Developmental Theories
Module C Lesson 1 Tutorial
Created by: Professor Hokerson
American River College
Last Updated: Fall...
Using this Tutorial
 Use the navigation buttons at the bottom of
the screen.
 Click on hyperlinks when prompted.
 Have ...
Table of Contents (TOC)
 Objectives
◦ Module Objectives #11, 12, 15, and 18
 Action Items
 Cognitive Development
 Emot...
MODULE C OBJECTIVES
By the end of this tutorial you will be able to…
#11 - Describe cognitive development according to Jea...
ACTION ITEMS
Introduction to Cognition
 There are many cognitive theories presented in Chapter 9
but this tutorial will cover the foll...
Cognitive Development
(Piaget) Read: Chapter 9 pages 368 – 372
 Activity: Complete section A of the Developmental
Theori...
Cognitive Development
(continued)
 Summary: Here are simple summaries of Piaget’s stages.
 Sensorimotor– the infant is e...
Cognitive Development
(Vygotsky)
 Question: If cognition develops with age, what
causes those qualitative changes?
 Hint...
Moral Reasoning
 Read: The Development of Moral Reasoning, Chapter
9 pages 381 - 383
 Question: How do Kohlberg and Gill...
Haidt’s Moral Principles
 Think! Another alternative to Kohlberg and Gilligan’s theories is
this belief that we all share...
Social Development (Erikson)
 Read: Social
Development and
Identity Formation in
Chapter 9 pages 378 –
381.
 Activity: C...
Stage Progression
 Erikson’s theory focuses on the gradual
unfolding changes that occur throughout
the lifespan.
◦ During...
The Importance of Identity
According to Erik Erikson…
 The most significant
conflict is faced during
adolescence.
 Every...
Adolescence Revisited
 Hint! There are many factors that influence resolution
of this identity conflict during adolescenc...
Bringing It All Together
 There is much
research that helps to
explain what makes us
who we are.
 Simulation: Here is a
...
Conclusions
 There are many different theories of research, each
offering a unique glance it to development!
◦ Piaget stu...
MODULE C OBJECTIVES
By the end of this tutorial you should now be able to…
#11 - Describe cognitive development according ...
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Developmental Theories Turtorial

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This tutorial is intended for ARC students enrolled in my online Psyc 300 class at American River College and corresponds with Module C Lesson 1.

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Developmental Theories Turtorial

  1. 1. Developmental Theories Module C Lesson 1 Tutorial Created by: Professor Hokerson American River College Last Updated: Fall 2015
  2. 2. Using this Tutorial  Use the navigation buttons at the bottom of the screen.  Click on hyperlinks when prompted.  Have fun and learn!
  3. 3. Table of Contents (TOC)  Objectives ◦ Module Objectives #11, 12, 15, and 18  Action Items  Cognitive Development  Emotional Development  Moral Reasoning  Conclusions
  4. 4. MODULE C OBJECTIVES By the end of this tutorial you will be able to… #11 - Describe cognitive development according to Jean Piaget and the qualitative differences that are achieved during each stage. # 12 - Explain the criticisms of Jean Piaget’s theory. # 15 – Summarize psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson and the psychosocial conflicts that are achieved during each stage. #18 - Contrast Lawrence Kohlberg , Carol Gilligan, and John Haidt’s theories of moral reasoning.
  5. 5. ACTION ITEMS
  6. 6. Introduction to Cognition  There are many cognitive theories presented in Chapter 9 but this tutorial will cover the following theorists: ◦ Jean Piaget ◦ Lawrence Kohlberg ◦ Carol Gilligan  Individually each contributes a unique perspective on understanding why we think the way we do.  Together they provide a strong foundation for understanding cognitive development throughout the lifespan.
  7. 7. Cognitive Development (Piaget) Read: Chapter 9 pages 368 – 372  Activity: Complete section A of the Developmental Theories Worksheet.  Then check your answers against the table on page 372.  Tips: Here are some basic conclusions about Piaget’s theory.  He studied qualitative differences in how we think.  By adolescence we have all of the cognitive structures necessary.  We progress through each stage.  With experience we get better at thinking!
  8. 8. Cognitive Development (continued)  Summary: Here are simple summaries of Piaget’s stages.  Sensorimotor– the infant is exploring his/her environment through his senses. What is not directly in front of him/her is considered gone.  The pre-operational child is able to represent his world even when it is not right in front of him/her. It is difficult if not impossible for this child to think outside of his own experiences. He/she lacks logical thought.  The concrete operational child has mastered the law of conservation and can begin to think outside of him/herself. He/she is thinking more and more logically but still lacks the ability to think in abstract terms.  The formal operational individual has now developed the ability to think beyond him/herself, to abstract, and think hypothetically.
  9. 9. Cognitive Development (Vygotsky)  Question: If cognition develops with age, what causes those qualitative changes?  Hint: Even Piaget acknowledges the environmental factors that influence cognitive development. But it’s Vygotsky’s theory that addresses how culture influences its development!  Read: Criticism 2 in Chapter 9, page 373  Question: What can parents and teachers do to encourage cognitive development?
  10. 10. Moral Reasoning  Read: The Development of Moral Reasoning, Chapter 9 pages 381 - 383  Question: How do Kohlberg and Gilligan’s theories differ?  Summary: Here are a couple of conclusions you should make about the study of moral reasoning:  Kohlberg is more concerned at the thought processes that bring us to make moral decisions, what he calls the process of moral reasoning.  Although his is a stage theory not everybody will make it through all of Kohlberg’s stages.
  11. 11. Haidt’s Moral Principles  Think! Another alternative to Kohlberg and Gilligan’s theories is this belief that we all share the same fundamental moral values, but that our moral differences can be explained by which moral values are more important to us!  Click on this link to read more about John Haidt’s 5 fundamental moral principles.  Morality Quiz: What are your moral values? Click on this link and complete the “Moral Foundations Questionnaire” to find out. You will need to register first.  Activity: Complete Part B of the Developmental Theories Worksheet. Do you want to learn more about Haidt and how he has applied his theory of morality? Click here to watch his TED talk!
  12. 12. Social Development (Erikson)  Read: Social Development and Identity Formation in Chapter 9 pages 378 – 381.  Activity: Complete Part C of the Developmental Theories Worksheet.  Simulation: Here is a great summary of Erikson’s stages of development with a quiz at the end!
  13. 13. Stage Progression  Erikson’s theory focuses on the gradual unfolding changes that occur throughout the lifespan. ◦ During each stage of life every person faces a psychosocial conflict.  If that task is not positively resolved during this stage, he/she will continue to move on however negative resolve sets up for difficulties in resolving future conflicts.
  14. 14. The Importance of Identity According to Erik Erikson…  The most significant conflict is faced during adolescence.  Every conflict before has led to this one!  Every conflict after it is dependent upon its resolution!
  15. 15. Adolescence Revisited  Hint! There are many factors that influence resolution of this identity conflict during adolescence!  Read: “Factors Affecting the Timing of Puberty” and “Effects of Early versus Late Maturation” In Chapter 9 pages 385 – 386.  Read: “The Adolescent Brain: A Work in Progress” in Chapter 9 pages 376– 377. ◦ Looking for more about the teenage brain? PBS has an entire website dedicated to research on the adolescent brain – click here to read more!
  16. 16. Bringing It All Together  There is much research that helps to explain what makes us who we are.  Simulation: Here is a great all-in-one summary of the physical, cognitive, and emotional changes that from pre- natal development throughout the lifespan!
  17. 17. Conclusions  There are many different theories of research, each offering a unique glance it to development! ◦ Piaget studied the qualitative differences in how we think as we age. ◦ Vygotsky focused on how our environments must create opportunities for this growth, which vary for each individual. ◦ Kohlberg attempted to explain the processes that drive moral thought, but his research methods may have been too narrow. ◦ Erikson studied social development throughout the lifespan and emphasized the importance of forming identity.  Although there may be contradictions together they help to explain what makes us who we are!
  18. 18. MODULE C OBJECTIVES By the end of this tutorial you should now be able to… #11 - Describe cognitive development according to Jean Piaget and the qualitative differences that are achieved during each stage. # 12 - Explain the criticisms of Jean Piaget’s theory. # 15 – Summarize psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson and the psychosocial conflicts that are achieved during each stage. #18 - Contrast Lawrence Kohlberg , Carol Gilligan, and John Haidt’s theories of moral reasoning.

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