What is design?

H
What is Design?
Prof. Lydia Chilton
Art of Engineering
18 October 2019
No screens Say your name
1
I teach UI Design (spring)
and Advance Web Design Studio (fall)
I’ve been teaching web dev for 10 years
2008-2010
MIT
2016-2017
Stanford
2018-present
Columbia
What is design?
4
5“Design is when things look awesome.”
6
the perfect gaming chair
Hassel free way to keep the
room temperature perfect
Learn a language in
easy steps
A device to browse the
web on the go
Processes that Increase
organ donation
Deliver $10/month to poorest
women in PakistanClean the house easier
Design is also…
Design is about meeting basic needs.
7
Looks
awesome
Meets a
basic need
Comfortable home
Global communication
(getting a job!) Communicates:
Energy,
Fun,
action
How do I select a
basic need to address?
8
What are the kinds of things
politicians, beauty queens, and silicon valley
say they will solve?
What are the kinds of things
politicians, beauty queens, and silicon valley
say they will solve?
What’s appealing about general goals?
They sound grand and important.
What’s the problem with general goals?
They aren’t actionable.
General Vs. Specific Goals
Goal 1:
“Clean the house.”
Goal 2:
“Fold that basket of laundry.”
General goals sound appealing,
but specific goals are actionable.
So how do we solve general problems?
Let me tell you a story
15
16
This is Nadia. She’s 11. She lives in Houston.
17
Nadia is struggling with fractions at school
Her uncle wants to help, but he lives in NYC
18
He uploads them to YouTube
This videos help Nadia. She aces the test!
19
This video helps other students pass their
fractions tests, too.
20
Videos in this format help students learn
other topics.
21
These videos became Khan Academy.
22
Very general problem
23
But it started by helping
a specific person with a specific need
Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
Specific Needs
vs. General Needs
General needs are actually Domains
Domain:
“Clean the house”
Specific goal:
“Fold that basket of laundry.”
What’s the risk with a specific goal?
“Fold that basket of laundry.”
Specific goals might be too trivial.
Specific goals can be trivial
But, if you start specific,
you can usually generalize
Specific Need
Uncommon books
Harvard students
looking up major,
dorm, relationship
status
Web-based
No page reload
Never Delete
Generalized to
Clothes,
Food,
Amazon Fresh
Other sellers
Ivy League
US Colleges
Everybody
Chat
GDrive
If you start general, you may never start.
If you start specific, you can usually generalize later.
30
How do I select a problem?
Identify a specific person with a specific need
Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
How do I solve the problem?
31
32
CCB+A+
Iterative Design
33
C
How do get from idea to product?
Idea Product
34
How do get from idea to product?
What I expect:
Idea Product
35
How do get from idea to product?
Idea Product
What it’s like:
36
Two Design Processes
The waterfall model, and iterative design
37
The Waterfall Model
Product
Requirements
Design
Implement
Fix bugs
Ship it
• One button
• Touch screen
• Soft keyboard
Idea
38
The Waterfall Model: What’s good about it?
Product
Requirements
Design
Implement
Fix bugs
Ship it
• One button
• Touch screen
• Soft keyboard
Idea
39
It’s simple, linear, and the
steps are certain
The Waterfall Model: What could go wrong?
Product
Requirements
Design
Implement
Fix bugs
Ship it
• One button
• Touch screen
• Soft keyboard
Idea
40
What if a touch
screen can’t be
implemented?
What if this
device is so
slow it’s
unusable?
How can we keep
up with the
competition?
What if the
hardware
weighs 30 lbs?
When there are many unknowns,
Design is always iterative –
so you might as well plan for it.
Iterative Design
41
Idea Product
Iterative Design origins:
Spiral Model of software engineering (Barry Boehm, 1988)
Every iteration should experiment with
the next biggest risk.
How to achieve the
perfect gradient on
app icons?
Does touch work?
All new concepts are risks.
They must all be prototyped.
42
Iterative Design is good because it minimizes risk
43
Iterative Design: what’s hard about it?
44
Idea Product
The steps aren’t certain from the start.
To minimize risk on novel designs,
Use iteration on each risky aspect of the design
45
Idea Product
Touch screen Soft keyboard One button
In this video,
what are new concepts?
Write them down now, we will list them together after the video
46
What new concepts should we
prototype?
47
Initial Prototype:
What did they prototype and
how?
48
What new concepts did they prototype? And How?
Can the drone carry the stuff?
Can the drone detect hand position?
49
What was the biggest new risk they
discovered during prototyping?
DRIFT
50
How could they have avoided learning this
two years into the project?
51
By prototyping this risk on users in the environment
How do I solve problems?
52
C
By learning from prototyping and testing
on users in the environment
How do I learn design?
53
54
Not like this Not like this More like this
Design is a skill, not knowledge.
We learn it through practice and feedback
55
Sports Languages
Cooking
Playing an instrument
Painting
Acting
Learn Design by Doing it
56
Lydia Chilton,
CS
Brian Smith,
CS
Steve Feiner,
CS
Gita Johar,
Business
Elizabeth Hillman,
Biomedical Eng
Harry West
MechE / IEOR
Adam Royalty
Design Center
Paul Blaer,
CS
Mark Hansen,
Journalism
Laura Kurgan,
Architecture
Chris Wiggins,
Applied Math
Katie Reuther
Biomedical Eng
Summary
57
58“Design is when things look awesome.”
What is design?
59
Looks
awesome
Meets a
basic need
Comfortable home
Global communication
(getting a job) Communicates:
Energy,
Fun,
action
Design is
Creating a product or service that
Meets a specific need of a specific person
By prototyping and testing
to adapt it to the people’s abilities and environment.
60
61
How do I select a problem?
Identify a specific person with a specific need
Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
Specific Need
Uncommon books
Harvard students
looking up major,
dorm, relationship
status
Web-based
No page reload
Never Delete
Generalized to
Clothes,
Food,
Amazon Fresh
Other sellers
Ivy League
US Colleges
Everybody
Chat
GDrive
If you start specific, you can usually generalize.
How do I solve problems?
63
C
By learning from prototyping and testing
on users in the environment
Developing an idea into a product involves risk.
Idea Product
64
Product
Requirements
Design
Implement
Fix bugs
Ship it
Idea
65
The Waterfall Model is simple and linear,
but …
Product
Requirements
Design
Implement
Fix bugs
Ship it
• One button
• Touch screen
• Soft keyboard
Idea
66
What if a touch
screen can’t be
implemented?
What if this
device is so
slow it’s
unusable?
How can we keep
up with the
competition?
What if the
hardware
weighs 30 lbs?
The Waterfall Model is simple and linear,
but it breaks when there are risks.
Iterative Design is less straightforward
67
Idea Product
68
Idea Product
Touch screen Soft keyboard One button
Iterative Design mitigates risk by iteratively
prototyping and testing risking features
Sometimes you find “showstopping” problems.
It sucks, but at least you can fail fast and move on.
DRIFT
69
Learn Design by Practice and Feedback
70
Lydia Chilton,
CS
Brian Smith,
CS
Steve Feiner,
CS
Gita Johar,
Business
Elizabeth Hillman,
Biomedical Eng
Harry West
MechE / IEOR
Adam Royalty
Design Center
Paul Blaer,
CS
Chris Wiggins,
Applied Math
Mark Hansen,
Journalism
Laura Kurgan,
Architecture
Katie Reuther
Biomedical Eng
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What is design?

  • 1. What is Design? Prof. Lydia Chilton Art of Engineering 18 October 2019 No screens Say your name 1
  • 2. I teach UI Design (spring) and Advance Web Design Studio (fall)
  • 3. I’ve been teaching web dev for 10 years 2008-2010 MIT 2016-2017 Stanford 2018-present Columbia
  • 5. 5“Design is when things look awesome.”
  • 6. 6 the perfect gaming chair Hassel free way to keep the room temperature perfect Learn a language in easy steps A device to browse the web on the go Processes that Increase organ donation Deliver $10/month to poorest women in PakistanClean the house easier Design is also… Design is about meeting basic needs.
  • 7. 7 Looks awesome Meets a basic need Comfortable home Global communication (getting a job!) Communicates: Energy, Fun, action
  • 8. How do I select a basic need to address? 8
  • 9. What are the kinds of things politicians, beauty queens, and silicon valley say they will solve?
  • 10. What are the kinds of things politicians, beauty queens, and silicon valley say they will solve?
  • 11. What’s appealing about general goals? They sound grand and important.
  • 12. What’s the problem with general goals? They aren’t actionable.
  • 13. General Vs. Specific Goals Goal 1: “Clean the house.” Goal 2: “Fold that basket of laundry.” General goals sound appealing, but specific goals are actionable.
  • 14. So how do we solve general problems?
  • 15. Let me tell you a story 15
  • 16. 16 This is Nadia. She’s 11. She lives in Houston.
  • 17. 17 Nadia is struggling with fractions at school
  • 18. Her uncle wants to help, but he lives in NYC 18 He uploads them to YouTube
  • 19. This videos help Nadia. She aces the test! 19
  • 20. This video helps other students pass their fractions tests, too. 20
  • 21. Videos in this format help students learn other topics. 21
  • 22. These videos became Khan Academy. 22 Very general problem
  • 23. 23 But it started by helping a specific person with a specific need Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
  • 25. General needs are actually Domains Domain: “Clean the house” Specific goal: “Fold that basket of laundry.”
  • 26. What’s the risk with a specific goal? “Fold that basket of laundry.” Specific goals might be too trivial.
  • 27. Specific goals can be trivial But, if you start specific, you can usually generalize
  • 28. Specific Need Uncommon books Harvard students looking up major, dorm, relationship status Web-based No page reload Never Delete Generalized to Clothes, Food, Amazon Fresh Other sellers Ivy League US Colleges Everybody Chat GDrive
  • 29. If you start general, you may never start. If you start specific, you can usually generalize later.
  • 30. 30 How do I select a problem? Identify a specific person with a specific need Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
  • 31. How do I solve the problem? 31
  • 34. How do get from idea to product? Idea Product 34
  • 35. How do get from idea to product? What I expect: Idea Product 35
  • 36. How do get from idea to product? Idea Product What it’s like: 36
  • 37. Two Design Processes The waterfall model, and iterative design 37
  • 38. The Waterfall Model Product Requirements Design Implement Fix bugs Ship it • One button • Touch screen • Soft keyboard Idea 38
  • 39. The Waterfall Model: What’s good about it? Product Requirements Design Implement Fix bugs Ship it • One button • Touch screen • Soft keyboard Idea 39 It’s simple, linear, and the steps are certain
  • 40. The Waterfall Model: What could go wrong? Product Requirements Design Implement Fix bugs Ship it • One button • Touch screen • Soft keyboard Idea 40 What if a touch screen can’t be implemented? What if this device is so slow it’s unusable? How can we keep up with the competition? What if the hardware weighs 30 lbs? When there are many unknowns, Design is always iterative – so you might as well plan for it.
  • 42. Iterative Design origins: Spiral Model of software engineering (Barry Boehm, 1988) Every iteration should experiment with the next biggest risk. How to achieve the perfect gradient on app icons? Does touch work? All new concepts are risks. They must all be prototyped. 42
  • 43. Iterative Design is good because it minimizes risk 43
  • 44. Iterative Design: what’s hard about it? 44 Idea Product The steps aren’t certain from the start.
  • 45. To minimize risk on novel designs, Use iteration on each risky aspect of the design 45 Idea Product Touch screen Soft keyboard One button
  • 46. In this video, what are new concepts? Write them down now, we will list them together after the video 46
  • 47. What new concepts should we prototype? 47
  • 48. Initial Prototype: What did they prototype and how? 48
  • 49. What new concepts did they prototype? And How? Can the drone carry the stuff? Can the drone detect hand position? 49
  • 50. What was the biggest new risk they discovered during prototyping? DRIFT 50
  • 51. How could they have avoided learning this two years into the project? 51 By prototyping this risk on users in the environment
  • 52. How do I solve problems? 52 C By learning from prototyping and testing on users in the environment
  • 53. How do I learn design? 53
  • 54. 54 Not like this Not like this More like this
  • 55. Design is a skill, not knowledge. We learn it through practice and feedback 55 Sports Languages Cooking Playing an instrument Painting Acting
  • 56. Learn Design by Doing it 56 Lydia Chilton, CS Brian Smith, CS Steve Feiner, CS Gita Johar, Business Elizabeth Hillman, Biomedical Eng Harry West MechE / IEOR Adam Royalty Design Center Paul Blaer, CS Mark Hansen, Journalism Laura Kurgan, Architecture Chris Wiggins, Applied Math Katie Reuther Biomedical Eng
  • 58. 58“Design is when things look awesome.” What is design?
  • 59. 59 Looks awesome Meets a basic need Comfortable home Global communication (getting a job) Communicates: Energy, Fun, action
  • 60. Design is Creating a product or service that Meets a specific need of a specific person By prototyping and testing to adapt it to the people’s abilities and environment. 60
  • 61. 61 How do I select a problem? Identify a specific person with a specific need Nadia, age 11 Ace this fractions test
  • 62. Specific Need Uncommon books Harvard students looking up major, dorm, relationship status Web-based No page reload Never Delete Generalized to Clothes, Food, Amazon Fresh Other sellers Ivy League US Colleges Everybody Chat GDrive If you start specific, you can usually generalize.
  • 63. How do I solve problems? 63 C By learning from prototyping and testing on users in the environment
  • 64. Developing an idea into a product involves risk. Idea Product 64
  • 65. Product Requirements Design Implement Fix bugs Ship it Idea 65 The Waterfall Model is simple and linear, but …
  • 66. Product Requirements Design Implement Fix bugs Ship it • One button • Touch screen • Soft keyboard Idea 66 What if a touch screen can’t be implemented? What if this device is so slow it’s unusable? How can we keep up with the competition? What if the hardware weighs 30 lbs? The Waterfall Model is simple and linear, but it breaks when there are risks.
  • 67. Iterative Design is less straightforward 67 Idea Product
  • 68. 68 Idea Product Touch screen Soft keyboard One button Iterative Design mitigates risk by iteratively prototyping and testing risking features
  • 69. Sometimes you find “showstopping” problems. It sucks, but at least you can fail fast and move on. DRIFT 69
  • 70. Learn Design by Practice and Feedback 70 Lydia Chilton, CS Brian Smith, CS Steve Feiner, CS Gita Johar, Business Elizabeth Hillman, Biomedical Eng Harry West MechE / IEOR Adam Royalty Design Center Paul Blaer, CS Chris Wiggins, Applied Math Mark Hansen, Journalism Laura Kurgan, Architecture Katie Reuther Biomedical Eng

Editor's Notes

  1. World Peace Lower Taxes Education Health Environment
  2. Why do they say these things? They sound good. Get people excited.
  3. Why do they say these things? They sound good. Get people excited.
  4. Too abstract. The first thing you have to do is decide what to do.
  5. Which of these is general and which of these is specific? Why? Clean (verb) the house (noun). HOW? Fold (verb) that basket (noun). You have everything you need. Watch out for “goals” like this. In the words, of Admiral Ackbar, general goals are a trap. General goals sound appealing, but only specific goals are actionable. Who (what person) is going to take what action on what object?
  6. Too abstract. The first thing you have to do is decide what to do.
  7. Who (what person) is going to take what action on what object? What’s appealing about general goals? They sound big
  8. That it’s too trivial.
  9. High certainty. Makes sense. Everybody knows their part. When you’ve basically done it before, it kinda works. What do you do in your life that’s waterfall style?
  10. When I do a design, I sit down and think about the novel concepts, and treat every one as a risk. -Get a drone to fly -Project and interface -Select on an interface -Follow someone
  11. Let me give you a hint. And another And another And another Drift. “How do you think they said when they saw that?” “Oh fuck.”
  12. Let me give you a hint. And another And another And another Drift. “How do you think they said when they saw that?” “Oh fuck.”