Prelude to Revolutions Joshua M. Holloway
Revolutions: Union <ul><li>1603: Scottish King ascended the English throne as James I; Scotland and England united </li></...
Revolutions: Pirates <ul><li>England’s leaders protected and invested  in pirate enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>New York, So...
The Atlantic: News <ul><li>Increased volume of shipping improved flow of transatlantic information </li></ul><ul><li>Incre...
The Atlantic: Scots <ul><li>145,000 Scots crossed the Atlantic between 1707 and 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer than the Eng...
Awakenings: Revival <ul><li>18 th  century: congregational and evangelical churches had periodic revivals </li></ul><ul><l...
Awakenings: Old Lights and New Lights <ul><li>Evangilicans considered New Lights; believed in new dispensations of Divine ...
Awakenings: Radicals <ul><li>New Lights became divided themselves into Moderates and Radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Both invol...
Awakenings: Race <ul><li>Before 1740: ministers didn’t even bother attempting to convert slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Indians ...
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Prelude to revolutions

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Prelude to revolutions

  1. 1. Prelude to Revolutions Joshua M. Holloway
  2. 2. Revolutions: Union <ul><li>1603: Scottish King ascended the English throne as James I; Scotland and England united </li></ul><ul><li>Scots urged political independence; English wanted tighter union </li></ul><ul><li>English threatened to close the border to trade </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland (1 million, poor) vs. English (5 million, rich) </li></ul><ul><li>Scots gave up their own parliament and made the best of the English Empire </li></ul>
  3. 3. Revolutions: Pirates <ul><li>England’s leaders protected and invested in pirate enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>New York, South Carolina and Jamaica were notorious for hosting pirates </li></ul><ul><li>1700: pirates had become liabilities to a successful empire </li></ul><ul><li>Offended sailors often switched to pirates in order to exact revenge on brutal merchant captains </li></ul><ul><li>1730: Pirates virtually gone; safe sailing </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Atlantic: News <ul><li>Increased volume of shipping improved flow of transatlantic information </li></ul><ul><li>Increased information from England stimulated development of colonial newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>London news—for colonies—afforded political stability and foreign relations </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Atlantic: Scots <ul><li>145,000 Scots crossed the Atlantic between 1707 and 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer than the English, Scots had more incentive to go </li></ul><ul><li>Lowland Scots were tradesmen going for economic opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Highland and Ulster Scots came in large groups to get away from deteriorating conditions in Scotland </li></ul>
  6. 6. Awakenings: Revival <ul><li>18 th century: congregational and evangelical churches had periodic revivals </li></ul><ul><li>Revival: “surges in fervor and new members” </li></ul><ul><li>Northampton's Reverend Stoddard had more revivals than any other church </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers preached sermons of impending doom towards Hell to stimulate revivals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Awakenings: Old Lights and New Lights <ul><li>Evangilicans considered New Lights; believed in new dispensations of Divine Grace </li></ul><ul><li>Old Lights defended the old ways and Traditions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Awakenings: Radicals <ul><li>New Lights became divided themselves into Moderates and Radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Both involved in “experimental Religion” but differed of involvement of Church and State </li></ul><ul><li>Radicals wanted Government to stay out of Religion; His Divine Grace being the only laws that actually matter on this Earth </li></ul>
  9. 9. Awakenings: Race <ul><li>Before 1740: ministers didn’t even bother attempting to convert slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Indians and Africans remained out Church establishments; hardened sinners </li></ul><ul><li>Great Awakening revived attempts to convert Indians into religion </li></ul><ul><li>New Lights tried to intertwine Christianity into their culture to ease the conversion </li></ul>

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