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  • and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan.
  • Amhara and Tigrean have traditionally been dominant politically.Sidamo are from the southern foothills and savanna regions of EthiopiaShankella reside on the western frontierThe Somali and the Afar inhabit the arid regions of the east and southeast of Ethiopia
  • Kinsmen: One of a person’s blood relations to a male.
  • The dresses have borders of colored embroidered woven crosses, but other designs are also used.
  • Semitic =>They use the Ge'ez script that is unique to the country, which consists of 33 letters, each of which denotes 7 characters, making a total of 231 characters.Cushitic => The Cushitic languages use the Roman alphabet and Ge'ez script.
  • The Ethiopian national dish is called wat. It is a hot spicy stew accompanied by injera (traditional large spongy pancake made of teff flour and water). There are many varieties of wat, e.g. chicken, beef, lamb, vegetables, lentils, and ground split peas stewed with hot spice called berbere.Berbere is made of dried red hot pepper, herbs, spices, dried onions, dried garlic and salt ingredients. Wat is served by placing it on top of the injera which is served in a mesob (large basket tray). The food is eaten with fingers by tearing off a piece of injera and dipping it in the wat.
  • Africa

    1. 1. AFRICA: ETHIOPIAAmanda ParksHattie YoungDanielle Zamarchi
    2. 2. FACTS: EthiopiaEthiopia is located inthe Horn of Africa.The capital of Ethiopiais ★Addis Ababa.Ethiopia is about thesize ofTexas, Oklahoma, andNew Mexicocombined.Ethiopia is one ofAfrica’s poorestcountries.
    3. 3. ClimateThe climate is moderate on theplateau and hot in thelowlands.At Addis Ababa, maximumtemperature is 26o C (80o F) andminimum 4o C (40o F).The weather is usually sunnyand dry with the short rainsoccurring February-April.The big rains begin in mid-June,and end in mid-September.
    4. 4. Environment:Within Ethiopia, there has been a lot ofovergrazing, deforestation, and poor agriculturalpractices which have lead to soil erosion. In many areas farmland has also been degraded, and lost from cultivation practices. Severe drought is also a cause to agricultural problems throughout Ethiopia.
    5. 5. Politics: Principal Government Officials:

 Prime Minister--Meles Zenawi
 Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs--Hailemariam Desalegn
 Minister of National Defense--Siraj Fegisa
 Mayor of Addis Ababa--Kuma Demeska
 Ambassador to the U.S.--Girma Birru President--Girma Wolde-Giorgis
    6. 6. Religion:Two major religionsEthiopian OrthodoxIslamIndigenous Religions
    7. 7. Ethiopian Orthodox~40% of the populationKeep to days of fasting: Every Wed. and Fri. and the 2months including Lent and Easter seasonClergy about 250 daysLaity and very devout 165Saints daysZar spirits: Adbar, male and female
    8. 8. IslamAdhere to Sunni or Orthodox branchSignified by three elementsTraditional practices recognized only on EritreanCoast
    9. 9. Indigenous ReligionsCommunicate to almighty god through spirits andritualsOromo tribe: “Supreme God called Waka”Spirits in contact with Waka: ayana (contactedthrough the kallu)Kallu = “ritual specialist capable of being possessedby these spirits” or in direct communication
    10. 10. Medicine80% rely on traditional over WesternWestern incorporated in late 1800s and early 1900sPracticed in Urban Areas
    11. 11. Traditional MedicineDisease explained by mystical and naturaloccurrencesEvil EyeHerbal components also often used in foodsGreater quantities for medicinal usesCommon herbs: garlic, ginger (colds), basil, cayennepepper, cinnamon, flaxseed, peppermint
    12. 12. Ethiopian Ethnic Groups:There are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia!Some of the ethnic groups include: The Oromo (Galla) group (located in southern Ethiopia) represents about 40% of the Ethiopian population. The Amhara and Tigrean groups represents approximately 32% of the population. The Sidamo group represent 9% The Shankella make up about 6% of the population. The Somali group make up 6% and Afar make up 4%inhabit the arid regions of the east and southeast. The Gurage account for 2% of the population; while the remaining 1% of the population is made up of other Ethiopian ethnic groups.
    13. 13. Ethiopian Tribe: MurziEthiopia is one of Africa’s poorest countries.More than 80% of the nation’s 77 million people live below the poverty line.10 million who are at the risk of starvation.
    14. 14. Ethiopian Tribe: Murzi
    15. 15. Hamar Tribe:The Hamar live on the eastern side of the Omo Valley in southern Ethiopia.The tribe has distinctive rituals such as: In order for men to reach adulthood, they must participate in unique tribal rituals such as a cattle-leaping ceremony. Where as young Hamar tribal women get whipped to prove their love for their kinsmen.`prbd-sNgU
    16. 16. Costumes:The Ethiopian traditional clothing is made of wovencotton called gabbi or netella. Women often wear dresses (Kemis) and netella. Other ethnic groups and tribes throughout Ethiopia wear different clothing that reflect their own costumes and traditions. Many ethnic groups and tribes cover their body with leather, or many do not wear clothes at all. While many tribes decorate their faces and bodies with paints and images.
    17. 17. Ethiopian Languages:There are at least 77 different languages spoken inEthiopia!Most of the languages belong to the Semitic, Cushitic, andOmotic divisions of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic family. Semitic languages are spoken in northern, central and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The Cushitic languages are mostly spoken in central, southern and eastern Ethiopia. Omotic languages are spoken between the Lakes of southern Rift Valley and the Omo River.Amharic, is the official national language, it is part of theSemitic division. It is the native language of about 30% of Ethiopia’s population.
    18. 18. Ethiopian Food:The Ethiopian national dish is called wat. The favorite drink of many Ethiopians is bunna (coffee).
    19. 19. FlavorsBerbere:cumin, cloves, cardamom, blackpepper, allspice, fenugreekseeds, coriander, redchilies, gingerroot, turmeric, salt, paprika, and cinnamonSpiced fermented butter
    20. 20. Mannerisms:Eat with right hand onlyCommonly share food – comes on one plate and isshared by manyNo utensils used – use injera bread to scoop up food
    21. 21. What Food We Made: Chickpea WatIngredients:• Extra virgin olive oil• Red onion• Carrot• Potato• Cayenne pepper• Paprika• Ginger• Salt• Black pepper• Cumin• Cardamom• Tomato paste• Chickpeas• Water• Peas
    22. 22. Open Ended Questions:1. Why do people in Ethiopia use one plate whileeating?2. Why is it that there is hardly any variation, such aswe see in more developed/first world countries inwhat they eat?What do you think?
    23. 23. Work Cited:Flag:,r:1,s:18Africa map:,r:2,s:0Slide 2 map:,r:9,s:0,r:7,s:0,r:8,s:0