiting the Mall for
their shopping needs, they still shop for their daily needs from the
market itself. The respondents have also stated various advantages
and disadvantages that they have associated with the visit to the
“Branded items are bought from malls and day to day items from
“Mall: because they are comfortable, you get everything under one
roof, air-conditioned environment and non-tiring. Unorganized
Markets: they too tiring, messy at times but they are good for
getting little things which you normally don’t get in the mall.”
“In shopping malls everything is organized and a person does not
have to face the terrible heat.”
“Malls have a comfortable environment with a good parking facility
and all brands are available under one roof. And unorganized
markets are visited for fulfilling the daily requirements.”
“Unorganized local markets provide all essential goods in a
confined small area whereas mall only houses a few selected brand
“Local Markets are more accessible, better priced & have a large
Almost all of the consumers associated leisure activities with malls.
For many consumers, malls have become a destination where they
can hang out and socialize with friends in coffee shops like Cafe
Coffee Day. An entertainment factor has also been associated with
shopping in the malls as many consumers have started to view
shopping as an enjoyable pastime. All their purposes of shopping,
entertainment, socializing with friends and eating out could be
fulfilled by a single visit to the malls. It can be inferred from the
respondents’ views that some of the visitors who come to a mall
can be categorized as serious shoppers who are attracted by the
convenience of buying a wide variety of products under one roof.
However, most of them are still overawed by the whole experience
that they go through when they visit a shopping mall which includes
gazing at luxurious branded products, cooling off in air conditioned
comfort and enjoying an ambience that was never experienced
while shopping in the markets but was “only seen in Hollywood
movies”. Also, it has been seen that shoppers these days are also
combining the shopping and leisure activities. They can do this by
visiting the mall where they can get an environment where they are
able to carry out their leisure activities along with shopping.
“I go to malls four to five times a week for a coffee, shopping is just
as per the needs.”
“Malls are visited once in a month, they are not as accessible as
local markets so going to a mall is more of an outing than fulfilling
the purpose of shopping.”
“Oh yes, because apart from shopping, there are road shows,
movies, trivia contests, lucky draw and all of the same can be
associated to leisure.”
“Yes malls are good for catching up with friends.”
“Malls because of convenience of parking, everything is organized,
combines leisure with shopping and better ambience.”
Considering the location factor, majority of the respondents did not
care about the proximity of the shopping malls from their homes.
The reason for this probably would be that there are only a few
shopping malls currently and all the consumers want to experience
this new way of shopping, therefore, they do not mind even if they
have to travel a long distance to visit the shopping mall
occasionally. However, few of the interviewees associated their
decision of their shopping destination with respect to its proximity
from their home.
“Yes because it is very near to my house, I can go there any time
when I feel like, even alone.”
“As long as I get what I want in terms of the brands and variety, I
don’t mind shopping anywhere. However malls would be more
convenient, if they are closer and have similar variety.”
“If I have decided on the shop and know what exactly to buy, then I
would consider proximity as a major factor that would affect my
decision. Apart from this variety can also affect my decision
making, for example due to availability of space, the shop in the
mall would be bigger and would store more variety of the product,
then in that case the mall shop would be a better option.”
In general consumers’ perception, there exists a pricing difference
between merchandise in the mall and that in the unorganized
markets. The products available in the malls are considered to be
more expensive than those available in the markets. However, from
the responses that were obtained, it was evident that the
consumers’ outlook is completely changing and they are becoming
more spend thrift. In addition, this difference in pricing does not
seem to be affecting their shopping decisions. This is also a change
that can be seen in the consumer population as a whole, as
compared to a few years earlier.
“Well I don’t think that there is any price difference and if it is then
that’s something a consumer won’t mind spending for the leisure a
consumer gets in the mall.”
“Generally, for some goods it is assumed that malls are expensive.
But I buy mostly branded goods from malls, and they have the
same process all over. So doesn’t really make a difference.”
“I think it’s a misconception that malls are more expensive that local
markets. If the same shop is present in both the market types then
pricing would be the same. It so happens that generally there are
better quality shops present in the malls which can shoot up a
price of a product, so its generally perceived that malls are more
expensive, but if you put the same shops in local markets then the
price would be just as expensive.”
After going through the literature, a question that was formulated for
the interviewees enquiring them if going to the shopping mall has
an effect on their image or status in the society. Almost all of the
respondents denied this fact. They did not find any relation between
image and visiting the shopping mall. Any image was not assumed
to be associated with the shopping malls and the image factor was
immaterial if they bought the products from the markets or the
“Shopping in the mall does not influence the status because status
is related to the shop that you are shopping in, whether it be in the
mall or market.”
“As long as what you shop appeals to you and you have the
confidence to carry it out it does not matter where you have bought
it. However, shopping malls are characterized by branded stores.”
According to the findings of my research, the shopping experience
is a very important factor for the consumers. In their views,
shopping experience includes variety of stores within a mall and the
collection within the stores, the gentry that comes to the mall; time
that is saved by coming to the mall and getting everything under the
same roof is the biggest advantage. They are also considered to be
easier and more sophisticated.
“Shopping experience is very important for me because if I am not
satisfied from a place then I might not go there again.”
“It is a very important criterion because not always do we go with a
motive to shop. Sometimes it is for fun, or just time pass. In those
cases shopping malls are a better option.”
“As an experience malls would be rated higher because of the
sheer variety of shops, and convenience of a multiplex, kids’
corner, eateries, all under one roof.”
When asked about their future shopping preferences, all of the
respondents chose mall shopping over the unorganized market
shopping where one could find all the brands, entertainment as well
as food joints.
“If there is growth in the mall industry then it will eventually take
over all forms of unorganized market.”
“Malls are preferable. But there is no bargaining in malls and you at
times don’t get minute and little things, which you get from markets.
So, both hold their own importance.”
4. Facts & Findings
From the analysis above, it can be inferred that there is a slow and
steady change that is taking place and the preferences of the
Indian consumers are shifting from shopping in the unorganized
markets to shopping in the newly developed mall. The vast Indian
consumers’ population is varied among diverse income segments.
According to secondary data, there exists a significant difference in
the shopping patterns of consumers across these income segments
and there are no uniform trends in their buying behaviour. Items
such as milk, fruits, vegetables and a significant portion of ‘through-
the month’ purchases seem to be done at traditional outlets. The
middle income class prefers shopping for processed food and
personal care in supermarkets and fall back on traditional outlets
for bulk shopping. For them, organized retail outlets seem to be
associated with branded items/special purchases. Organized
retailing does not seem to have made an impact on the lower class,
except for ‘curiosity’ Mall shopping. This fact can also be supported
by the findings of my study as it was conducted on consumers who
belonged to varied income groups.
On the whole this study has found out that a large number of
consumers have started choosing the malls over the unorganized
markets for the purpose of shopping which is also associated with
leisure. The attributes of the malls, which attract the consumers
towards it and are responsible for this change of choice of the
consumers, have been represented in the form of a decision tree.
In this chapter, the analysis has been done by comparing the
findings with what has been said in the literature. A few extra points
that came up in the findings have also been analyzed and this fills
the gap in the studies that have been conducted. The significance
of the various mall attributes has also been discussed below.
4.1 Choice Variables for ShoppingMalls
Literature has stated that location is an important aspect of
marketing and a good location can be a source of competitive
advantage for the retail outlet. The factor of location of a shopping
mall does not seem to affecting the consumers’ visits to the mall.
They are still overawed by this new method of shopping, therefore
they even travel long distances to capture the advantage of getting
everything under one roof. However, their daily needs are still
fulfilled by the unorganized markets that are situated close to their
4.1.2 Shopping experience
The literature has been backed up by the findings that consumers
derive value from purchasing goods or services because of their
unique qualities. Mall developers have also tried to cope up in the
experience economy by providing the consumers with good store
ambience as well as entertaining and amusing experiences apart
from shopping. They have added movie theatres or keep organizing
live performances for the consumers in which they can get engaged
and enjoy their experience while shopping in the mall. Consumers
these days are becoming very variety seeking and searching for
novel and unique experiences. The shoppers in the market also
tend to look at visits to stores and malls as an enjoyable
experience, an outing for the family, receiving value for money
while shopping and also as an entertainment available there. Thus
the overall shopping experience which includes shopping, leisure
as well as entertainment is a key determinant of mall
Shopping malls have an important role to play in the formation of
the social identity of the shoppers as they are connected to
particular societal groups. Self image is also exceptionally
important for Indians, however, they do not tend to attach self
image with shopping in a shopping mall. This factor has been
falsified in the findings because India has not yet reached that
stage of development that it tends to associate image with a
shopping mall. The unorganized market in India still has a very
significant proportion; therefore, all consumers have to visit the
unorganized markets for the fulfillment of some or the other needs.
It does not affect his/ her personality or status. Thus image has not
been considered a substantial factor in the Indian context, when the
consumer chooses between a shopping mall and the unorganized
market for making purchases.
4.1.4 Price Sensitivity
Not much has been said about price sensitivity of consumers in the
existing literature. A large part of the population belongs to the
middle income group who cannot afford these luxurious brands.
Therefore, this was one of the additional major aspects that came
up in the research. Although, from secondary data it has been
found that the income level and the purchasing power of the Indian
consumers is increasing, majority of the retailers are still in the
perception that the most of the consumer population is still price
sensitive. From the consumers’ perspective, it has also been seen
that a high price level in the malls does not stop them from
purchasing what they want. On the whole, there has been seen a
slight positive change in the consumer spending habits with respect
to the price. Thus, it can be concluded that the consumers
shopping habits are changing slowly but surely.
It can be concluded from the research that the consumer markets in
India have potential for the future development of the retail industry
as the market is growing, government policies are becoming liberal
and the technological developments in the country are favorable for
operations in India. Due to these promising factors, more and more
retail investors have been encouraged to invest into the Indian
market which has further impelled investments in the real estate
industry. However, the success of malls in the long run in the Indian
market would involve attraction of diverse consumer segments
towards the malls which includes diverse income groups, nuclear
families, working women, etc. The provision of wide choice and the
comfort of being able to shop everything under one roof would
attract all these groups of buyers. The infrastructure and supply
chain mechanisms of mall are getting organized and spreading
across the country. This brought about a revolution in shopping in
terms of the consumer buying behaviour. With consumer
demographics becoming more and more favorable to the organized
segment of the retail industry and the increase in the availability of
retail space and a skilled workforce, there has been a
complimenting growth in retail chains, multi brand outlets and
integrated shopping malls. A variety of newer retail formats are
6. Recommendation and Suggestions
The Indian and international brands are using these retail malls as
a medium to spread themselves throughout the Indian cities in
these high profile brand format. They get the required image for
their brand, the environment and the clientele that they want in a
shopping mall which is difficult to achieve if they open an outlet in
the unorganized market. The most important activity for mall owner
is to attract the maximum number of people and to convert them
into buyers. A mix of attributes such as variety of stores in the mall,
the location of the shopping mall, the shopping experience offered
to the consumers in the shopping mall and the correct pricing of the
available merchandise would make a shopping mall successful in
the environment. Location, product mix, right footfall, right pricing,
strong infrastructural support, circulation and differential pricing are
the factors which will be sought and appreciated by the customers
and would lead to the success of the mall. If these attributes are
present in the shopping mall, they would further push the
consumers, who are already in the transitional phase of shifting
their preferences from the unorganized markets, towards shopping
in these malls.
In this section, recommendations for the shopping Pandya Group
and the retailers have been suggested to further this development
that is taking place in the real estate and the retail industries of
India which will also drive the changes in the shopping habits of the
6.1 Recommendationsfor the PandyaGroup
The Pandya Group have to realize that they have to create an
entire shopping destination for the shoppers which has a mix of
retail outlets, eating joints, entertainment places which offers them
the whole shopping experience. The promoters should take the
help of retail experts to create a balanced tenant mix so that the
shoppers are able to get everything they want under one roof,
which will solve their purpose of coming to the shopping mall. The
Pandya Group should try to create a specific image of the shopping
mall by the process of segmentation and creation of a particular
shopping environment. For example, the high end luxurious brands
and the brands for price sensitive consumers should not be put
under one roof. This will help them capture audience belonging to
different customer segments.
6.2 Recommendationsfor the Retailers
The organized retailers can be suggested to target the untapped
middle income group population. Another recommendation for the
retailers would be that they should build relationships with their
existing customer segments. The retailers should be well versed
with the consumer preferences and they should also offer them
additional services apart from the products. For developing loyal
customers, the employees of the retail organizations would play an
important role. Therefore, the must hire the right kind of employees
and train them.
7.1 Questionnaire for interview of the retailers in the
1. How long has it been since you have opened the shop in this
2. Why did you choose to open your outlet in the mall other than the
3. Do you have another retail outlet other than in this mall?
4. Do you reach the targeted sales level in this outlet or as much as
the other outlets?
5. What do you do to attract customers to your outlet?
6. What do you think can be done to attract customers to a mall?
7. What do you think of consumers’ perception of mall shopping?
8. What benefits do consumers obtain from coming to a mall rather
than the unorganized market? What effect do these benefits have
9. If you have to open a new outlet, would you choose to open it in
the upcoming malls?
7.2 Interview Questionnaire for Consumers
1. Given the choice of city mall and unorganized local markets in
India, where do you go for shopping?
2. How frequently do you go for shopping and out of that how many
times do you go to city mall?
3. Why do you shop in city mall/ unorganized market?
4. Do you associate leisure activities with the city mall?
5. Do you go to city mall for shopping, entertainment, eating out or
6. What all do you shop in city mall and what all from the market?
7. Given a choice to going to the same shop in the city mall and the
unorganized market, where would you go and what factors would
affect your decision?
8. Does proximity to the city mall affect your shopping decision?
9. Do you find a pricing difference in city mall and unorganized
market and does it affect your shopping habits?
10. How important is the whole shopping experience, and how do
you rate the shopping experience in city mall and in the
11. Do you associate image with shopping in the city mall? Does it
influence your personality/ status?
12. Eventually with the constant growth in the number of mall,
where would you prefer to shop?
1. Marketing Management Philip Kotler
2. Business Research Methods Cooper & Schindler
Magazine & Journal:
1. Business Line
2. Economic Times
1. WWW.Retail India.com