Project based learning group literature review


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Project based learning group literature review
Heather Holden
Edwina McGowen
Talisha Keith

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Project based learning group literature review

  1. 1. Windy Gowen <br />Project Based Learning Literature Review <br /><br />Project Based learning is an instructional approach that uses authentic learning activities to engage student learning and motivation. The approach teaches 21st century skills. The skills include communication skills, presentation skills, time management, group participation, critical thinking skills, and leadership skills. <br />There are several important elements of project based learning. PBL gives students a voice. Students are able to express opinions and reflect on their ideas. Project based learning provides authentic activities that are connected to the real world. The activities are designed to solve a problem centered around the everyday world.<br />Administration and teachers provide support and encouragement. The staff acts as a facilitator to the project. The projects are graded based on effort and outcome. Students do receive individual grades for their projects. <br />In summary, project based learning is a process that teaches students to really learn while engaged in their content. It is an approach that teaches thinking skills while incorporating standards with a focus on 21st century skills.<br />Talisha Keith<br />PBL Literature Review<br />Project-Based Learning <br />Project-Based Learning (PBL) is a student-centered model that involves enquiry and research in a group learning environment. Through Project-Based Learning students are introduced to real-world skills where they are given the opportunity to perform a deep study giving them a developmental outlook on projects. This style of learning is facilitated by two essential components: a driving question or issue that serves to classify and carry out activities and the conclusion of products or morn than one representations as a series of artifacts, personal communication, or a substantial task that meaningfully addresses the driven question (Brown & Campione, 1994).<br />Project-Based Learning in the Elementary School<br />Project-Based Learning is being used through out all levels of elementary schools where all objectives are engaged. Students are given a question linked the curricular grade level content. Questions and topics related closely to the everyday experiences of students in order for them to raise valid questions. Basic mathematical and literacy skills are implemented within topics and are able to be integrated amongst several subject areas. (Chard, 1998). Students of all ages are given the opportunity to be in charge of their own learning. Primary students might be asked to engage in a community worker project where they must make lists of individuals that work in their community, discuss, write, and draw about experience they have with these individuals, and brainstorm what they want answered. From this point students may contact these individuals, visit their place of employment, and follow up by responding in writing and drawing what they learned. Students in the upper elementary area might consider a similar project; however, the use of technology (i.e. PowerPoint presentations, web pages, video presentation) would be required. <br />Results of Project Based Learning<br />The use of Project Based Learning allows students to implement real-life problem solving skills into their everyday lives. Students who are given this opportunity are more likely to become deeply engaged in the learning process finding it easier to retain information compared to that of more traditional approaches. In order for project-based technology to be used effectively, teachers must have a deeply rooted understanding of the embedded concepts of a project. The facilitator must be able to model to students the appropriate way to think and solve problems (Blumenfeld et al., 1991). With out a clear purpose and strong leadership, project-based learning can turn into an activity with no clear purpose. Technology in the classroom along with the implementation of Project Based Learning aide in the research and evaluation of all students and promote the ability and desire to become a life-long learner (Thomas, 2000).<br />Summary<br />In closing, project-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about working groups in a realistic manner. Students are given the opportunity to formulate questions, study and work towards their findings, and reflect on the results. The role of the instructor is to provide an appropriate instructional process by asking driving questions, providing feedback and resources, leading the classroom in discussion, and designing a fitting assignment. Students are given the opportunity to take responsibility amongst their group members and organize the learning process. Project-Based Learning is a key instillation of everyday skills into the minds of our youth.<br />Citations<br />Blumenfeld, P., Soloway, E., Marx, R., Krajcik, J., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26(3, 4), 369–398.<br />Brown, A.L., & Campione, J.C. (1994). Guided discovery in a community of learners.<br />Chard, Sylvia C. The Project Approach: Making Curriculum Come Alive. Scholastic. 1998. <br />Thomas, John W. (2000). A Review on Research on Project-Based Learning.<br />Heather Holden<br />PBL Literature Review <br />Project Based Learning<br />Project based learning develops curriculum where authentic learning engages students in discovery activities that build a student’s knowledge base. This is done by creating a challenge question that leads the students into a problem solving activity in order to answer the question. This is a successful program because it not only increases student achievement, but it also prepares students from day one for the world outside the classroom. (<br />There are seven essential elements to creating project based learning in the classroom. The driving question or challenge focuses the students on a topic that lends itself to debate, discussion, and inquiry which help to give depth to their learning experiences. This is seen in the second element, inquiry and innovation. The students learn something new by building on prior knowledge. This also helps with the need to know element, guiding kids through research skills and narrowing down important information from a source. All of these first elements combine to build within a student critical 21st century skills that would apply easily in a work environment. These are skills such as collaboration, critical thinking, and problem solving. Another 21st century skill is communication, which develops in the element of student voice and choice. This is built in to the project because the group gets to make some choices in how they will go about answering the design question and presenting their information. The voice is developed as students learn new information and make the knowledge their own, applying it to new situations and environments, and becoming comfortable with where it fits in to their current way of thinking. As the project winds down this model guides students to self-reflect and peer feedback within the group before final revisions are made. Once that is accomplished the final piece, the project presentation, truly brings home the 21st century skills that will help these students in the working world. (<br />While Project Based Learning has seven different elements, they are all equally important. Without a strong guiding question and training for students on how to do inquiry based learning, the curriculum would fail. If a strong PBL program is instilled with proper teacher training, it can blow the student achievement scores out of the water. In countries such as Finland, where standardized testing is minimal to none, the focus is on curriculum development. The priority is personalized learning and creativity in curriculum and student learning. Both of these are accentuated by project based learning. This type of learning prevails in Finland – not just for students, but in teacher training facilities as well. (“Lessons from Finland” American Educator, Vol 35 No. 2 Summer 2011 pages 34-38)<br />