F I K 3042 E N G L I S H F O R C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2


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F I K 3042 E N G L I S H F O R C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2

  2. 2. Writers: Ainon Omar Ahmad Zainuri Loap Ahmad Farah Natchiar Mohd Khaja Goh Hock Seng Leela Chakrabarty Mariyatunnitha Shari Mohammad Sidik Ariffin Napisah Kepol Nor Azmi Mostafa Nor Hashimah Isa Azizah Atan Seva Bala Sundaram Abdul Ghani Abu Che Ton Mahmud Hasimah Ja‟afar Maizatulliza Muhammad Raja Nor Safinas Raja HarunIntan Safinas Mohd Ariff Al-Bakri Abdul Halim Ibrahim Fairus Ahmad Daud
  3. 3. CONTENTUnit Topics Page1. Human Interest 1 Listening 1 Speaking 2 Reading 3 Language Focus 11 Writing 19 Self Assessment 262. Journey to the Future 37 Listening 38 Speaking 39 Reading 50 Language Focus 54 Writing 59 Self Assessment 623. Tech Savvy 67 Speaking 67 Listening 74 Reading 80 Language Focus 84 Paraphrasing 89 Self Assessment 954. A Way of Life 113 Speaking 113 Listening 117 Reading 121 Writing 127 Language Focus 1285. Job Satisfaction 150 Listening 150 Speaking 153 Reading 155 Language Focus 160 Writing 163 Self Assessment 168
  4. 4. COURSE GUIDE iINTRODUCTIONThe course guide is to assist students to understand the course content andassessment. Students are advised to read this section carefully and take note ofthe course requirements so that they can complete the course successfully.The course FIK3042 English for Communication 2 will cover 5 units in thisbook which are thematic and authentic, catering for students from both scienceand arts streams. Specific Language skills such as listening, speaking, readingand writing are covered in each unit. While these language skills are presentedunder separate sections, they are integrated throughout the module.Furthermore, grammatical aspects are peppered throughout to reinforce thestudents‘ general grasp of the language.The listening components for the respective units are designed to cater to thewhile and post-listening activities. The speaking section allows students tointeract in pairs and groups. In addition, these speaking tasks encouragecreativity and freedom amongst students to express their views. The readingtexts that appear in each unit are interesting and varied, covering variouspertinent current issues. The culmination of these skills prepares the students forthe writing section. It is a 2 credit hour course.TARGET AUDIENCEThis course is offered to all students undergoing the Bachelor of EducationProgram at UPSI. However, this module has been specially designed forstudents pursuing the Distant Education Program.STUDENT LEARNING TIMEAccording to UPSI‘s and MQA Standards, every credit requires that studentsallocate 40 hours of learning time. Therefore, for this course students arerequired to spend 80 hours of learning time. The estimated learning time for thecourse FIK3042 is presented in Table 1.
  5. 5. COURSE GUIDE ii Table 1 Estimated learning time for the course FIK3042 Learning Activity Learning Time Face-to-Face Independent Reading the Module, revision and completing 21 assignments Tutorial at centres 10 On-lineTutorial (E-Learning, example, via 26 BigBlueButton, Skype, etc.) Forum (E-Learning via MyGuru2) 12 T&L Video via MyGuru2 10 On-line Quiz via MyGuru2 1 36 44 Total Learning Time 80COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMEAt the end of the course, students will be able to:1. Demonstrate effective listening, speaking, reading and writing skills learned in the course for communicative purposes.2. Use correct grammar and vocabulary when writing a variety of texts. Define and discuss, individually and in groups, vocabulary, expressions, and issues found in a variety of texts.3. Apply critical reading skills when reading texts on current issues.4. Organise and implement a collaborative writing project.
  6. 6. COURSE GUIDE iiiCOURSE SYNOPSISThis course helps students in developing strong foundations in reading andwriting skills for communicative purposes in a variety of contexts. The courseintegrates the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, with moreemphasis being given to the skills of reading and writing.COURSE CONTENTTo assist students in achieving the learning outcomes for this course, the coursecontent is divided into five units which cover the listening, speaking, reading andwriting skills.UNIT TOPIC 1 HUMAN INTEREST  Listening – Healthy Lifestyle  Speaking – Nutrition and Food Pyramid  Reading- Letter to the Editor - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Present Tense - Past Tense  Writing - Pre-writing Activities - Writing Process  Self-Assessment 2 JOURNEY TO THE FUTURE  Listening to a radio interview
  7. 7. COURSE GUIDE iv  Speaking – Oral Presentation Skills  Reading- Voyagers 1 and 2 - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Future Tense  Writing - Descriptive Writing  Self-Assessment3 TECH SAVVY  Listening to a talk  Speaking – Role play  Reading- The Net Generation - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Present Continuous Tense  Writing - Paraphrasing  Self-Assessment4 A WAY OF LIFE  Listening – Practising Turn Taking  Speaking - Conversations  Reading- Past Traditions brought to life
  8. 8. COURSE GUIDE v - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Gerunds and Infinitives  Writing - Summary Writing  Self-Assessment5 JOB SATISFACTION  Listening to a Radio Interview  Speaking – My Dream Job and Conducting Interviews  Reading - Workplace Satisfaction - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Passive Voice  Writing - Letter of Application  Self-Assessment
  9. 9. COURSE GUIDE viASSESSMENTAssignment % Approach and Weightage Assignment OutcomeOn-line Quiz 1 10 On-line via MyGuru2On-line Quiz 2 10 On-line via MyGuru2Project Work 40 On-line via MyGuru2Final Examination 40 Conducted at Centres Total 100ICON SPECIFICATIONS Exercises to consolidate students‘ understanding of the topics learnt. Exercises with answer key. Aktiviti latihan yang disertakan jawapan A serta maklum balas.
  10. 10. UNIT 1 HUMAN INTERESTLEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to:1. listen to texts and answer T/F questions;2. discuss on given topics in groups;3. read and answer comprehension questions and4. write paragraphs on topics discussed.CONTENTLISTENING Task 1 Listen to the Radio Talk Show entitled “Healthy Lifestyle” and answer the following questions.1. The radio talk show is about En. Hamid‘s health. T/F2. Mr. Sam is the Deejay. T/F3. Dr. Sani is the nutritionist from ANPAC. T/F4. We need to stop being stressful and start living healthily. T/F5. To be healthy we must avoid processed food. T/F6. En. Hamid is a university lecturer. T/F7. En. Hamid often has palpitation in his chest. T/F8. Mr. Sam advises En. Hamid to reschedule his activities. T/F 1
  11. 11. 9. Dr. Sani suggests that En. Hamid goes for medical check up as soon as possible. T/F10. Almonds are good source of calcium and fibre. T/FSPEAKINGNutrition and the Food PyramidTask 2 Study the food pyramid below and in groups of four discuss the varioustypes of food one needs to consume in order to lead a healthy life. Then, thegroup representatives will present the groups‘ findings. Nutrition and the Food PyramidSource: Ignatowski .A. 2005. Food Pyramid Chart for Balanced Diet. Bestvitamin- supplements- guide.com.DialogueImagine that you and your three friends meet after a tutorial class at thecafeteria, and your next tutorial is an hour later. While having a drink each of yourelate events that took place in your lives. While listening, the others are to askquestions and give opinions wherever necessary. Come up with a dialogue to bepresented to the class. 2
  12. 12. READINGPASSAGE ONERead the letter to the editor and carry out the tasks. Dear Editor,1 I am an ardent fan of ASTRO, so much so that the first thing I do upon entering my humble abode is to switch on to HBO, Star Movies, E, ESPN, Animal Planet, Discovery Travel and Living and of course to AFC or Asian Food Channel when I am incredibly hungry. As I watch delicious foods on AFC, I sincerely hope the pang of hunger will slowly disappear into oblivion. 5 More often than not, this does not work to my advantage especially when I am famished. The effect is just the opposite as I gazed at the delicious foods prepared by the chefs. And talk about the camera men! They are incredibly good at focusing. The food is so crystal clear that you are practically thrown into the chef‘s kitchen. Once, I became so hopelessly hungry watching the 10 program `License to Grill‟ that I could not stop myself from rummaging my small refrigerator for bits of snacks. I was desperate for food in the middle of the night.2 I love to read the Astroview – your magazine with the slogan `Malaysia‟s largest circulated entertainment magazine‟ which is out monthly, complete with 15 information and updates on the different channels, celebrity news, health tips and other news useful to ASTRO subscribers. Congratulations! Your viewers must be so thrilled to grab a copy every month. I am keen on watching Animal Planet and I am very thrilled to read that this channel will be airing a new program called Bindi: The Jungle Girl. I think Steve Irwin‘s daughter is such a 20 brave girl to be among snakes and other animals. She has her daddy‘s talents and not to forget his smile. I just had to bring to your readers on page 8 of December 2007 issue entitled ‗Watch out - Jungle Girl‟3 ―My daddy was a hero,‖ she said, and her short speech earned a standing ovation and an indelible mark on the memory of many Australians. Now, 25 Bindi‘s charms comes to the small screen in Bindi: The Jungle Girl , a new wildlife series that brings the Irwins and heir passion for animals together on- screen. Here are some quick facts about Bindi:  She has a rat named Candy ―Candy is my favorite friend and we do lots of fun things together! We go out 30 rollerblading and he rides on my shoulder. He likes to play with all my other animal friends too except the snakes, of course!‖  She‘s not afraid of the animals she handles 3
  13. 13. ―My dad taught me to respect all animals, so I‘ve never had to overcome my fear.‖ 354 As I am a traveler I love to read the travel guide and tips given by famous travelers such as Samantha Brown and Anthony Bourdain. I just love Samantha because of her sweet smile and her pink attire. She makes me want to travel to those countries and experience what she had experienced. Who does not know Anthony Bourdain on Discovery Travel and Living? He is 40 the tall New Yorker Chef who travels around the world to discover culinary heaven. We can catch him on No Reservation 3. Bourdain is the man for real travel….no reservation indeed. He is like the Guru of real travel. He has no boundaries and limits to trying local foods and drinks. In the December issue, he gave a few very practical travel tips on page 9. He suggested that we: 45  Never eat in the hotel and never ask the concierge where to eat. Ask your taxi driver instead.  Eat local.  Don‘t travel in packs – no more than two or three people. It gets difficult after that. 505 These travel tips are so practical and I will definitely remember them when I visit Scotland next week. I will unquestionably follow Bourdain‘s tips when I am there. It is so true that one should try and eat local foods and not insist on looking for your own traditional foods. When we are in a foreign country we must try to adapt and adopt. If we are rice eaters, we can opt for bread instead, 55 or croissant. We cannot be looking high and low for restaurants selling rice.6 Well, I welcome other readers to share my views of ASTRO and Astroview. Well done ASTRO! Shima_Daniel Shima_daniel@yahoo.comTask 3 Provide the meanings of these words pertaining to the letter to theeditor.1. ardent (line 1) _______________________________________________2. abode (line2)________________________________________________3. famished (line 7)______________________________________________4. rummaging (line 11) __________________________________________5. keen (line 18)________________________________________________ 4
  14. 14. 6. attire (line 38)________________________________________________ Task 4 Answer the questions. 1. Name the ASTRO channels found in the letter to the Editor. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. What is the slogan for Astroview? __________________________________________________________ 3. Who is the New Yorker chef that Shima Daniel admires? ___________________________________________________________ 4. What is the programme that the chef hosts? ___________________________________________________________ 5. Who is Bindi‘s father? ___________________________________________________________ 6. In your own words, explain what the writer means in the phrase ―It is so true that one should try and eat local foods and not insist on looking for your own traditional foods” ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5
  15. 15. 7. Imagine you are the Editor of Astroview. Reply to Shima Daniel‘s letter via e-mail.Dear Shima Daniel, Thank you so much for your letter. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Editor.Task 5 In groups of four, prepare a mind map of the advantages of tuningin to ASTRO channels. You are to present your mind map. You have 15 minutesto discuss and create the mind map. Choose your group‘s best channel and givefour reasons for your choice.Our best Channel - 6
  16. 16. Task 6 Still in your group, prepare an e-mail to Shima Daniel, in responseto her letter to the editor. You may agree or disagree with her pertaining toASTRO‘s channels and Astroview. Give reasons for your agreement ordisagreement.Dear Shima Daniel, I read your letter to the editor and ………Yours faithfully,…………………………….*Please exchange your group‘s e-mail with other groups. Note the differences orsimilarities between the e-mails. Underline them.PASSAGE TW0Read the passage and complete the given tasks1 I had been a quiet, bookish child. My father had led a peripatetic career as a teacher and he had taken his young family with him to successive postings across the length and breadth of the Malayan Peninsula. And it was a growing family; my two brothers were born, at three-year intervals, in Johor Bharu at the peninsula‘s southern tip, and in Kuala Krai in the interior of Kelantan, where my 5 mobile family had come to a temporary rest. Eventually my father had received what would be the last posting of his abbreviated life, as a senior lecturer at the Language Institute in Kuala Lumpur.2 It was in our house in Kuala Lumpur, on a dark and rainy night in 1967, that my father first spoke to me about my future. I was twelve years old then, in 10 Standard Six of primary school; the next year, I would be moving on to secondary school. My father had always been a fairly remote figure to his three 7
  17. 17. sons; stern and affectionate in equal measure, but still remote. Much, much, later I would console myself with the thought that he had been saving himself for later in our lives, when we were out of our infancy and could understand more of 15 his strong and complex personality.3 That night, my father said to me: ―The Malay College is not just any school. It is the school.‖ That‘s about all I remember, although there must have been more. I do remember not being sure what he was on about. I knew that I would be sitting for the Malay College entrance examinations very soon, and I 20 was vaguely aware that this was a place, a big boarding school way up in Kuala Kangsar, spoken of with much respect by my teachers. But merely sitting for the exams was no big deal; practically every Standard n the country did so, and I had by no means excelled in school so far. But here was my father talking about the Malay College in a way that made me feel, for the first time in my 25 young life, that he actually had hopes for me. And he went on: ―You must take the Sciences. There is no future in the Arts.‖ What was this? ―Sciences‖? ―Arts‖? I couldn‘t even draw! And I was certainly no whiz at arithmetic.4 The day of the entrance exam came, and the four of us who were the only four Malay boys in our primary school‘s top class went to take it. Ghani and 30 Azizi were deadly serious about it; Muslini and I larked about. Ghani and Azizi were the great hopes of our school, which would apparently be honoured to send off a ward or two to the Malay College; Muslini and I were there to make up the numbers.5 So of course, when the results came out a month later, Muslini and I 35 made the cut and the other two didn‘t. Nobody could believe it, least of all Muslini and me. I went home a very happy kid that Friday. My father was at home when I got there, reading the newspaper. ―Papa,‖ I said, struggling to keep the excitement from my voice. ―I‘ve got the results. I passed. I have to report to Malay College on January seventh.‖ He didn‘t even lower the paper. ―Good,‖ he 40 said. Years later, my mother would tell me that was one of the proudest moments of his life. He certainly fooled me then.6 Five days into 1968, my father bundled his wife and sons into the car and set off on a 200-kilometre drive north to Kuala Kangsar, a small, sleepy town dozing by a bend of the Perak River not far south of Taiping. Kuala Kangsar had 45 a distinguished air about it: it was the royal town of Perak, site of the Sultan‘s Palace, and of the esteemed Malay College. It had been founded by the British in 1905 as a place in which the sons of Malay Sultans could acquire the rudiments of a sound British education before moving on to tertiary institutions in Britain itself. It was indeed a grand old school, and its reputation was well 50 deserved. My first impression, however, was of bedlam: a horde of twelve-year- olds and what seemed to be their families, seeking out their allotted bed-spaces in the dormitories, being endlessly hugged by weeping mothers, grandmothers and aunts. I was happy to find Muslini amidst the chaos, although he seemed altogether too dazed to be coherent. 557 The day drew to an end; the families were waved a tearful goodbye. We had our first mass meal in the dining hall, in which were hung framed group photographs of the College‘s previous First-Form intakes, and were sent to our 8
  18. 18. beds at nine. Within the soft white drapes of their brand-new mosquito nets, ninety-two young boys fell asleep on their first night away from their homes and 56 families. From that day on, home would be a place we would only visit on holidays. It was all for the best that we were utterly exhausted. Adapted from: A Malaysian Journey by Rehman Rashid.Task 7 The following words given in Column A are found in the passageabove. Match the meanings in Column B with the words in Column A in contextof the passage. A B1. peripatetic ________________ a. confusion and noise2. stern _______________ b. clever3. excelled _______________ c. definitely4. whiz _______________ d. strict5. larked _______________ e. very good6. apparently _______________ f. speak clearly7. esteemed _______________ g. basics8. rudiments _______________ h. roamed9. bedlam _______________ i. traveling from place to place10.coherent _______________ j. respected and admiredTask 8 Mark with a (√) for the statements which are true and a (x) for thestatements which are false1. The writer‘s family had stayed in a number of places throughout the peninsula ( )2. The writer‘s father last career was a senior lecturer ( ) 9
  19. 19. 3. The writer‘s father was very close to his sons ( )4. The writer was not very interested to be in the Malay College ( )5. The writer was good in arithmetic ( )6. The Malay College is the only well-known place in Kuala Kangsar ( )Task 9 Answer the following questions in your own words.1. When did the writer‘s family finally settle down? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________2. How was the father-son relationship in the writer‘s family? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. Why was the writer not keen in enrolling in the Malay College? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. What was the response of the writer‘s father when he was successful in the Malay College entrance exam? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10
  20. 20. 5. What was the main aim of the establishment of the Malay College by the British in 1905? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________Task 10 You may have some ideas after reading the above passage.1. Relate your experience on your first day in primary or secondary school.2. Describe any memorable happenings in your school or college life.LANGUAGE FOCUSTALKING ABOUT THE PRESENTSimple Present Tense shows habitual action, a fact or general truth, a plannedaction that will take place in the future and to show the time of action. Usage Examples1. To show a fact or general truth e.g. Penang is the `pearl of the orient‘ UPSI is located in South Perak.2. To show habitual action. e.g. Goh always plays tennis at UPSI court. Shima drives from Proton City to UPSI every day.3. To show a planned action that will e.g. The plane takes off at 12 midnight take place in the future. from KLIA. The Kayak participants leave for UPM tomorrow. 11
  21. 21. 4. To show an event that is likely to e.g. If he arrives, just let him into the happen in the future (`If‘ is used). house. The students will respect you if you demonstrate some concern and kindness.5. To show the time of action. Words e.g. As soon as she locks the door, the like `until‘, `as‘, `as soon as‘ and robber grabs her. `when‘ are used. When he reaches his house, he goes straight to bed.Task 11 Change the forms of the verbs in brackets to the present tense.1. She (sip) ___________ the hot tea slowly.2. Her nephew (love) __________ to play squash and he (is) ________ the state champion.3. The vet (suggest) __________ that her dog be put to sleep.4. He (inform) __________ his class of the concert tonight.5. Ahmad (write) to his parents every week.6. Mei Lee (sing) at the Charity Ball every year.7. We (experience) longer days in the U.K. during summer.8. Friends (support) one another in difficult and challenging times.9. The university bus (depart) as early as 7 in the morning.10. Vitamin C and Fish Oil (help) our bodies fight against influenza.Task 12 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the present tense.Herman _________ 1 (love) to kayak. He ___________ 2 (dream) to be aMalaysian cum an Olympic Kayak paddler one day. Realizing his passion, he 12
  22. 22. _________ 3 (join) the UPSI Canoe Club, under the guidance of the SportsScience Faculty. The Club members train at the Proton City Lake about 8 kilometres fromUPSI. Herman and five other peddlers normally _________ 4 (practise) from5.00 pm. to 7.30pm everyday. He _______ 5 (join) his team to row the kayakback and forth several times under the watchful eyes of the coach. When he__________ 6 (finish) his training, he returns home and continues working onhis assignments like any ordinary university student. Herman _______ 7(receive) his early training at Belaga, Sarawak where he rows sampan andmaneuvers motorboats. His effort __________ 8 (pay) off as he is now theuniversity Kayak peddler. Herman and his team ___________ 9 (compete) in the Asian VarsityRowing Tournament in October. The UPSI Kayak peddlers _________ 10(leave) for Putrajaya on 14 October 2008. They have made us proud winningthe gold medal a few months ago and we pray for their success in the upcoming tournament.SIMPLE PAST TENSE USAGE EXAMPLESTo express an action completed in Salim played rugby when he was inthe past usually with a time frame school. I saw this movie when I was 12 years old. 13
  23. 23. To show a past habit, usually She always visited the old folks homeaccompanied by adverbs like when she was in town.„always‟, „often‟, or „ „never‟ My teacher often made it compulsory for us to write an essay every week.To express a series of past actions He got into the car, started the engine and drove off in a hurry.To express an unlikely situation in the Father would be angry if I did not get‗if‘ clause of a conditional sentence home by 11 pmIn indirect speech Direct: She said ― I want this book‖ Indirect: She said she wanted that bookIn its passive form to indicate a past I was asked to give a speech.action was done to the subject and The students were reminded to submitnot by the subject the report before the deadline.In English, the simple tenses are the present, past and future. The tenses showthe time when the action takes place. Verbs (‗doing‘ word) in sentences willindicate when the action has occurred.Task 13 Tick the sentences in the simple past tense form only.1. He eats rice for lunch and dinner. ( )2. Dollah scored a goal for his team. ( )3. She studied hard for the examinations. ( )4. The police sent the prisoner to jail. ( )5. Do you always go out at night? ( )6. I watched a horror movie. ( )7. The tiger killed and ate the deer. ( ) 14
  24. 24. 8. The river flows into the lake. ( )9. They visit their aged parents on weekend. ( )10. Bears love honey. ( )Task 14 For each of the following sentences change of the verb in bracketinto the past tense form.1. I (buy) _____________ a new car yesterday.2. His uncle (arrive) _____________ from Johor Bahru last night.3. The cat (catch) _____________ a rat in the drain.4. She (walk) _____________ to her office this morning because of the jam.5. The doctor (tell) _____________ me to take less sugar.6. We (find) _____________ a strange- looking insect on our field trip.7. The guest speaker (give) _____________ an interesting talk.8. He (run) _____________as fast as he could when the dog chased him.9. She (get) _____________ into trouble after complaining to the authorities.10. He (is) _____________ a well-known rugby player in his younger days.Task 15 Complete the passage below with the correct past tense form of theverbs in bracket.Ismail (1)………….. (leave) in a hurry with Kandan. They (2)………… (be) ontheir way to the house of the village headman, Haji Hamid, who(3)……………(live) a quarter of a mile from the mosque. Ismail‘s neighbour,Khalid (4) …………… (spot) the terrorists crossing the Langat river just beforesunset. There (5)…………. (be) seven of them, all in light green uniforms and (6) 15
  25. 25. ..………….. (arm) with rifles. They (7) …………. (come) from the isolated SungaiLong track and (8)……………..(approach) the village from Bukit Enggang.The intrusion to Omar (9) ………… (be) frightening. He (10) ……….. (hear) fromuncle Ali that there were brutal killings in the district. The Communist terrorists(11) ………… (ambush) and (12) …………. (kill) a Scottish planter in a rubberestate near Semenyih in broad daylight. Two days later, they (13) …………..(burn) down a bungalow in another isolated rubber estate, in full view of theworkers. Before the terrorists (14) …………. (set) the bungalow on fire, they (15)…………..(shoot) dead the English planter and his wife. Adapted from: Long Road to Merdeka by Kamarul Zaman Ariff (2007)PRESENT PERFECT TENSE USAGE EXAMPLES To show actions at an unspecified time Bakri has never seen a tapir before. with words like ‗before‘, ‗ever‘ or ‗finally‘ Have you ever seen a ghost before? To show a past action that has My mother has cared for me since I continued until NOW, with words like was born. ‗for‘, ‗since‘, ‗so far;, ‗up to the present‘ She hasn‟t settled the loan until today. To express an action that begins in the I have not seen her for years until past and finishes at the moment of today. speaking He has not spoken a word of English for years. (But he is speaking it now) 16
  26. 26. To show an action completed recently The train has just left the station. with the verb ‗just‘ Alin has just finished cooking lunch. Used with the phrase‘ the first time‘ This is the first time I have arrived here. Is this the first time you have met my parentsThe present perfect tense shows an action that started in the past and wascompleted at an unspecified time or still continues into the present. It involvestwo periods of time that is a ‗half present and half past‘ action.Task 16 For each of the following sentences, change the present tense intothe present perfect form Present PerfectExample: He eats durians has eaten1. Jenny and I drive to town_________________________________________________________2. The life guard watches the children in the pool_________________________________________________________3. Our friends bought the final match tickets_________________________________________________________4. Omar dreams of winning an award_________________________________________________________5. Rodiah finishes her project_________________________________________________________6. The worker gives his manager an answer_________________________________________________________7. The baby catches cold_________________________________________________________ 17
  27. 27. 8. The mechanic repairs the car_________________________________________________________9. I submit my assignment_________________________________________________________10. We take our meal_________________________________________________________Task 17 For each of the sentences below, change the verbs in the bracketsinto the present perfect form.1. The workers …….. (have) just …………… (finish) the road repair work.2. I ………….(have) already…………..(buy) the ticket for tonight‘s big match.3. She ………..(have) ………….(live) here for thirty years.4. The boys ………..(have) not ……………..(complete) their homework.5. I ………(have) ……….( play) rugby since I was in secondary school.6. The tutor …………(have) just ………….(give) us the assignment topic.7. Nizar ………..(have) just …………..(report) for duty this morning.8. We ………….(have) already …….. (see) that movie in 2001.9. Kumar ………..(have)……….(leave) the office ten minutes ago.10. Eliza is worried. Her boyfriend ……….(have) not ………(call) her or ........... (send) her any messages for the last few weeks. 18
  28. 28. WRITINGAre you ready to begin the writing process? Often, writers begin by doing somePre-writing activities. A pre-writing activity will help you find ideas to write whatyou need to write about. A pre-writing activity is also a useful way to help youorganize your ideas in a logical order. Here are some suggestions. TALK FREE WRITINGTalk about what you want to write. For Free writing involves writing about aexample, share your interests with a particular topic for a timed period. Forgroup of students. Give reasons, listen example, writing about whatever thatto your friend‘s reasons, exchange comes to your mind for ten minutesviews and ask questions. Don‘t forget about a particular topic. At the end ofto take note of the interesting things ten minutes, read what you haveyou have discussed in your group. written and further develop your ideas from that point onwards. BRAINSTORM CLUSTERINGBrainstorming is a process where you Another word that means the same aslist down thoughts in words or phrases clustering is grouping. When youthat come to your mind about a cluster or group certain words, phrasesparticular topic. You can do this on or ideas together, you are actuallyyour own or in a group. organizing and expanding your thoughts. You will then form a diagram to show how each word, phrase or idea links to one another. 19
  29. 29. Task 18 Now, let‘s start with some pre-writing exercises.1. Share your thoughts on the things that you enjoy doing with a group of students. Use the box below to take notes of some interesting things mentioned by others. • • • • • •2. Write a paragraph on the topic below in not more than 10 minutes. Begin now. The most interesting thing that I have done in my life‘……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
  30. 30. 3. Individually or in groups, list down as many words, phrases or ideas that comes to your mind on the topic given below. Compare your list with others. ‗Things that I wish to do in my lifetime‘………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4. Use the diagram below to expand your ideas on ‗Interesting things people do‘. Learn how to swim Shop for antiques Interesting things people do 21
  31. 31. Task 19 Before you write, take a look at the boxes below. Match the termsin Box A with their definition in Box B. Then, check your answers. Box A Box B Topic • • A group of sentences about one main idea Main idea • • A sentence that summarizes what an essay will be about Thesis statement • • A word or phrase that tells what a paragraph is about Topic sentence • • A word or phrase that tells what an essay is about Paragraph • • A sentence that includes the main idea of a paragraphLet‘s find out if you have really understood the terms above by completing someexercises. Use the terms above to fill in the boxes below. The first one has beendone for you. 0) Datuk Nicole David is my favourite squash player. 1) Topic sentence1. Mountain climbing has captured the hearts of many people. Lately, young children have also been introduced to mountain climbing activities at camps. These young children are taught the basics of mountain climbing and are given proper training by qualified instructors. ____________________2. It is easy to take up swimming for three reasons ____________________3. Gardening can also help reduce stress. ____________________ 22
  32. 32. 4. Alternative Music ____________________ There are a few interesting activities that I do5. ____________________ during my free time.Task 20 Now, the following exercises will help you narrow down your topic,write a thesis statement, form topic sentences and finally, construct a paragraph.STEP 1:Narrow down your topic.State three things that interest you in Column I. Then, add more informationrelated to the three things you enjoy in the Column II. Before you begin, checkout the example. Column I Column II Things that interest me Additional informationExample: Science Space, astronauts, exploration of planets 23
  33. 33. STEP 2:Write a thesis statement.Study information that you have stated in column I and II. Try and form a thesisstatement. Check out the example.Example: Exploration of planets interests me for three main reasons.Write your thesis statement:________________________________________________________________STEP 3:Forming topic sentences.Based on your thesis statement, form three topic sentences. Check out theexample.Example:Topic sentence 1: Firstly, I have always wondered about life beyond ourplanet. Tip:Write a sequencesentences: Use your topic or logical connector to begin your topic sentence.Topic sentence 1:…………………………………………………………………………………………Topic sentence 2:………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
  34. 34. Topic sentence 3:…………………………………………………………………………………………STEP 4:Construct a paragraph.Your paragraph should include a thesis statement and the topic sentences thatyou have formed. Each paragraph consists of a topic sentences and a fewsupporting details. Check out the example.Example:Thesis Exploration of planets interests me for three main detailsstatement Supporting reasons. Firstly, I have always wondered about life beyond our planet. I am certain that aliens and other beings exist. Evidences Topic sentence that were reported by astronauts and space explorers convince me that we are not alone in this universe. 25
  35. 35. SELF ASSESSMENTTEST 1Read the article on Almonds and respond to the tasks. Awesome AlmondsYou may have had almonds in your cakes, ice-creams and chocolate bars but doyou know that these nuts have some beauty tips to offer? Eating a few almondsoffer benefits which include good fats, minerals and vitamins including A, B andE. Some experts believe it is best to eat raw almonds that have been soaked inwater overnight. Although almond oil is not commonly consumed as olive oil, itcan be eaten to get those benefits.Almond is used mainly for its emollient and slight bleaching properties. This iswhy these nuts are used in skincare. They have anti-inflammatory properties andtheir light aroma and texture make them ideal for soothing women‘s skins.Ground into a meal, almonds are used for exfoliation in beauty preparations, andalmond oil serves as a skin softener, with antiseptic properties and a complexarray of vitamins and minerals. (Adapted from Her World , February 2008) 26
  36. 36. Answer the following questions.1. What are the benefits of eating almonds? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________2. Why are almonds used in skincare? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. What would you do to almonds if you want to exfoliate your skin? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. Name the benefits of using almond oil as skincare? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________5. Suggest your own traditional way of using almonds in your daily life. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 27
  37. 37. TEST 2Create a skincare product using any local vegetable or fruit. Present this in classusing a mind map. Allow questions and answers after your presentation.SUMMARY Tick here if Main Skills Sub Skills you have Notes understood Listening Listening to a Text Listening Comprehension Speaking Speaking about Food Pyramid Speaking about Healthy Life Style Presentation of Findings Reading Reading Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Writing Pre-Writing Writing Paragraphs Mind-Mapping Grammar Present Tense Past Tense Present Perfect Tense 28
  38. 38. ANSWER KEYTask 1 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. TTask 7 A B1. peripatetic ______ i _________ a. confusion and noise2. stern _______d_______ b. clever3. excelled ________e_______ c. definitely4. whiz ________b______ d. strict5. larked _______h________ e. very good6. apparently _______c________ f. speak clearly7. esteemed ______ j _________ g. basics8. rudiments ________ g ______ h. roamed9. bedlam ________a_______ i. traveling from place to place10.coherent _______f________ j. respected and admired 29
  39. 39. Task 8 1. True 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. False 6. TrueTask 9 1. The writer‘s family finally settled down when his father had his final posting as a senior lecturer at the Language Institute in Kuala Lumpur. 2. Not very close and stern but affectionate 3. Because he felt that he was not a bright student/ did not excel in school. 4. His father did not show any enthusiasm/ did not show he was happy/ 5. It was meant for the sons of Malay Sultans to be educated according to the British education system.Task 11Present tense 1. sips 2. loves, is 3. suggests 4. informs 5. writes 6. sings 7. experience 8. support 9. departs 10. help 30
  40. 40. Task 12 1. loves 2. dreams 3. joins 4. practise 5. joins 6. finishes 7. receives 8. pays 9. compete 10. leaveTask 13Past TenseTick the sentences in the past tense for only 2. / 3 / 4 / 6 / 7 /Task 14Past Tense 1. bought 2. arrived 3. caught 4. walked 5. told 6. found 7. gave 8. ran 9. got 10. was 31
  41. 41. Task 15Past Tense 1. left 2. were 3. lived 4. spotted 5. were 6. armed 7. came 8. approached 9. was 10. heard 11. ambushed 12. killed 13. burnt/burned 14. set 15. shotTask 16Present Perfect Tense 1. has driven 2. has watched 3. have bought 4. has dreamt/dreamed 5. has finished 6. has given 7. has caught 8. has repaired 9. have submitted 10. have taken 32
  42. 42. Task 17Present Perfect Tense 1. have , finished 2. have, bought 3. has, lived 4. have, completed 5. have, played 6. has, given 7. has, reported 8. have, seen 9. has, left 10. has, called, sentTEST 1 1. Good fats, minerals and vitamins including A, B and E. 2. Because of its emollient and slight bleaching properties. 3. I would ground the almonds into a meal to exfoliate my skin. 4. Almond oil serves as softener to the skin. 5. Gives any relevant suggestion. 33
  44. 44. REFERENCESGaudart, Hyacinth; Hughes, Richard & Michael, Jessie (2003) Towards BetterEnglish Grammar . Shah Alam: Penerbit Fajar BaktiKamarul Zaman Ariff (2007) Long Road to Merdeka Kajang: KamarulzamanMohd Ariff Dusun GayahRehman Rashid (1993) A Malaysian Journey Petaling Jaya: Rehman RashidLISTENING TRANSCRIPTVoice: Listen to the Radio Talk Show entitled “Healthy Lifestyle”.(End of the Road by Boyz II Men is on air….)Deejay Pink: Hmmm …that was Boyz II Men with End of Road. It is definitelynot end of the road here at FBK. FM as it is time for our favourite programme.Hello everyone! I‘m Deejay Pink and I‘m so thrilled to have with me in the studiothis morning two very important guests who are going to talk about ―HealthyLifestyle‖. They are Mr. Sam, a nutritionist from ANPAC and Dr. Sani, a physicianfrom the General Hospital. How are you Mr. Sam and Dr. Sani?Mr Sam : Well, I‘m good. Thank you. Glad I made it despite the heavy traffic(laughs)Dr. Sani: I‘m fine too. It is great to be here.Deejay Pink: Thank you so much for being here at FBK.FM. I‘m sure ourlisteners out there are equally excited to listen to our renowned guests. Feel freeto call in and talk to our experts. The number is 03-3344555. Well …. Mr. Sam,what exactly is Healthy Lifestyle?Mr Sam: Well….remember the saying ―Take your time to smell the flowers?Deejay Pink: Yes… and ―You will get more wrinkles if you worry too much.‖Mr. Sam: Exactly….those are some of the advice for Healthy Lifestyle. We needto stop being stressful and start living healthily. Eat good food and exercise. Deejay Pink: Yes! You are right Mr. Sam. Actually I would like to discuss this –Healthy Lifestyle in this modern demanding age! Is it feasible? Can we be notstressful with all the job deadlines?Mr. Sam : Of course we can. That is if we put effort to it. We must be positiveand take our time to try and consume nutritional food. Avoid processed food andthe famous fast food that we have now.Dr. Sani: I agree with you on that Mr Sam. It saddens me to see parents orelders bringing children to the fast food joints. The food there is not healthy at all.The drinks are so sweet and bad for health too. Malaysians are high on diabetes.We should also get medical check ups regularly.Deejay Pink: Gosh!! I feel guilty already (laughs). We have a caller on theline….Hello En. Hamid…?.En. Hamid: Hello….Hello… Yes. I have question for Mr. Sam and Dr Sani.Deejay Pink: Yes. Go ahead En. Hamid. 35
  45. 45. En. Hamid; I‘m a university lecturer. I work round the clock. My job is notmerely teaching. At times I work at night too, trying to meet my deadlines. Whatshould I do to distress? I am always stressed. At times I feel palpitation in mychest.Mr. Sam: Thank you En. Hamid. This is so true in this modern era. I find life to bestressful too. Perhaps you can try and reschedule your activities. Do one task ata time. Take a breather after you have finished one task. Go out and walk in thepark near your house.Deejay Pink: Dr. Sani, do you have any advice for En Hamid?Dr. Sani: Yes. Have you done your Medical check up, En Hamid? How old areyou now if I may ask?En. Hamid: Well, I just turned 50, doctor. Hmm….My last medical check upwas 10 years ago (laughs)Dr. Sani: You have to get it done soon. Ask your doctor to do a profile and withthe results he or she can follow through. You need to inform the doctor of yourfamily medical history. I‘m sure the palpitation is due to your stress level but youcan‘t be too sure. You must go for medical check up fast.En. Hamid: Thank you Dr. Sani and Mr. Sam. Have a nice day!!Mr. Sam: He is cheerful already… (laughs).Deejay Pink: Yes. He is. Ermm….Mr. Sam, could you give us some easy tips oneating healthy? Mr. Sam: As a nutritionist I have some suggestions. Take more nuts likealmonds. They are good as source of calcium and fiber. We can crush them andadd to our vegetable salad. Or eat them just like that.Deejay Pink: Hmmm….almonds? I never thought of eating them like that. I eatthem only if I find them in ice creams or chocolate bars.Dr. Sani: I agree with you Mr. Sam. By the way, eating almonds may soundeasy but I think it could be challenging to get them. It is not easy to find in ourcountry unlike peanuts. They cannot be replaced with peanuts though. Peoplewho are suffering from gout should abstain from peanuts.Deejay Pink: Yes. Not many stores have almonds. We need to buy them frombig supermarkets.Mr. Sam: I agree with both of you but we need to try and buy them. They providegreat benefits such as calcium. In fact people suffering from thyroid should eatmore almonds.Deejay Pink: Do you have email that can be accessed by our listeners? I‘m suremore people would like to reach both of you for tips and advice.Mr. Sam: Sure! My email is Sam@ANPAC.com.my. (He spells the address).Dr. Sani: Mine is Sani@yahoo.co.uk (He spells the address).Deejay Pink: Well…It looks like we have come to the end of our session. I wouldlike to thank Dr. Sani and Mr. Sam for coming to FBK FM this morning. Andthank you so much to our caller En. Hamid and to our listeners out there….don‘ttouch that dial as Deejay Paul is here with more songs from the 80‘s.(Endless Love by Lionel Ritchie and Diana Ross is aired) 36
  46. 46. UNIT 2 JOURNEY TO THE FUTURELEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. listen to and respond to opinions, 2. prepare speeches based on specific situations, 3. read and understand the text, 4. guess the meaning of words in the text, and 5. write sentences in the correct tenses.CONTENTMan has always been fascinated with what is beyond this earth that we live in.What is out there? How did the world come into being? Is there intelligent life outthere? Such questions continually spurred scientists to explore space withnumerous spacecrafts. Do you know that there are many spacecrafts orbiting theearth at the moment? How many spacecrafts do you know that have been sent tospace and for what purpose? You may want to visit the relevant websites ofcountries like America, Russia, Japan, China and even Malaysia that haveongoing space programmes for more information - one recommended website isthe National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) [website athttp://www.nasa.gov.] 37
  47. 47. LISTENING Task 1 You will listen to a radio interview. As you listen, complete theA graphic organizer. 38
  48. 48. SPEAKING Oral Presentation SkillsLearning PointsMost people feel nervous about speaking in public. For most students, oralpresentation is not an easy task as they fear speaking in front of an audience,especially in English. As a result, they become nervous and will in turn affecttheir performance during the oral presentation. Nervousness is normal. We needto have a systematic plan to deliver our speech effectively. If oral presentation isguided properly, students will be able to reduce their anxieties and improve theirperformance during presentation. This would help them to develop a greaterawareness of how self-confidence can overcome fear of public speakingespecially in the target language. Their confidence level will improve and oralpresentation will not be a threat to them anymore.First, let‘s have a look at some basic styles to do speeches such as:i. Impromptu speaking means unprepared speech where students are suddenly asked to perform without given time to do much preparation. The delivery style is informal. We need to adopt some changes to suit our purpose and audience.ii. Extemporaneous speaking happens when students are quite prepared beforehand. Normally they will refer to the text when it is necessary. Therefore, they will deliver quite naturally and will do some changes of delivering according to the audiences‘ responses.iii. Text speaking refers to a situation where students have prepared themselves in terms of the topic, the audience and the speaking situation before presentation. This will make them confident to deliver well. However students might lack spontaneity during presentation. 39
  49. 49. Oral presentation involves a lot of skills for it to be delivered successfully.Students have to collect, inquire, organize and construct information before theycan present their speech. These skills will provide students a valuable learningexperience and help them in acquiring lifelong skills for their future career andprofessional development. Task 2 Impromptu Speechi. Think of a topic and prepare a speech for a 2 minute individual presentation.ii. Present your speech.iii. In groups of 3 evaluate speeches of each other. Use the evaluation form below to evaluate your friend.a. Content Excellent Good Fair Weak1. Gains the audiences attention and focuses it on the topic2. States main ideas clearly and distinctly3. Uses transitions that are effective4. Uses sufficient evidence to support assertions5. Communicates ideas clearly and understandablyb. Presentation Excellent Good Fair Weak6. Pronounces words clearly and correctly7. Maintains eye contact with the audience8. Speaks at an appropriate rate9. Uses effective, non-distracting gestures10. Uses effective facial expressions to reinforce message11. Appears extemporaneous and not memorizedc. Conclusion Excellent Good Fair Weak12. Uses effective strategy to end speech 40
  50. 50. Effective Oral PresentationThere are three important steps of an oral presentation: i. planning ii. preparing iii. deliveringStep 1 Planning an oral presentationHere are simple rules that students can follow as they plan for an oralpresentation. First, consider the following questions as a guide.  What topic should I choose?  Can I narrow down the topic into something manageable?  What is my purpose?  What are my goals?  Who are my audience?It seems difficult to start but there are ways to handle this situation effectively.Here are some ways that can help you to select a topic:  Relate to your own experience  Choose an interesting and a current topic or issueAs a speaker, you must ensure that you have a clear purpose and set goals. Thiswould provide directions for you to move forward successfully. You should alsobe aware of who your audience are such as their age group, generalbackground, interests and needs. This is important so that you can plan yourcontent appropriate to their level and able to gauge their attention from thebeginning to the end of the presentation. As an example, if we are giving aspeech in front of our course mates, we can assume that they share the sameinterest and knowledge of the world with us. Therefore, we can choose to presentcurrent topics and issues appropriate and relevant to us as students andmembers of the society.After you have decided on a topic, you can proceed to plan the content of yourspeech. Brainstorming is a useful technique which you can use to structure thecontent. Brainstorming helps students to generate as many ideas as possible.Two ways of brainstorming for ideas are idea mapping and listing. 41
  51. 51. i. Idea mappingThis method of brainstorming can be developed in many directions. You canmake other mappings and go into details before you choose the most effectiveideas for your presentation.An example of idea mapping. Painful experience Luxury operation Wasting money Plastic surgery Benefits of Plastic Surgery Boost confidence Help accident victims Correct deform from birthii. ListingThis method of brainstorming requires us to list all the ideas in our mind. Do notworry if you do not see the connection of your ideas. This technique encouragesus to have a free flow of unlimited ideas before we develop the ideas further. 42
  52. 52. An example of listing. Step 1: List as many topics as you can. 1. MPP election 2. Health 3. Unemployment 4. Road bully 5. Instant millionaire 6. Time management 7. Animal cruelty 8. Technology Step 2: Narrow it down to causes of road bully. 1. Stress at work/home 2. Unhappy 3. Insensitive to others 4. Egoistic 5. Impatience 6. Selfish 7. Disrespect other drivers Step 3: Focus on impatience. 1. Negative attitude on the road 2. Endanger other drivers 3. Reckless driving 4. Ignore rules and regulations on the roadTask 3 BrainstormingIn 5 minutes, write down as many topics as you can for a presentation. ChooseONE method of brainstorming and focus on it. Show the exploration of the topicclearly. 43
  53. 53. After you have completed generating ideas, the next important task is to organizethe ideas. Organization is essential so as to make your presentation attractiveand clear. This will keep your audience alert and your presentation will beinteresting as you deliver the content effectively. To do this, you need to preparean outline to organise your ideas. You should include not more than four pointsfor a short speech. There are two ways to organise your ideas and they are usinga tree diagram and outlining.i. Tree diagramThis diagram displays an effective visual of the relationship between the pointsand its purposes. A tree diagram consists of short notes and this will make iteasier for the speaker to remember the main ideas during presentation. An example of a tree diagram Holiday Abroad Shopping Tasting New Food Meeting New Friendsii. OutliningThis method will help us to develop the body of the speech for the presentation.Therefore we need to choose and select the points carefully so that the ideas arerelevant to make our presentation successful.An example of an outlineSpecific Purpose: To inform people of the advantages of going holiday abroad.Main Points: 1. Taste food from different countries. 2. Meet new friends and exchange views and experiences. 3. Learn the culture of various people in other countries 44
  54. 54. Task 4 Identifying main pointsA Write the main points that are appropriate to support the specific purpose given. 1. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about social etiquette. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 2. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience that great teachers are born, not made. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 3. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience that open burning is hazardous. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ Task 5 Idea mapping State a specific purpose for a speech and give three main ideas. Present your ideas in the form of a tree diagram or an outline. 45
  55. 55. Step 2 Preparing an oral presentationWriting the introductionAs a speaker, you need to have a good introduction or an opening statement sothat you can capture the attention of the audience immediately. Learn tointroduce your speech effectively as this is the ‗wow‘ factor in your speech thatwill make your audience continue to listen. Here are some tips to help you in yourpreparation. The opening statement should seek the immediate attention of the audience. This can be in the form of a startling statement or statistic, a controversial point, a question, an anecdote, a famous quote, an eye-catching visual or a story. Listeners pay close attention when a person begins with, "Two weeks ago as I was driving to work, a van pulled out in front of me…." You could begin with a current event: "You might have read in the papers this morning about the brutal murder of …." A question is another way to make people listen. "How many of you feel our society spends too much on beauty care?" might be a way to begin a presentation about cutting costs.Task 6 Provide three examples of effective opening statements. i. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ii. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ iii. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 46
  56. 56. Task 7 Introducing your speechWrite a brief introduction of your speech using the guidelines below. The mainobjective of this activity is to capture the attention of the audience.Topic:Unemployment 1. Relate to the audience‘s experience 2. Narrate a story 3. Pose relevant questions 4. Begin with current events or statisticsDeveloping the contentThe content of your speech should be well developed and organised. You needto communicate your ideas as clearly as possible. Introduce the central idea first.Then, present the main points and develop each point with supporting details soas to ensure that the audience understand well. Structure your speech. Ideally,do not have more than three or four main points. Preview in the beginning whatyour main points will be. With each point, have two or three supporting detailssuch as provide relevant examples, definitions, present testimony or currentstatistics. Visual aids are important when you want your audience to understanda process, concept, or understand a financial goal. Line graphs are best fortrends. Bar graphs are best for comparisons and pie graphs are best for showingdistribution of percentages. The following is an example of an outline with acentral idea, main points and supporting details. Central Idea: The Ministry of Education‘s immediate solutions to its problems are to deal with the shortage of English language teachers and the difficulty of learning Maths and Science in English language in rural schools. Main Point 1 The shortage of English language teachers is seriously affecting the examination results in rural schools. Supporting Details A. Parents do not send their children to tuition classes. 47
  57. 57. 1. live in a rural area. 2. cannot afford the expensive tuition fees. B. Students are not keen to learn the target language. 1. can survive without knowing English. 2. English is a boring subject. Main Point 2 Some difficulties faced by students from rural schools who are learning Maths and Science in the English language. Supporting Details A. Difficult subjects in schools. 1. cannot score well in examinations. 2. lose interest to learn. B. Students do not understand English language well. 1. have difficulty to understand the instructions. 2. teachers do not motivate students in classrooms.It must be noted that as a speaker, you need to establish your credibility as aknowledgeable as well as a sincere speaker. Therefore, you need to tell theaudience the source of your expertise and you should add depth to yourevidence.ConclusionA common conclusion will be to summarize your main points. Remember thatyour conclusion should leave the audience with further food for thought. Peopleremember best what you say last. As an example, you might end a speech onbecoming a better speaker with, "As Robert Frost once said, „In three words I cansum up everything Ive learned about life. It goes on.‟ Do not end your speechwith “That‟s it” or ―That‟s all I have to say.” Remember to say ―Thank you verymuch” at the end. This is to show your sincere appreciation for your audiencepresence and attention and it signals the audience to applaud. Leave theaudience with positive memories of the speech. 48
  58. 58. Step 3 Delivering an oral presentationPractice! Practice! Practice! Adequate practice will boost your confidence. Whilepractising, you need to work on your body language as well as your voiceprojection. It is advisable to practice in front of your peers so that they canprovide constructive feedback on the following details:  body posture  facial expressions  body gestures  eye contact  pronunciation  pace and intonation  voice projection  clarity of your voiceDo not memorise your notes but try to remember the key words. Use yourknowledge of the world to give your presentation a ‗BANG! Avoid reading yournotes as this will bore the audience. Deliver your ideas confidently and with style.The following are some tips for you to consider so as to make your oralpresentation effective and attractive.Before delivering your oral presentation:  Dress appropriately  Relax and take a few deep breaths to calm yourself  Be confident and believe in yourself  Focus on your message and communicate it clearlyThings to avoid during your oral presentation:  Reading from prepared text  Excessive hand movements and gestures  Distracting body positions, movements and postures  Long pauses  Too many fillers e.g. Hmmm… aaaahh…. 49
  59. 59.  Speaking too fast  Monotonous toneThings to do during oral presentation:  Maintain eye contact  Speak with clarity and confidence  Be natural and spontaneous  Be lively and smile  Include effective visual presentations when and where appropriate and relevant  Monitor your time to avoid panic attack!Task 8 List as many spacecrafts as possible and be prepared to share withyour friends in the class.READINGAs you read the passage below: (a) try to guess the meanings of words that are new to you. (b) think about the answer to this question – What are the purpose(s) of the two space probes? Voyagers 1 and 21 The twin spacecraft Voyagers 1 and 2 have transformed our understanding of the outer solar system. Originally designed to study only Jupiter and Saturn, these two intrepid probes have visited all the gas giants – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. They have sent back startling images of churning atmospheres, complex ring systems 5 50
  60. 60. and exotic moons, some of which are large enough to be worlds in their own right. Now, as the Voyagers head for the stars, they continue to report from the edge of the solar system. 2 After 20 years and more than 7 billion miles (11 billion km), the Voyager space probes are still in fairly good shape. Both spacecraft 10 continue to return data from their studies of the solar wind – the stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun. Using this data, scientists hope to investigate the heliopause, the distant region where the solar wind finally dies away. 3 NASA plans to keep in contact with the Voyagers for the next 20 to 30 years, which is when their nuclear power packs are expected to run 15 down. After that, and assuming that nothing collides with them, the probes will continue on their journey to the stars. 4 Voyager 1 is currently travelling into the outer solar system at a rate of about 324 million miles (520 million km) per year. After both Voyagers break through the heliopause, which is expected to happen in 2014, 20 they will travel for some 24,000 years before they reach the Oort Cloud, the area on the edge of the solar system where comets are thought to originate. 5 Beyond the Oort Cloud, the Voyagers will enter true interstellar space. But even at speeds of more than 35,000 miles per hour, it will be tens 25 of thousands of years before either craft reaches another star. 6 About 40,000 years from now, Voyager 1 will pass less than a light- year from AC+793888, a star in the constellation of the Little Bear. According to present calculations, Voyager 2 should arrive in the vicinity of the bright star Sirius in the year 296,036. It could be millions 30 of years before either spacecraft drifts into another planetary system and is perhaps picked up by intelligent life [Source: Space Missions: From Sputnik to SpaceShip One, The history of space flight]Task 9 Given below are some words taken from the passage above and dothe following:a. Please refer to your dictionary and provide the ‗appropriate‘ definition of each word in the context of the passage. 51
  61. 61. b. Identify the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb and adverb) of the word.c. Write a sentence using the given word 1 head a) Definition: _____________________________________________________ b) Part of speech: _____________________________________________________ c) Sentence: _____________________________________________________ 2 report a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: wind a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: 4 break a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: 52
  62. 62. 5 pass a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: _____________________________________________________Task 10Read the passage again and answer the following questions.1. What were the initial aims of sending out Voyagers 1 and 2 into space? ___________________________________________________________2. Are the two space probes travelling in the same direction? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. Can scientists in NASA keep in contact with the Voyagers after 30 years? Why? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. Will the probes travel through space forever? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________5. When are the probes expected to break through the region where the solar wind finally dies away? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 53
  63. 63. 6. Where is the area in which comets are thought to originate? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________7. Do you think there is intelligent life ‗out there‘? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________Task 11 In small groups, discuss the following questions. Be prepared toshare your opinions with the class.1. Do you know of any satellites that are orbiting the earth presently? What functions do they have?2. Do you know of any spacecrafts (other than Voyagers 1 and 2) that have been deployed in space to study the various planets and the solar system?3. How do you think studies in space affect our lives on earth?4. How do you think a settlement in space for man will be like?LANGUAGE FOCUSTalking About the FutureThere are several ways of expressing about the future in English. Given beloware four ways in which one can talk about future actions or what will happen inthe future. 1 Simple A) Structure Future will/shall + the base form of the main verb Tense B) Examples a. It will take a few years before the new space shuttle is ready. b. I shall introduce a new source of energy tomorrow. 2 Present A) Structure 54
  64. 64. Continuous Auxiliary be + Verb+ing Tense B) Examples a. They are launching the rocket on Monday. b. I am receiving the fuel efficient car next week.3 Simple A) Structure present (Please refer to Unit 1) tense B) Examples a. The countdown starts tonight. b. I leave for NASA on Saturday.4 ‗Be going to‘ A) Structure Auxiliary be + going to + the base form of the main verb B) Examples a. I am going to wait for the hybrid car. c. Oh.. No! The rocket is damaged. It is going to explode!Task 12 Write 3 sentences using each of the 4 ways of expressing thefuture as explained above.1. Simple _________________________________________________ Future Tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________2. Present ________________________________________________ Continuous Tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________3. Simple ________________________________________________ present tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________4. ‗Be going to‘ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 55
  65. 65. Task 13Read the passage at the beginning of this unit again and do the following:a. Identify the sentences that express the future.b. Underline the relevant words or phrases that help to express the future.Task 14For each blank below choose the right form of the verbs given in the brackets The Road Ahead (by Bob Lutz) 1 In other parts of the world, including markets where some people buy cars for the first time, a different type of small car is developed, one lacking many premium features such as multiple airbags, antilock braking systems, traction control, entertainment and power everything. And that (1) ______________ (explain) the very low costs of some of 5 these vehicles. 2 To be successful, a company has to be prepared to address both types of market, and at GM we are. Our partners around the world such as Wuling in China, and our own global brands like Chevrolet, (2) _________________ (help) us to do just that. We (3) 10 _________________ (plan) to compete aggressively in the brave new small-car world if we want to succeed. 3 But that doesn‘t mean there will be a small-car craze that will envelop a market like the United States. Certainly, impending Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulatory changes (4) _________________ 15 (affect) the composition of the U.S. fleet. I‘m a believer, however, research has suggested the U.S. fleet won‘t come to resemble what‘s on European roads until fuel prices (5) __________________ (climb) well above $10 per gallon. Until then, there will be a place for all types of vehicles in the market, even as the volume change. 20 4 People still have a need for trucks in America and, to lesser extent, elsewhere. People still (6) __________________ (buy) them for work. 56
  66. 66. People still want them to haul boats and horse trailers. Not everyone (7) 25 ____________________ (be - go) switch to very small cars, or tiny little pickup trucks, unless they suddenly (8) _______________ (decide) to haul tiny little horse trailers carrying tiny little horses.5 And there will still be a desire for high-performance vehicles like the Chevrolet Corvette ZR1. The global automotive market is a big place, 30 after all. There is and will be room for green and mean. Just because a grocery store (9)__________________ (expand) its line of organically grown vegetables, that doesn‘t mean it (10)_________________ (shut) down the meat counter. [Source: Newsweek 2008] 1 A explain B explains C will explain D is explaining 2 A helps B will help C are helping D has helped 3 A plan B planned C are planning D have planned 4 A affect B will affect C is affecting D is going to affect 5 A climb B will climb C will be climbing D is going to climb 6 A buy B bought C will buy D are going to buy 57
  67. 67. 7 A is going to B are going to C was going to D were going to8 A decide B will decide C is deciding D are deciding9 A expand B expands C is expanding D are expanding10 A shut B shuts C will shut D are shutting 58