is a Japanese animated film based on the manga series of the same name written by Masumane Shirow.Acquiring a huge fanbase, GitS has extended into a vast media franchise, Ghost in the Shell alsoincludes video games, a television series (subnamed "Stand Alone Complex"), a film sequel (2.0Innocence, 2004), as well as a new tv series subnamed "Arise" being released in the summer of 2013.
directed by Mamoru Oshii, 1995Categorized as a cyberpunk ("a As people have become connectedgenre of science fiction set in into this electronic network,a lawless subculture of an "ghost-hacking" makes way asoppressive society dominated by sort of cyber terrorist crime.computer technology" dictionary. Ghost-hackers can erase memoriescom) GitS is set a digitally and implant new ones in order todominated society. Due to create an entire new guise totechnological advancements, commit crime (murder, espionage,humans have begun relying on etc).cybernetic parts, that is humanand technology have cometogether in the most integralfashion. Because of this, thecyborgs/dolls/humans thatinhabit this future define the"soul" or the remains of theirhumanity as "ghosts" and theirrepairable and replaceablebodies, their "shells."
What is GitS trying to say?Ghost in the Shell brings upnumerous points aboutmankinds interaction anddependence on technology. What defines ones being andQuestions about how integratedtechnology is within day to existence?day life, as well as the in the realm of artificial intelligencepossibility of technologysurpassing man as a superiorbeing. Thematically, the filmbegs the questions: How much should man depend on his technology?
Cultural AspectsGhost in the Shell (1995) is aJapanese anime science fiction filmbased on the manga of the same name byMasamune Shirow. The film is set inthe future in the year 2029. The timeof the film is very important to thestoryline, mainly because the kind oftechnology the characters were usingand were surrounded by do not existtoday. Even the two main characters,Motoko Kusanagi and Batou are cyborgs,they are part robot. The entire plotis centered on the fact that most ofthe world is now ran by computers andeven people are part computer as well.This is why the story works, becausewe are taken completely out of ourpresent time and taken into the futurewhere this film is set.
StorylineThe year is 2029 in Japan and the world has become intensively information oriented and humans arewell-connected to networks. Crime has evolved and developed into a sophisticated stages by hackinginto the interactive networks. To prevent this from happening, Section 9 a government group isformed to help prevent this hacks from happening. Lead by Major Motoko Kusanagi a female cyborg whois assigned the task of finding and apprehending the villain hacker known as the Puppet Master, whois a computer virus capable of taking over the minds of computer-enhanced humans brains andaltering their memories. But during her investigation on the Puppet Master, Major Motoko Kusanagifinds out the Puppet Masters existence is more than meets the eyes and leaves her questioning hervery own purpose and existence in life. As the film progresses, we discover the Puppet Master is not a person, but rather an entity that had accumulated so much data that it gained its own free will and self- awareness, therefore giving itself humanity. The Puppet Master tries to track down the protagonist, Kusanagi, in order to "procreate" or merge his data with her ghost, to finally die and thus completing his humanity.
Major Motoko Kusanagi The main character in Ghost in the Shell. Major Motoko Kusanagi is a cyborg which means she is half human and half robot. Major Motoko Kusanagi is the squad leader of Public Security Section 9. Both beautiful and deadly, the major is both battle tested and proven. She has an androgynous looking face and barely shows any human emotions at all. Her body is completely robotic which gives her increase strength, speed and stamina. Her cybernetic enhancements also giver her optical camo abilities. Kusanagi is frequently played in the film as contemplative and brooding, a direct contrast to her down to earth partner Batou. BatouThe main male character in Ghost in the Shell and secondin command to Major Motoko Kusanagi. He is notably themost light-hearted out of all the characters in the film.He frequently jokes with Motoko and the rest of PublicSecurity Section 9 being an outgoing joker. Batou isalso more emotional and not as calm as Motoko. Batoushows anger at injustice and cruelty, to the point ofseeming downright hot headed at times. Batou is Motokomost trusted ally in Public Security Section 9.
TogusaThe newest transferred member to Public SecuritySection 9. Having a good history as an uncorrupteddetective is one of the main reasons he was selectedto become a member of Public Security Section 9 (aswell him being a family man), to add a newer elementof variety and unpredictability to the team. Togusais also the only member of Public Security Section 9not to come from a military background which makeshim feel insecure at sometimes. He is very fond ofhis old school Mateba Autorevolver opting to use itover standard issue Public Security Section 9weapons. His fashion is rather noticeable, having athick mullet and turtleneck sweaters with sportsjackets. Chief Daisuke Aramaki Chief Aramaki is a strict chief of Public Security Section 9. He is referred to by others in Section 9 as the "old ape". He is fiercely loyal to the members of Section 9, and often put his own career on the line to ensure the survival of the rest of his team.
The Puppet MasterAlso know as Project 2501 is the mainantagonist of the film. The Puppet Master isan artificial intelligence program secretlyforged and developed by rival Public SecuritySection 6. During an unknown time itdeveloped a sentience and began a mission ofindependence from Public Security Section 6.The Puppet Master was created for theJapanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs as atool that could stealthily manipulatepolitics and intelligence, altering databasesand the memories of key persons for thebenefit of select individuals organizationsaffiliated with Ministry, and is equippedwith unparalleled computer and cyberbrainhacking abilities. Once discovered, thePuppet Master is assumed to be a human, mostlikely with mnemonic enhancements, who hasincredible hacking skills. The Puppet Masterimposes thought provoking questions that makeMajor Motoko Kusanagi question her being inthe world.
Technical Film & Animation InfoGhost in the Shell was directed by Mamoru Oshii, animated by Production I.G, and scriptedby Kazunori Itō and stars Atsuko Tanaka, Akio Ōtsuka and Iemasa Kayumi. and is based offthe manga created by Masamune Shirow. Production I.G have famously animated many animefilms and series, and Ghost in the Shell was one of their first and most famous films.Mainly because of the use of groundbreaking digital production techniques. Ghost in theShell was made with the use of digitally-generated animation mixed in with hand-drawnenvironments. Something that is very easily done now, but in 1995, it was a stunning sightto see for moviegoers. Apart of Production I.G’s mission statement is to make anime thatcan stand on its own without being derived from a manga. Which is something that is veryhard in Japan, as much of it’s anime come from it’s original manga. That is why the Ghostin the Shell film stands out, yes it is based off of the manga created by Masamune Shirowbut the film is very different.
What defines onesbeing and existence? In GitS, ones ghost is the remnant of Puppet Master was originally just athe human soul that defines a living being. program: is that existence and being?Major Kusanagi is largely cybernetic, thus Does being entail a physical entity? Thinkingher ghost is a smaller fraction of her being. of existing as a memory system, human memoryHowever the Puppet Master gives himself self- isnt the only sort of existing. Data-setsawareness through an accumulation of data. As themselves "exist" and are sometimesa sort of artificial intelligence, the Puppet programmed to be active in processing thatMaster has surpassed the human race, even data, much like Puppet Master (see IBMthis new cyborg race of GitS, in essentially Watson). Data is a kind of memory. Kusanagibecoming an immortal being. His entity or has very little memory of her original"ghost" cannot be deteriorated moving from self/ghost, but the data that is thereshell to shell as a humans could in this defines her personality. Memory has value toworld. This disturbs the balance of life in whatever processes it: be it programs likeour world, even in the case of Kusanagis Puppet Master or human sensibility likereplaceable shell: who deserves this Kusanagi. The fact that we define Puppetimmortality? Is it reserved for the elite? Master as a character and not an inanimateIBMs Watson perhaps is a comparison to object suggests that he is a being. Ghost inPuppet Master: having access to a large pool the Shell reminds its audience that thingsof data being able to answer questions can exist without humans giving them meaningindependently. Should beings like this and acknowledging that they exist: there wasexist or continue to be advanced and how a time before us and there will be a timeuseful is it to man? How autonomous does after us. While humans created Puppet Master,something have to be to have human qualities? he can exist now without them. Data willHowever, something doesnt have to be human remain after us, so perhaps that is theto be alive, do animals or plants have future of our being and existence: the humansouls? The Puppet Master as well as race might only continue as a memory. ThoseKusanagi contemplate their existence: perhaps memories are ghosts.the awareness of existence grants onehumanity or the possibility of a soul.
How much should mandepend on his technology? As a larger idea, technology is intended hacked, we in the present are storing moreto aid man. But, as we come closer to and more sensitive information online. Whileallowing this technology to automate itself identity theft wont lead to murders andto do so, our fear of automation becoming espionage as ghost-hacking does, our onlineawareness (and rebellion) increases, as personas are becoming a large part of humandisplayed in the Y2K scare. Particularly existence. We have created our ghosts: theduring the Industrial Revolution where data that makes up our identities or historytechnology was big, and tangible, and in the cloud. Is storing everything onlineintimidating, there was an outright vision of going to be dangerous? While we have seenhow destructive those inventions could be. Wikileaks release precious governmentAdditionally technology began trumping man information to the public, it hasnt causedwith human jobs being outsourced to modern direct harm. We havent quite evolved the webfactories or even just self-checkout aisles. enough to do damage (yet). Looking at the sci-fi anime genre, it is GitS tries to discuss technologicalgenerally reflective of the present Japanese ethics. Man wants to maintain his dominanceculture. Astro Boy (1963) was an embodiment over technology: that is where he draws theof the up and coming use of nuclear energy, line. If we could make humans indestructibleusing a small child robot to represent the cyborgs, would we? With the varying levels ofclean friendliness yet instabilities of this ghosts in the film, who would get access to anew energy source. The Japanese were superior cybernetic shell like Kusanagi?rightfully ambivalent as seen in the recent Regarding the level of cyborg-ness we wouldFukushima disaster. Ghost in the Shell brings essentially be creating a successor toup this idea of the web, this intangible humans: is that ethical? Perhaps the Kusanagiconcept that has the potential to be totally / Puppet Master offspring would be oursubversive. Astro Boy is to nuclear energy as successor. Is that something we want? GitSGitS is to the new internet age. Network and ends on a rather hopeful, headstrong note,technological abuse is presented as an issue. "The net is vast and limitless." PerhapsAs "ghosts" are stored in a network and are technology is part of human evolution,able to be dependence and integration may be desired and inevitable.
DiscussThe film: The theme:1) How does the Puppet Masters awareness of 1) How do you feel societys structure andhis existence justify that he may have a ideals have changed since our lives have"ghost" or soul? Is he considered living if grown more web-centric in the past decade?he is, basically, just a program? 2) What are your views on today’s current2) Where do you think Major Motoko Kusanagi technological and social climate? Do you feelwent to after she acknowledged that she is no that technology has taken over on a dangerouslonger Kusanagi nor the Puppet Master, but level yet?rather some combination of the two? 3) Is technology something to be worried3) Why do you think that Major Motoko about in the future? Do you think that ourKusanagi agreed to merge with the Puppet world could become something like the worldMaster? Do you think it was the right of Ghost in the Shell?decision for her as a cyborg?
Works CitedChi Hyun Park, Jane. "Stylistic Crossings." World Literature Today 79.3/4 (2005): 60. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 27 Jan. 2013.Curti G H, 2008, "The ghost in the city and a landscape of life: a reading of difference in Shirow and Oshii’s Ghost in the Shell" Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 26(1) 87 – 106Miyao, Daisuke. "Before Anime: Animation And The Pure Film Movement In Pre-War Japan." Japan Forum 14.2 (2002): 191-209. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Jan. 2013.Rid, Thomas. "Think Again: Cyberwar." Foreign Policy 192 (2012): 1.MasterFILE Premier. Web. 27 Jan. 2013.Schaub, Joseph Christopher. "Kusanagis Body: Gender and Technology in Mecha-anime." Asian Journal of Communication 11.2 (2001): 79-100. Print.
Presentation brought to you by Lea Millays Pop Culture UNST 254I, Winter 2013 Edward Chaney, Characters, Storyline Jordan Hoagbin,Overview, Film Introduction, Major Themes, Presentation Design. & Ashley Lister Cultural Aspects, Technical Film & Animation Info