The Amazing World of Fungus and Protists Designed by yours truly….so you better appreciate it!
What is a protist? <ul><li>Eukaryotes that are not classified as animals, plants or fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Protists are classified by the way they obtain nutrition </li></ul>
3 Types of Protists <ul><li>Animal-like protists- Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Plant-like protists- algae and kelp, photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus-like protists-decomposers, slime molds </li></ul>
Protozoa or animal-like Protists Zooflagellates Move using flagella Giardia and Trypanosoma Causes stomach upsets, diarrhea, comes from contaminated water Causes African sleeping sickness, spread by the tsetse fly
Fungus-like protists-slime molds These are NASTY! Very much like real fungus because it makes fungus like hairs on it and makes sporangia and fruiting bodies. Slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews Irish potato famine was caused by a downy mildew.
Fungus-like protists They are like real fungus because they break down organic material and are important decomposers and recyclers in the ecosystem. Thank you Mr. fungus-like protist!
Plant-like protists <ul><li>Include algae </li></ul><ul><li>Include euglenoids-single-celled photosynthetic protists, they are green </li></ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates cause red tide, mostly unicellular </li></ul>
Plankton-microscopic organisms <ul><li>Phytoplankton- photosynthetic protists that often float along with the currents of the ocean, include dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton- animal-like protists in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Plankton makes the base of the food chain in many ecosystems </li></ul>
Other plant like protists <ul><li>Diatoms have a glass like shell surrounding them </li></ul><ul><li>Seaweeds aren’t actually plants but a form of algae which is a protist </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 kinds of algae, green, brown and red, which are used for many purposes </li></ul>
Plants, fungi and animals evolved from protists. <ul><li>Endosymbiotic theory suggests that organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were capture protists that formed a relationship with early animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria and chloroplasts have separate DNA with the rest of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>They have double membranes indicating they were “folded” in to the early cells </li></ul>
YAY, we love fungus! <ul><li>Hyphae are tiny threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and a cell wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae are wound together and make up most of the fungus and when they branch out and grow underground, they form an interwoven mat o stuff called a mycelium </li></ul>
There’s a fungus among us! <ul><li>Fungus feed by decomposing other organisms and absorbing the nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi reproduce using spores. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 types of fungus classified by reproductive structures and physical structures. </li></ul>
The Zygote Fungi (Zygomycota) Some types of mold are actually zygote fungi. Makes structures called sporangia which they reproduce asexually with during times of prosperity and abundant nutrition. Make structures called zygosporangium to reproduce sexually when times are tough. This helps them tolerate harsh conditions.
Sac Fungi- Ascomycota Include many that we can eat like morels and truffles. They form reproductive structures called the fruiting body which is what we see and sometimes eat. Forms an ascus which is the sac in which the cells fuse to create spores to reproduce.
The Club Fungi- Basiomycota Includes most of the fungi you are familiar with Mushrooms yay!!!!!!! Forms structures called basidium which is used for reproduction. Makes fairy rings. Fairy rings are the outer edges of the fungus mycelium. Some mushrooms grow rapidly and appear within a few hours.
Yeasts Makes great bread but stinks when you have athlete’s foot. Reproduce asexually like bacteria through budding and simple cell division. One of the few single-celled types of fungi
Imperfect fungi Some fungi are confused and are types of yeast but reproduce using an ascus like a sac fungus or a basidium like a club fungus. Sometimes nothing is know about their reproduction so they are classified as imperfect. Yeast cell Who you callin’ imperfect?!!
Other notes <ul><li>Some fungi which look like molds are actually classified as other things because of their reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Pencillium is a bread “mold” but is classified as a sac fungus because is produces an ascus. </li></ul><ul><li>A mold is classified as anything which is a fungus that grows fast, so that could mean pretty much anything. </li></ul>
Fungi have a major impact on other life. <ul><li>Fungi are symbiotic in some cases. </li></ul><ul><li>A lichen is a pairing between a fungus and an algae. The fungus is a sac fungus because it does produce an ascus or fruiting body. </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizae are found in 90% of all tree species. This fungus increases the surface area of the roots to improve nutrition absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Some plants, (mostly endangered) can’t grow without their mycorrhizae partners. </li></ul>
Disease Causing Fungi <ul><li>Of the 100,000 known species of fungi, about 30% are </li></ul><ul><li>parasites mostly on or in plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Elm disease has eliminated most elm trees in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>It evolved in Europe and was accidently transported in </li></ul><ul><li>logs to America. American elms did not grow up with the fungus and had no resistance to it. </li></ul><ul><li>About 50 species of fungus are known to be parasitic on animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are yeast infections of the lungs which can be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Other fungal parasites produce a skin disease called ringworm because it forms red rings on the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Another highly contagious condition is athlete’s foot. </li></ul>
Commercial Uses of Fungi <ul><li>Truffles are a delicacy that are hunted by dogs and pigs that can smell them underground. </li></ul><ul><li>They cost hundreds of dollars per kilogram and are used in fancy restaurants. </li></ul><ul><li>A certain strain of Penicillium is inject into cheese which ripens and forms bleu cheese. </li></ul>
The Role of Fungi in Chemical Cycling <ul><li>Fungi and bacteria are the principal decomposers that supply ecosystems with the nutrients essential for plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi destroy 10-50% of the world’s fruit harvest every year. </li></ul><ul><li>The air is completely loaded with fungal spores. </li></ul><ul><li>When something dies, it is completely invaded and decomposed. </li></ul>