The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a modelof intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather thanseeing it as dominated by a single general ability.Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are onlyvery weak correlations among them. For example, the theory predicts that a child wholearns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who hasmore difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach,2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or3) may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at afundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such afundamentally deeper understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hidea mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizesthe multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process ofmultiplication.
Gardner believes that eight abilities meet these criteria: a. Spatial b. Linguistic c. Logical-mathematical d. Bodily-kinesthetic e. Musical f. Interpersonal g. Intrapersonal h. NaturalisticHe considers that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy ofinclusion.The first three are closely linked to fluid ability, and the verbal and spatialabilities that form the hierarchical model of intelligence
Logical-mathematicalThis area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers. While it isoften assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics,chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a moreaccurate definition places less emphasis on traditional mathematical ability andmore on reasoning capabilities, recognizing abstract patterns, scientific thinkingand investigation and the ability to perform complex calculations.[citationneeded] Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to generalability.SpatialThis area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mindseye. Careers which suit those with this type of intelligence include artists,designers and architects. A spatial person is also good with puzzles.[citationneeded] Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchicalmodel of intelligence.
LinguisticThis area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with high verbal-linguisticintelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good atreading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. They tend to learnbest by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and by discussing and debating aboutwhat they have learned. Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learnforeign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an abilityto understand and manipulate syntax and structure. Verbal ability is oneof the most g-loaded abilities.Bodily-kinestheticIn theory, people who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involvingmuscular movement (e.g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience),and are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance. They may enjoyacting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. Theyoften learn best by doing something physically, rather than by reading or hearing about it.Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed"muscle memory," drawing on it to supplement or in extreme cases even substitute forother skills such as verbal memory.Careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians,actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can beduplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learningthat is needed in this intelligence.
MusicalThis area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with ahigh musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch,and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is astrong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learnbest via lecture. Language skills are typically highly developed in those whose baseintelligence is musical. In addition, they will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn.They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.Research measuring the effects of music on second language acquisition is supportive ofthis music-language connection. In an investigation conducted on a group of elementary-aged English language learners, music facilitated their language learning.  Gardnerstheory may help to explain why music and its sub-componenets (i.e., stress, pitch,rhythm) may be viable vehicles for second language learning.InterpersonalThis area has to do with interaction with others. In theory, people who have a highinterpersonal intelligence tend to be extroverts, characterized by their sensitivity to othersmoods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order towork as part of a group. They communicate effectively and empathize easily with others,and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with othersand often enjoy discussion and debate.
IntrapersonalThis area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to havinga deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes youunique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions. Philosophical and criticalthinking is common with this intelligence. Many people with this intelligence are authors,psychologists, counselors, philosophers, and members of the clergy.NaturalisticThis area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings.Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocksand mountain types; and the applied knowledge of nature in farming, mining, etc. Careerswhich suit those with this intelligence include naturalists, farmers and gardeners.
ExistentialSome proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligenceas a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence,but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct. The hypothesisof an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infiniteand infinitesimal. Careers or callings which suit those with this intelligence includeshamans, priests, mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists and philosophers.And there are 8 abilities