Gerunds
Holly Cin
Summer 2013
Functions of Gerunds
 Because gerunds are nouns, they can be used just as nouns are used.
HOW ARE NOUNS USED?
1. Gerunds ...
Functions of Gerunds
4. Gerunds are also object complements
 He spends time reading.
 She found him working in the kitch...
Modifying Gerunds
 Gerunds can be modified with possessives and negatives.
Gerunds can be modified with a noun or object ...
Modifying Gerunds
 Use the possessive noun or possessive pronoun with formal English.
 I’m unhappy with Lissi’s missing ...
Gerunds follow certain verbs
as objects
Enjoy, quit (give
up), appreciate, mind, finish, stop
(quit), avoid, postpone, de...
Examples
 Muteb doesn’t enjoy traveling.
 Ameed wants Faisal to quit smoking.
 I appreciate the students’ coming on tim...
Go + Gerund
 Did you go shopping?
 We went fishing yesterday.
 Have you ever gone camping?
 Do you like to go hunting?...
Special expressions
followed by gerunds
 Have fun
 What do you have fun doing?
 Have a good time
 I had a good time ha...
Special expressions followed
by gerunds
 Have difficulty
 Are you having difficulty staying awake today?
 Have a hard t...
Special expressions followed
by gerunds
 Sit + expression of place+ gerund
I was just sitting in my seat minding my own b...
Active and Passive Gerunds
 Active Gerund:
 Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her
part.
 Passive Gerun...
Active and Passive Gerunds
 Past Active Gerund:
 Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good. (She was
glad sh...
Active and Passive Gerunds
 You’re probably wondering why you would ever need to use
something as complicated as a past p...
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Gerunds5 cde

  1. 1. Gerunds Holly Cin Summer 2013
  2. 2. Functions of Gerunds  Because gerunds are nouns, they can be used just as nouns are used. HOW ARE NOUNS USED? 1. Gerunds are subjects  Example: Skiing is a popular winter sport. 2. Gerunds are objects  Example: I love skiing. 3. Gerunds are objects of prepositions  Example: I can’t live without skiing!  I’m interested in skiing.  Let’s talk about skiing.  I’m afraid of skiing.
  3. 3. Functions of Gerunds 4. Gerunds are also object complements  He spends time reading.  She found him working in the kitchen.  Don’t waste your time studying this stuff.  I caught the students cheating on the exam.  Saad found Ahmed smoking outside.  Zahra and Nimsi saw Joyce chatting with Rena and Olivia.
  4. 4. Modifying Gerunds  Gerunds can be modified with possessives and negatives. Gerunds can be modified with a noun or object pronoun or the possessive noun or the possessive pronoun. I appreciate YOUR participating in the survey. Nouf doesn’t mind MY reading her letter. I thanked Nouri for HIS coming early to help me. Would you mind NOT BEING late tomorrow? I’m unhappy about the students’ interrupting the lecture.
  5. 5. Modifying Gerunds  Use the possessive noun or possessive pronoun with formal English.  I’m unhappy with Lissi’s missing class.  I’m unhappy with her missing class.  I’m upset about your missing class.  I’m disappointed with his missing class.  Use the noun object or object pronoun with informal English.  I’m unhappy with Lissi missing class.  I’m unhappy with her missing class.  I’m upset about you missing class.  I’m disappointed with him missing class.
  6. 6. Gerunds follow certain verbs as objects Enjoy, quit (give up), appreciate, mind, finish, stop (quit), avoid, postpone, delay, ke ep, keep on, consider, discuss, mention, s uggest
  7. 7. Examples  Muteb doesn’t enjoy traveling.  Ameed wants Faisal to quit smoking.  I appreciate the students’ coming on time to class.  Would you mind opening the door for me?  Would you mind helping me with these bags?  You have to finish working by 5 p.m. tonight.  Don’t avoid taking the test.  Holly suggested my reviewing the material before taking the test.  Keep moving! Don’t stop!  I kept on speaking even after my mother hung up the phone on me.  Would you consider staying for a while?
  8. 8. Go + Gerund  Did you go shopping?  We went fishing yesterday.  Have you ever gone camping?  Do you like to go hunting?  Let’s go skating this weekend.  My kids and I love to go swimming.
  9. 9. Special expressions followed by gerunds  Have fun  What do you have fun doing?  Have a good time  I had a good time hanging out with my friends.  Spend time  Many guys enjoy spending time playing video games.  Waste time  Let’s not waste time reviewing material that you already know.  Have trouble  Some people have trouble adapting to new situations.
  10. 10. Special expressions followed by gerunds  Have difficulty  Are you having difficulty staying awake today?  Have a hard time  Is anyone having a hard time understanding what I’m saying here?  Have a difficult time  I hope that nobody has a difficult time passing level 5!
  11. 11. Special expressions followed by gerunds  Sit + expression of place+ gerund I was just sitting in my seat minding my own business when the teacher asked me to leave!  Stand + expression of place + gerund I’m sorry I’m late. I was standing on line waiting for my name to be called.
  12. 12. Active and Passive Gerunds  Active Gerund:  Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her part.  Passive Gerund:  Being invited to her wedding was a great surprise to them.
  13. 13. Active and Passive Gerunds  Past Active Gerund:  Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good. (She was glad she had invited them to the wedding).  I’m happy having been your teacher. (I’m happy now that I was your teacher before now).  Past Passive Gerund:  They were so happy having been invited to her wedding. (They were so happy that they had been invited).  I hope you’re happy having been taught by me. (I hope that you’re happy now that I taught you in the past).
  14. 14. Active and Passive Gerunds  You’re probably wondering why you would ever need to use something as complicated as a past passive gerund...  It helps us express something that happened one step back in the past (similar to past perfect). EXAMPLE: I hate being ignored (in general). I’m so upset at having been ignored. (I was ignored yesterday at the meeting. It bothers me NOW that they ignored me THEN).

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