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Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere


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Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
  2. 2. Producers <ul><li>Producer-makes its own food, autotroph </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis-produce carbohydrates from inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs, which include plants and some kind of protists and bacteria, manufacture their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Because autotrophs capture energy and use it to make organic molecules, they are called producers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Producers <ul><li>Most producers are photosynthetic, so they use solar energy to power the production of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Some autotrophic bacteria do not use sunlight as an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria carry out chemosynthesis, which means they produce carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic (non-living) molecules. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Productivity <ul><li>Biomass-organic (living) material in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>What factors affect how much biomass an ecosystem can produce? </li></ul><ul><li>In terrestrial (land) biomes, light, temperature and precipitation are the key factors. </li></ul><ul><li>In aquatic (water) biomes, light and availability of nutrients are key factors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers-heterotrophs, must eat other organisms to obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores-animals that eat producers, plant eaters or bacteria eater </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores-animals that eat other consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores-animals that eat both producers and consumers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Consumers <ul><li>Detritivore-consumers that feed on dead or dying organisms and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers-break down complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Am I? zebra consumer producer decomposer lion grass mushroom deer
  8. 8. Energy Flow <ul><li>Trophic level-the organisms’ position in the sequence of energy transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever one organism eats another, molecules are metabolized and energy is transferred </li></ul><ul><li>One way to follow the pattern of energy is to group organisms in an ecosystem based on how they obtain energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers are always on the first trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are on the second level and carnivores on the third…etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food chain-single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Food web-interrelated food chains that connect together </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom of energy diagrams is always the biggest. </li></ul><ul><li>There are always more producers than consumers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Tundra/Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga/Coniferous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Savannas </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest/Jungle </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>Ocean/Marine-includes reef, neritic, benthic and pelagic zone </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries-mixed salt and freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes and Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and Streams </li></ul>
  12. 12. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why are autotrophs essential components of an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>What role do decomposers play in an ecosystem? Why is this role important? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a food chain differ from a food web? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if you removed any organism from a food web or chain? Be specific! </li></ul>