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  1. 1. Invertebrates Look at all the pretty animals…..awwwwww! All invertebrates included except arthropods
  2. 2. How Did Animal Life Begin? <ul><li>Many scientists believe colonial protists got together and formed a gastrula-like animal with a digestive cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Cambrian Explosion-first evidence of huge animal diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Huge change in animal diversity between the Precambrian and Cambrian periods </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cambrian Explosion Many hard-bodies animals with shells developed during this period.
  4. 4. Body Cavities <ul><li>Coelom-fluid filled cavity that is completely lined by tissue that originated from the embryo mesoderm tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate-fluid filled cavity, no direct organ contact </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelom-fluid filled cavity in direct contact with body cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Acoelomate-no body cavity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Coelomates are divided into 2 groups. Protostomes Deuterostomes Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo Coelom forms from a portion of the digestive tube Annelids and Mollusks Echinoderms and Chordates (Us)
  6. 6. Vocabulary <ul><li>Invertebrates-No backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrates-backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Blastula-hollow ball of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrula-hollow ball of cells, folded in to create an inner cavity </li></ul>
  7. 8. Sponges_Phylum Porifera Key Ideas <ul><li>Simplest Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are sessile-can’t move on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true tissues and organs, most are unspecialized </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Body consists of two layers separated by a jelly-like material </li></ul>
  8. 9. Porifera <ul><li>Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge </li></ul><ul><li>Inner layer are lined with collar cells, which have flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebocytes wander through the jelly-like material and pick up food from the collar cells for digestions, transport oxygen, dispose of waste and can change into other cells for support </li></ul><ul><li>Have special chemical defenses to protect from predators, disease organisms, humans use these chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Related closely to protists and are the earliest animals. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Sponges_Phylum Porifera
  10. 12. Cnidarians- Phylum Cnidaria Key Ideas <ul><li>Radial symmetry, most do not have a head and are sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Has poisonous barbs called nematocysts, that fire when touched, once prey has been captured, the tentacles move it to the gastovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Has basic tissues, nerve sensing functions and a gastrula stage of embryonic development </li></ul><ul><li>Has polyp form and medusa forms </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete digestive system </li></ul>
  11. 13. Two forms <ul><li>Polyp-cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Medusa- umbrella shaped form with fringed tentacles on the lower edge, move freely </li></ul><ul><li>Some cnidarians exist in both forms and some one or the other </li></ul>
  12. 14. Types of Cnidarians <ul><li>Hydrozoa- hydras, some corals, Portuguese man-o-war </li></ul><ul><li>Scyphozoa-jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Anthozoa- sea anemones and most corals </li></ul>
  13. 15. Cnidarians-Scyphozoans
  14. 16. Cnidarians-Box jellyfish Most deadly jellyfish, can kill a person!
  15. 17. Hydrozoans Portuguese Man-O-War, Looks like a jellyfish, but it is actually a colony of polyps like this one
  16. 18. Anthozoans
  17. 19. Flatworms-Phylum Platyhelminthes <ul><li>Flatworms-small,leaflike or ribon like </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry-mirror image right and left sides </li></ul><ul><li>3 tissues-ectoderm-outside, mesoderm-middle, endoderm-inside </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete digestive system-1 way in/out </li></ul><ul><li>Acoelomate-no body cavity </li></ul>
  18. 20. Classes of Flatworms <ul><li>Class Turbellaria-planarians, free-living, non-parasitic, live in moist environments </li></ul><ul><li>Class Trematoda-flukes, parasites that absorb nutrients from the body of a host harming it, may have more than 1 host </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cestoidea-tapeworms, parasitic, live inside 1 or more hosts, contain flat segments each with reproductive organs </li></ul>
  19. 21. Class Turbellaria
  20. 22. Class Trematoda
  21. 23. Class Cestoidea
  22. 24. Ewwwww, tapeworms!
  23. 25. Roundworms-Phylum Nematoda <ul><li>Roundworms-small, cylindrical worms with pointed heads and tapered tails </li></ul><ul><li>3 tissue layers </li></ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract with mouth and anus </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion highly specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Free-living and non-parasitic roundworms are the most abundant but parasitic types are hookworm, pinworm, threadworm and trichinosis </li></ul><ul><li>Many are introduced through poorly cooked pork or walk barefoot in infected areas </li></ul>
  24. 26. Roundworms Trichinosis- disease caused by a roundworm contracted by eating undercooked pork and other meat infected with it
  25. 27. Phylum Rotifera-Key Ideas <ul><li>Rotifers-tiny animals that have a complete digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>They have a crown of cilia around their mouths. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Yay…rotifers!
  27. 29. Phylum Annelida <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system-when blood is contained in vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Class Polychaeta-sandworms, bristleworms </li></ul><ul><li>Class Oligochaeta-Earthworms </li></ul><ul><li>Class Hirudinea-leeches </li></ul>
  28. 30. Class Polychaeta-sandworms and others
  29. 31. Class Oligochaeta-earthworms If the soil is a rockin’ don’t come a knockin’!
  30. 32. Class Hirudinea-Leeches Land Leeches
  31. 33. Phlylum Mollusca <ul><li>Muscular mass of tissue called a foot and a multifunctional structure called the mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle-outgrowth of the body surface that drapes over the animal, produces the shell in clams and snails </li></ul><ul><li>Gills are housed in the mantle cavity in aquatic species </li></ul>
  32. 34. Mollusks <ul><li>Radula-unique rasping organ, scrapes food into mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Have a true coelom but an open circulatory system </li></ul>
  33. 35. Classes <ul><li>Class Gastropoda-largest group, most have a single shell, usually spiralled, most are aquatic, land snails, slugs, sea slugs, aquatic snails </li></ul><ul><li>Class Bivalvia-clams, oysters, mussels, scallops; hinged shell in 2 halves, feed by pumping water over their gills into and out of siphons </li></ul>
  34. 36. Classes <ul><li>Class Cephalopoda- squid, octopus, chambered nautilus, cuttlefish;small internal shells except octopus </li></ul><ul><li>Nautius has external shell </li></ul><ul><li>All marine predators, very intelligent with the most complex brains and eyes of the invertebrate world </li></ul>
  35. 37. Class Gastropoda
  36. 38. Class Bivalvia Clam larvae
  37. 39. Class Cephalopoda Nautilis-very old
  38. 40. Phylum Echinodermata <ul><li>Lack body segments </li></ul><ul><li>Rough or spiny surface </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a tough endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Water vascular system-network of fluid-filled canals that branch into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Many echinoderms can regenerate lost parts and even internal organs </li></ul>
  39. 41. Classes <ul><li>Class Echinoidea-sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Class Asteroidea-sea stars </li></ul><ul><li>Class Crinoidea- sea lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Class Holothuroidea- sea cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Class Concentricyloidea-sea daisies </li></ul>
  40. 42. Echinoderms