KENYA- THE AFRICAN REPORT ON CHILD WELLBEING

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KENYA- THE AFRICAN REPORT ON CHILD WELLBEING

  1. 1.   The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2011 Budgeting for children Country Brief KENYA November, 2010The African Child Policy ForumP. O. Box 1179, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTelephone: +251 116 62 81 92/96E-mail: info@africanchildforum.orgWebsite: www.africanchildforum.org  
  2. 2. The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) is a leading, independent, not-for-profit, pan-African centre ofpolicy research and dialogue on the African child.ACPF was established with the conviction that putting children first on the public agenda is fundamental forthe realisation of their rights and wellbeing and for bringing about lasting social and economic progress inAfrica.ACPF’s work is rights based, inspired by universal values and informed by global experiences andknowledge and is committed to internationalism. Its work is based on the UN Convention on the Rights ofthe Child, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, and other relevant internationalhuman rights instruments. ACPF aims to specifically contribute to improved knowledge on children inAfrica; monitor and report progress; identify policy options; provide a platform for dialogue; collaborate withgovernments, inter-governmental organisations and civil society in the development and implementation ofeffective pro-child policies and programmes and also promote a common voice for children in thedeveloping world. P. O. Box 1179, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Telephone: + 251 116 62 81 92/96 Fax: +251 116 62 82 00 E-mail: info@africanchildforum.org Website: www.africanchildforum.org www.africanchild.info© 2010 The African Child Policy Forum ii
  3. 3. Content PagePreface...........................................................................................................................................................ivBudgeting for Children ...................................................................................................................................1How is Kenya performing in investing in children’s health?........................................................................1How is Kenya performing in investing in children’s education? .................................................................2How is Kenya performing in investing in social protection?........................................................................2Overall performance of Kenya in budgeting for children.............................................................................2 iii
  4. 4. PrefaceAs part of its effort to carry out informed advocacy on the rights and wellbeing of children in Africa,The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) decided to produce a report on a specific theme every otheryear. The first of these reports was the 2008 African Report on Child Wellbeing that mainly focused onmeasuring child-friendliness of African governments. The report was a major contribution in promotinggood governance and child wellbeing, as well as an important source of information on children inAfrica. It has also informed programmatic development of a number of organisations in Africa andelsewhere.The second report in the series, The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2011 is on the theme‘budgeting for children’. This theme was chosen, inter alia, in appreciation of the fact that childhood –being a stage of vulnerability – always carries with it a sense of urgency which demands immediateand concrete action on the wellbeing and rights fronts, wherein the budget is the linchpin.This country brief presents a concise summary of key findings from the African Report on ChildWellbeing 2011 for Kenya and is aimed at serving as a quick reference for researchers, policymakers, the media and other interested users. It highlights the performance of Kenya in investing insectors that benefit children such as health, education, and social protection. It also presents someimportant indicators on the state of children’s wellbeing.We hope that readers will find this document useful and informative.David MugaweExecutive DirectorThe African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) iv
  5. 5.  Country Brief                                         KENYABudgeting for ChildrenBudget is a crucial instrument for advancing the survival, protection and development of children. Thisis particularly the case in Africa where the capacity of most families to finance and provide for theirchildren is very limited and where there are huge unmet needs for access to basic services.The budget analysis framework developed by The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) is anchored to theprinciples enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the African Charter onthe Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) and assesses the extent to which African governmentsare committed to utilise the maximum of their available resources to realise the rights and wellbeingof children. The framework identifies four operational categories of budgets for children that areconsistent with the pillar principles of the UNCRC and ACRWC: budget for the health of children,budget for the education of children, budget for social protection, and budget for child development.Analysis on budgets for children was therefore made using these four budget categories.This country brief highlights the key findings on budgets and child wellbeing from “The African Reporton Child Wellbeing-2011: Budgeting for Children”1 that relate to Kenya. Few facts about Kenya Total pupation in 2008 38 million Child (<18) population in 2008 19.2 million Population annual growth rate 2.6 % GDP per capita in 2008 838 USD (current prices) Total revenues in 2008 6.42 billion USDHow is Kenya performing in investing in children’s health?Investment in children’s health is a potentially powerful mechanism of building human capital,generating sustainable growth. According to available data, Kenya spent only 7.1 per cent of its totalexpenditure on health, which is lower than the African median value – 9.1 per cent.Figure 1: Trends in health expenditure in Kenya (as per cent of total government expenditure) 16 14 Abuja commitment -15% • Health expenditure as per cent of total government spending in Kenya has been 12 fluctuating between 2004 and 2008. The 10 country spent 7.1 in 2008, which is still far P er c en t 9. 7 8 below the Abuja commitment of 15 per cent. 8. 2 7. 8 6 7. 1 6. 1 4 • The Government of Kenya fully financed the 2 national EPI vaccine programme in 2008, 0 which is an indication of its commitment to the health of children. 2004 2005 2006 2007 20081 African Child Policy Forum (2010). The African Report on Child Wellbeing: Budgeting for Children. Addis Ababa,The African Child Policy Forum. 1
  6. 6. The state of children’s health was assessed by looking at the immunisation coverage, nutrition status,infant and child mortality rates as well as through levels of access to clean water and improvedsanitation facilities and these basic indicators are presented in Table 1.Table 1: Indicators on children’s state of health and access to healthservices in Kenya (most recent year between 2000 & 2009) Indicator Percentage Deliveries attended by skilled health workers 42 One-year old infants immunised against measles 90 • Under five mortality rate in Kenya lowered to 100 deaths per 1,000 Children under-weight for age 16.5 live births in 2009 from 114 in Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 62 2000. This trend indicates that Under 5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 100 there is still much work to be done Percentage of children with pneumonia taken to health to achieve the 2015 MDG target, provider 49 36.3 per 1,000 live births. Per cent of population with access to safe drinking water 59 Per cent of population with adequate sanitation facilities 31How is Kenya performing in investing in children’s education? 7.1% of GD P goes t o edu c at i on i n K en ya Investment in education is critical in many respects, both 7.1% for individuals and the society at large. For instance, education plays a central role in enabling children to develop to their full potential as well as equips them with the skills necessary to lead a healthy and productive life. Kenya spent 7.1 per cent of its GDP for education in 2007, which is a little more than the Dakar commitment of 7 per Education expenditure as % of GDP cent. Total GDP Kenya has shown progress in net enrolment ratio both forboys and girls in 2007 as compared with the year 1999/2000. No distinct disparity was observedbetween enrolment ratio of boys and girls in 2007(Figure 2). Figure 2. Net Enrolment ratio in primary education by gender • A recent data shows that completion rate at 100 primary level in Kenya was about 93 per cent of the relevant age group. 75 86 86 Enrollment ratio 68 69 • The completion rates for boys and girls were 50 about 94 and 92 per cent of the relevant age group, respectively 25 0 • The pupil-teacher ratio in primary education in 1999/2000 2007 Kenya stood at 40 in 2006/2007. Boys GirlsHow is Kenya performing in investing in social protection?Social protection programmes supplement and augment the efficiency of investments in other sectorssuch as health and education. Investment in social protection also supports progress in MDGs andcontributes to reducing children’s vulnerability to economic • Kenya spent only 0.02 per centshocks and price surge in food items. of its GDP for social protection.Though insignificant, Kenya is among the countries in Africathat allocated some of the available resources to social protection.Overall performance of Kenya in budgeting for childrenBudgetary performance was measured using a Composite Performance Index developed on the basisof the indicators: 2
  7. 7. - Expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure, - Percentage of budget for routine EPI vaccines financed by governments, - Total public expenditure on education as per cent of DGP, and - Military expenditure as percent of GDP. Accordingly, Kenya was one of the countries that allocated a fair amount of resources for children in Africa during the period 2006-2008 (see table 2). Table 2: Categorisation of countries by level of performance in budgeting for children, 2006-2008 Country Performance Category Algeria Gabon resources for Allocated the of available Mozambique maximum children Niger Senegal Seychelles Tanzania Kenya was one of the countries that Tunisia performed fairly in allocating resources in Benin sectors that benefit children. The main Botswana reasons for this are: Burkina Faso • The country spent higher proportion Cameroon of its available resources on Cape Verde education as compared to most Central African Republic Chad African countries Congo (Brazzaville) • It fully financed the national Côte dIvoire immunisation programme, Allocated a fair amount of resources for children Djibouti indicating its commitment to the Egypt health of children. Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Three priority areas for action Mauritania Mauritius • Ensuring priority is given, in Morocco Namibia budgetary allocation and Nigeria implementation, to the realisation of Rwanda children’s rights and wellbeing São Tomé and Principe South Africa • Ensuring efficient use of resources Swaziland through transparent budgetary Togo frameworks and processes Uganda Zambia • Ensuring adequate support for, and Zimbabwe investment in, early childhood Angola development. Burundi resources for Allocated the of available Comoros minimum children Demo. Rep. Congo Eritrea Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Sudan For full information see the main report: The African Report on Child Wellbeing 2011: Budgeting for Children, Addis Ababa, The African child Policy Forum.The African Child Policy ForumP. O. Box 1179, Addis Ababa, KenyaTelephone: +251 116 62 81 92/96E-mail: info@africanchildforum.orgWebsite: www.africanchildforum.org   3

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