Normal Language Development For Wctc


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  • This leads to disjointed conversations where topics are not shared. Usually by age 3 this does not happen anymore.
  • Narratives are not two sided like conversations. The burden for the information lies solely with the speaker. There are rules for narratives. They must be sequential. First, second, next, and last must be maintained. Also, a scene must be set.
  • Kids like to hear about themselves and about the important people in their lives
  • Normal Language Development For Wctc

    1. 1. Normal Language Development A Presentation by Holly Kloiber-Dumproff WCTC December 10, 2009
    2. 2. What is Language? <ul><li>Language is a complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes for thought and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary views of human language hold that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>language evolves within specific historical, social, and cultural contexts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language, as rule-governed behavior, is described by at least five parameters—phonologic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language learning and use are determined by the interaction of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental factors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effective use of language for communication requires a broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues, motivation, and sociocultural roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1982). Language [Relevant Paper]. Available from </li></ul>
    3. 3. Language is different from speech. <ul><li>Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What words mean (e.g., &quot;star&quot; can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to put words together (e.g., &quot;Peg walked to the new store&quot; rather than &quot;Peg walk store new&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What word combinations are best in what situations (&quot;Would you mind moving your foot?“ could quickly change to &quot;Get off my foot, please!&quot; if the first request did not produce results) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Speech is the verbal means of communicating. <ul><li>Speech consists of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation : How speech sounds are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the &quot;r&quot; sound in order to say &quot;rabbit&quot; instead of &quot;wabbit&quot;). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice : Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound (e.g., the voice can be abused from overuse or misuse and can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency : The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or stuttering can affect fluency </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Parts of Language Include <ul><li>Syntax=grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology=smallest unit of meaning within grammar (happy, unhappy, happier) </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics=social rules of language </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics=word meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology=sound rules in language </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics= rules of the alphabet </li></ul>
    6. 6. We expect kids to have a grasp of most of these <ul><li>By age 3 </li></ul>
    7. 7. The First Three Years <ul><li>Brain development occurs at such a rapid rate during this time </li></ul><ul><li>Language development during this period of time is central to a child’s later success with literacy and communication </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation is laid for the rest of the child’s life </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ages, Stages, and Accomplishments <ul><li>When does language start? </li></ul><ul><li>What are reasonable expectations for a child? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes language grow and mature? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we get where we need to be by age 3? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Language Development Starts Early <ul><li>Research shows that babies hear in utero </li></ul><ul><li>The sound of mom’s voice, music being played, and environmental sounds are the beginning of early language development </li></ul><ul><li>Ref-How babies talk: the magic and mystery of language in the first three years ... </li></ul><ul><li>  By Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek </li></ul>
    10. 10. What needs to happen at: 0-3 mos. <ul><li>Child can express needs through crying </li></ul><ul><li>Sooths to familiar sounds; caregiver’s voice, music, heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Coos </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal voicing-usually one syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes parents and favorite objects </li></ul><ul><li>Looks to parents and familiar objects </li></ul>
    11. 11. 3-6 mos. <ul><li>Laughs </li></ul><ul><li>Two syllable babble </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes caregiver voice </li></ul>
    12. 12. 6-9 mos. <ul><li>Raspberries </li></ul><ul><li>Polysyllabic babble </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Tracking </li></ul>
    13. 13. 9-12 mos. <ul><li>First attempt at “Mama” or “Dada” </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits to “No” </li></ul><ul><li>Imitate gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Play simple games </li></ul><ul><li>Can follow 1 step command with a gesture </li></ul>
    14. 14. 12-18 mos. <ul><li>First words begin to develop (50+) </li></ul><ul><li>Describes wants in 1-2 word utterances </li></ul><ul><li>Points and labels objects </li></ul><ul><li>Follows simple directions (1 step) </li></ul><ul><li>Half of children this age are understood by strangers </li></ul>
    15. 15. 2 years <ul><li>Expresses thoughts in 2-3 words utterances </li></ul><ul><li>Understands basic prepositional concepts (on, under, over, next to) </li></ul><ul><li>Can describe items by their use </li></ul><ul><li>Has conversations across several turns </li></ul>
    16. 16. 3-4 years <ul><li>Obtains information through questions (or, The Why Years) </li></ul><ul><li>Average 3 year old asks 500 questions a day! </li></ul><ul><li>Uses complete sentences with increasing vocabulary variety (pronouns used, adjectives appear, verb tenses played with) </li></ul><ul><li>The average 4 year old says 1400 words per hour! </li></ul><ul><li>The average 4 year old understands 10 new words per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Knows so many words it is impossible to count them </li></ul>
    17. 17. This cannot happen without outside influences
    18. 18. 0-3 years Language Models Are Given Through <ul><li>Caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul>
    19. 19. Conversation is King <ul><li>Conversation is like a game of catch </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning, the child waits for the ball to be thrown to him or her about half the time </li></ul><ul><li>“ Balls” can only be thrown one at a time </li></ul><ul><li>By throwing a ball, you have contributed to someone’s conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Your job is to “catch” the ball by responding appropriately, then throwing the ball back </li></ul>
    20. 20. Early Conversations <ul><li>Often the child will “catch” the ball, but then not throw back </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mother “Hi Janey! How are you?” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Janey smiles. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Early Conversations <ul><li>Sometimes the child will let the speaker’s ball fall to the ground, and toss one of their own balls back </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. “Hi Janey! How are you?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I want a new dolly.” </li></ul>
    22. 22. Conversational skills… <ul><li>Improve with practice </li></ul><ul><li>Become more efficient as the child masters syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and morphology </li></ul>
    23. 23. How do we have “conversations” with babies? <ul><li>Joint attention </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel play </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Back and forth games </li></ul>
    24. 24. How do we have conversations with toddlers? <ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Use topics of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul>
    25. 25. How do we have conversations with young children? <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend play </li></ul><ul><li>Expand and enrich </li></ul><ul><li>Explain (Answer the 500 questions as best possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul>
    26. 26. 3-5 The Early Childhood Adventure
    27. 27. Narrative: a series of sentences that present an orderly and interconnected sequence of events
    28. 28. What are narrative skills? <ul><li>After 36 months, conversation shifts from “here and now” to more abstract topics </li></ul><ul><li>Children start to develop the ability to tell someone (who wasn’t at the event) what already happened </li></ul>
    29. 29. Narrative skills require <ul><li>Increased levels of language understanding (syntax, semantics, phonology, morphology) </li></ul><ul><li>World knowledge </li></ul>
    30. 30. Example of a narrative at 33 months <ul><li>We bought a baby. Cause, the, well, because, when she, well, we thought it was for Christmas, but when we went to the store we didn’t have our jacket on, but I saw some dolly, and I yelled at my mother and I said I want one of those dolly. So after we finished with the store, we went over to the dolly and she bought me one. So I have one. </li></ul><ul><li>Ref-How babies talk: the magic and mystery of language in the first three years ... </li></ul><ul><li>  By Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek </li></ul>
    31. 31. What would you ask that little girl?
    32. 32. How do we improve narrative skills in children? <ul><li>Children learn narrative skills by overhearing adults produce narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Adults help children produce early narratives by creating structure and asking the child to “fill in the blanks” </li></ul><ul><li>Adults ask pertinent questions after the narrative to help the child fill in the missing information </li></ul>
    33. 33. Narratives are… <ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Scene based </li></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><li>Does this sound like anything else? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Ways to include narratives <ul><li>Experience books </li></ul><ul><li>Show and tell </li></ul><ul><li>Open ended questions (“tell me about your day…”) </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and tell </li></ul>
    35. 35. Language and Literacy <ul><li>Research has shown strong evidence that children who have a firm grasp of expressive and receptive language skills by age 3; transition into reading and writing skills with greater ease </li></ul>
    36. 36. Early language learning is… <ul><li>Essential to literacy </li></ul><ul><li>A predictor of later success </li></ul><ul><li>Something that doesn’t “just happen” </li></ul>
    37. 37. Holly Kloiber-Dumproff M.S.;CCC-SLP Speech-language Consultant Wisconsin Educational Services Program for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach [email_address]