CAUSES OF ADHD

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Causes of ADHD

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CAUSES OF ADHD

  1. 1. To be reported by:Marinielle R. TrajanoIV-BAM
  2. 2. Myths about what causes hyperactivebehavior or ADHD Sugar: Parents and teachers have often complained thatyoung children become more hyperactive when theyingest sugar in the form of soft drinks, cakes, and candies. Television: General public believe that by watching Video games: too much television or playing too manyvideo games will cause children to have ADHD Artificial food colorings: Parents rate their children Additives: higher in inattention and hyperactivity thanwhen they are on a diet free of colorings and additives.
  3. 3. Areas of the Brain Affected Prefrontal Lobes Frontal Lobes Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Corpus CallosumBy using neuroimaging techniques, severalresearchers have found consistentabnormalities in areas of the brain in peoplewith ADHD.
  4. 4. Areas of the Brain Affected Prefrontal, Frontal LobesLocated in front of the brain, the frontal lobes--andespecially the very front portion of the frontal lobes, theprefrontal lobes. They are responsible for what arereferred to as executive functions. Executive functionsinvolve the ability to regulate one’s own behavior. Basal GangliaIt consist of several parts, caudate and the globuspallidus being the structures that are abnormal inpersons with ADHD. The Basal Ganglia are responsiblefor the coordination and control of motor behavior.
  5. 5. Areas of the Brain Affected CerebellumRelatively small, constituting only about 10 % of the mass ofthe brain, the fact that it contains more than half of all the brain’sneurons attest to it’s complexity. Responsible for thecoordination and control of motor behavior. Corpus CallosumConsists of millions of fibers that connect the left and righthemisphere of the brain. Responsible for communicationbetween the hemispheres, it’s important variety of cognitivefunctions.
  6. 6.  Neurotransmitters are chemicals that can help inthe sending of messages between neurons in thebrain.Researchers have found that abnormal levels oftwo neurotransmitters that appears to involved inADHD:1. Dopamine: The level of which may be abnormalin people with ADHD.2. Norepinephrine: Chemicals involved in sendingmessages between neurons in the brain.
  7. 7. Transmission of ADHD: 3 Sources Family Studies:Studies indicate that if a child has ADHD, the chance of his or her siblings havingADHD is about 32%. Children of adults with ADHD run a 57% risk of having ADHD. Twin Studies:Several researchers have compared the prevalence of ADHD in identical versusfraternal twins, when one of the members of the pair has ADHD.These studies consistently show that if and identical twin and a fraternal twin eachhave ADHD, the second identical twin is much more likely to have ADHD than thesecond fraternal twin. Molecular Genetic Studies:With the mapping of the human genome have come advance inmolecular genetics, the study of the molecules (DNA, RNA, and protein)that regular genetic information. Molecular genetic research on ADHD is inits early stages, but it’s safe to say that in the vast majority of cases there isno one single gene that causes ADHD. Several genes contribute to ADHD.In particular, genes are involved in regulating dopamine have beenimplicated in persons with ADHD.
  8. 8. Toxins and Medical FactorsFacts: Toxins are agents that can cause malformations in the developing fetus ofa pregnant woman. Toxins does not have a strong evidence to cause ADHD thanhereditary, but complications at birth and low birth weight are associatedwith ADHD.Examples:Exposure to lead and abuse of alcohol and tobacco by pregnant womandoes place the unborn child at risk of developing ADHD.Smoking during pregnancy is associated with having babies with havingbabies of low birth weight.There’s also a suggestive evidence that smoking by mothers-to-be can result intheir children who are genetically susceptible based on their dopamine-related genes being at risk for ADHD.
  9. 9. SOURCE: HALLAHAN’S BOOK WIKIPEDIA.COM

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