Unit 1 Types Of Computers

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Unit 1 Types Of Computers

  1. 1. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>METHODS OF DEALING WITH DATA </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURERS </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  2. 2. TYPES OF COMPUTERS IN HISTORY <ul><li>Pre-mechanical computers </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical computers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic computers </li></ul><ul><li>Optical computers </li></ul><ul><li>Biological computers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pre-mechanical computers <ul><li>• an example of a computer with no moving parts </li></ul><ul><li>• transforms information about stellar and planetary positions into information about important dates and events (harvests, etc.) </li></ul>Stonehenge
  4. 4. Mechanical computers <ul><li>early designs for more traditional computers - based on mechanical techniques. </li></ul>Slide rule Abacus
  5. 5. Electronic computers
  6. 6. Optical computers <ul><li>current research in computer architecture includes much work on the design of computers which use light beams to perform computation; these machines should be smaller, faster and cooler than current electronic machines </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biological computers <ul><li>• computers based on DNA : problems are encoded on strands of DNA which are mixed in solution and react to form DNA-coded answers </li></ul>
  8. 8. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TWO BASIC KINDS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURERS </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  9. 9. ANALOG COMPUTER <ul><li>Analog computers measure the continuous change in something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current in a wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of the tide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which a wheel turns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. More complicated to build than digital computers </li></ul><ul><li>3. Analog computers are very rare today </li></ul>
  10. 10. DIGITAL COMPUTERS <ul><li>Use discrete numbers (whole digits) to control the electrical circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Built of switches that are either on or off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not have values in-between 0 or 1 like the analog computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 turns the switch on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 turns the switch off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almost all computers built today are digital computers </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TWO BASIC KINDS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURERS </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  12. 12. First Generation - Vacuum Tubes <ul><li>1. From 1946 to 1956 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>did from 2,000 to 16,000 additions per second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had main memory 100 bytes to 2 kilobytes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Used vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Very large machines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>special rooms to house them with air conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specially trained technicians to run & maintain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Second Generation - Transistors <ul><li>From 1959 to around 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, faster, and more reliable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6,000 to 3,000,000 operations/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>main memory 6 kilobytes to 1.3 megabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained in four cabinets about 6 feet high by 4 feet wide, each weighing 250 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>one-tenth the price of a 1 st Generation </li></ul><ul><li>become common in larger businesses and universities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Third Generation - Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Form 1965 to around 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Used integrated circuits – many transistors on one piece of silicon </li></ul><ul><li>3. Smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of a stove or refrigerator, some can fit on desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can do 100,000 to 400,000,000 operations per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost about one-tenth the amount of second generation computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Computers become very common in medium to large businesses </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fourth Generation - Microprocessors <ul><li>From 1972 until now </li></ul><ul><li>Used large scale to very large scale integrated circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put more than one IC on a silicon chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can do more than one function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of a television or much smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can do 500,000 to 1,000,000,000 operations/second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost one-tenth, or less, the amount of third generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>very common in homes and business </li></ul>
  16. 16. Future Computer Generations <ul><li>Most likely the following will happen to computer technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will become lower in price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers will become smaller and faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers will have larger memories and more storage space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Computers will become an integral part of everyone's life </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TWO BASIC KINDS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURERS </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION
  18. 18. COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TWO BASIC KINDS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATION </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURER </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  19. 19. WIDELY ACCEPTED WAYS <ul><li>SIZE (Early days): mainframe, minicomputer, microcomputer. </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE (Now): Floortop, Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop, Wearable. </li></ul><ul><li>POWER: Supercomputer, server, enterprise server (mainframe), mid-range server (minicomputer), PC. </li></ul>
  20. 20. PC <ul><li>computer designed for general use by a single person. </li></ul><ul><li>PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses. </li></ul>
  21. 21. DESKTOP <ul><li>A PC that is not designed for portability. </li></ul><ul><li>you will set the computer up in a permanent location. </li></ul><ul><li>Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren. </li></ul>                                                              
  22. 22. Laptop <ul><li>Also called notebooks . </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book. </li></ul>                                         
  23. 23. Palmtop <ul><li>More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. </li></ul><ul><li>usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. </li></ul><ul><li>A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer . </li></ul>                                  
  24. 24. Workstation <ul><li>A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development. </li></ul>                                                                   
  25. 25. Server <ul><li>A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network. </li></ul><ul><li>Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mainframe <ul><li>In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor! </li></ul><ul><li>the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server . </li></ul><ul><li>the term still used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Minicomputer <ul><li>term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Supercomputer <ul><li>Costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for military purposes or in large companies </li></ul>
  29. 29. Wearable <ul><li>The latest trend in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing! </li></ul>

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