Video: What you never thought you might want to know

Tomer Gabel
Tomer GabelConsulting Engineer at Substrate Software Services
Video: What you never thought you might want to know,[object Object],… and some stuff you might actually care about,[object Object]
What shall we talk about?,[object Object],A little theory,[object Object],The video signal,[object Object],Picture elements,[object Object],Colorspaces,[object Object],… and some practice,[object Object],Video connectors,[object Object],Interlaced vs progressive,[object Object],Analog vs digital,[object Object]
In theory,[object Object],In the beginning was the cathode ray tube…,[object Object]
What’s a video signal?,[object Object],A stream of images (“frames”) played at a constant rate,[object Object],The frame rate must be high enough to fool the human brain into thinking that the motion is continuous (at least 15 frames per second),[object Object]
... and then?,[object Object],Woah, woah, hold up!,[object Object],What’s are these “images” you keep mentioning?,[object Object],An image is a matrix ofpicture elements, with a specific height and width,[object Object],Each of these elements (or “pixels”) has a specific color,[object Object]
… and then?,[object Object],Since the number of rows and columns is fixed, this is an approximation of the actual image,[object Object],The more pixels you fit into a given space, the more accurate the image is and the higher the resolution,[object Object]
… and then?,[object Object],So a pixel approximates a small sample of the image,[object Object],What is a pixel?,[object Object],That depends. The value of a pixel depends on the context, but in all cases it represents a color.,[object Object]
… and theeeen?,[object Object],A color is a vector, and it only has meaning given the correct vector space (or rather, colorspace),[object Object],The common ones are…,[object Object],RGB (or sRGB),[object Object],YUV/YPbPr/YCbCr,[object Object],CMYK,[object Object],HSB/HSV/HSL,[object Object],xvYCC,[object Object]
and then and then and then and then,[object Object]
In practice,[object Object],Now comes the stuff you may care about,[object Object]
Video connectors,[object Object],Legacy connections use analog video signaling:,[object Object],Pixels are sent over the wire using an analog encoding scheme,[object Object],Horizontal and vertical sync lines signal when a line or frame (respectively) begins and ends,[object Object],There are dramatic differences in image quality between systems,[object Object]
Analog video connections,[object Object],Composite video:,[object Object],[object Object]
 Multiplexed signal
Crappy qualityS-Video:,[object Object],[object Object]
 Separate chroma/lumen signals
Passable qualitySCART:,[object Object],[object Object]
 Carries audio
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Video: What you never thought you might want to know