Essay: A short literary composition on a particular theme or subject
Eulogy: A speech or writing in praise of a person or thing
Exposition: Writing or speech primarily intended to convey information or to explain
Expository: Writing or speech primarily intended to convey information or to explain
Extended metaphor: A metaphor that is extended through a stanza or entire poem
Figurative language: Speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning
Formal Essay: A formal essay has an opening paragraph that tells the reader what you're going to tell them. It has at least 3 paragraphs to elaborate on what you said in the opening paragraph. Then it has a closing paragraph which summarizes what you've said. And a formal essay will never have ‘I,’ ‘Me’ or ‘You’ written in it.
Genre: A class or category of artistic effort having a particular form, content, technique, or the like
High culture: The set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture
Informal essay: A short literary composition just, like a normal essay, but is often more relaxed. It is usually used for employment purposes.
Informational essay: Informational writing offers factual, unbiased, and expansive information; may be based on research; or may be a personal essay based on personal thoughts and observations
In medias res: In or into the middle of a sequence of events, as in a literary narrative
Language arts: The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills
Low culture: Is a term for some forms of popular culture and is often encountered in discourses on the nature of culture
Metacognition: Awareness of the process of cognition
Passive voice: A verb is in the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is acted on by the verb
Personal essay: A story about your personal life, containing personal ideas and perspectives.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy: Committed when it is concluded that one event causes another simply because the proposed cause occurred before the proposed effect.
Rhetorical device: s a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading the reader or listener towards considering a topic from a different perspective
Rhetorical question: A question to which no answer is expected
Sarcasm: A cutting, often ironic remark intended to wound
Satire: A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit
Stream-of-consciousness story: Literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur
Tragedy: A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances
Tragic flaw: A flaw in the character of the protagonist of a tragedy that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow.
Tragic hero: A literary character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy
Verisimilitude: Something, as an assertion, having merely the appearance of truth.
Weasel words: A word used to temper the forthrightness of a statement; a word that makes one's views equivocal, misleading, or confusing
Writer’s handbook: An indispensible companion for everyone in the writing profession. Packed with provocative articles, useful advice, key contacts, hints and discussion
Writing prompt: Prompt may be an open-ended sentence, a question, a topic, or a scenario that generates writing</li></ul>Dramatic/Visual Composition/ Film Terminology<br /><ul><li>Art (visual) essay: By using visual effects, such as pictures and as little text possible, you can creatively express your opinion on specific topics.
Aerial shot: Usually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapes. This sort of shot would be restricted to exterior locations.
Cinematography: refers to the camera work in film; can be considered art in itself.
Close-up shot: A shot that brings the subject very close to the camera. Faces are often focused on and so close-ups are usually used for tense or intimate scenes, or to show character reactions; the close-up is the overused favorite shot of recent Hollywood films.
Composition: The art or act of composing a musical or literary work
Dollying: When the camera rolls toward or away from the subject.
Director: Someone who directs the making of a film.
Eye-level shot: Eye-level shots tend to be neutral. Much like the medium shot, an eye-level shot puts the viewer on equal footing with the subject being filmed
High-angle shot: Taken from a higher position, shooting down on a subject, making the subject look small, unimportant, inferior, unheroic, lonely, or vulnerable.
Panning: A camera movement horizontally from one side to another; it is often used to suggest point of view, or what the character sees.
Long shot: Taken at some distance from the subject; it includes the entire bodies of actors and many details of the set.
Low-angle shot: Taken from a lower position, shooting up at a subject, making the subject look important, heroic, stronger, superior, and larger-than-life.
Medium shot: Probably the most common shot, showing subjects as from a moderate distance from the camera, with the top halves of their bodies showing.
Photo essay: Is a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewer
Screenplay: A motion-picture or television scenario
Script: A description of what is going on in the film: camera shots, sets, as well as all of the characters dialogue
Stage directions: Is a designated space for the performance of theatrical productions
Tracking: Taken by a camera moving alongside the actor. The camera usually moves on rails, producing a smooth, seamless effect. This technique is often used in stalking scenes of horror movies.
Voice-over: The dubbled-in narration that is added to a soundtrack to give a story-telling or first-person point of view effect.</li></ul>Assessment Terminology<br /><ul><li>Coherence: The property of unity in a written text or a segment of spoken discourse that stems from the links among its underlying ideas and from the logical organization and development of its thematic content
Controlling idea: is an idea that makes a reader ask a question
Diction: Choice and use of words in speech or writing
Implied thesis: An implied thesis is indirect and does not specifically state a set thesis
Matters of choice: This is your diction, syntax, establishing of literary voice in your writing.
Matters of correctness: This is your sentence construction, grammar, usage, and mechanics in your writing.
Syntactic: rules applied for proper sentence structure are culturally based, the rules make it easy for an individual within a culture to write and read stories on an infinite variety of subjects about the myths that shape a cu
Syntax: The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences
Thesis: A proposition that is maintained by argument
Thesis statement: A focused selection of text that can be anywhere from just one sentence to a few pages in size that clearly delineates the argument that will be taken in a proposed paper to be written.</li></ul>Social Terminology<br />Related Issue #1 – Identity <br />Liberalism: political theory founded on the natural goodness of humans and the autonomy of the individual and favoring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority<br />Individualism: Belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence<br />Common Good: the good of a community<br />Collectivism: The principles or system of ownership and control of the means of production and distribution by the people collectively, usually under the supervision of a government.<br />Ideology: A set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system<br />Progressivism: The principles and practices of political progressives<br />Individual Rights & Freedoms: a right is the moral sanction of a positive—of his freedom to act on his own judgment, for his own goals, by his own voluntary, uncoerced choice<br />Competition: The act of competing, as for profit or a prize; rivalry<br />Economic Freedom: freedom from regulation or other dictates from government or other authority in economic (business) matters <br />The rule of Law: state of order in which events conform to the law<br />Private Property: refer to a bundle of rights on the use, control, and transfer of assets, including land. <br />Public Property: property owned by a government<br />Collective Responsibility & Interests: refers to both the causal responsibility of moral agents for harm in the world and the blameworthiness that we ascribe to them for having caused such harm <br />Cooperation: The association of persons or businesses for common, usually economic, benefit<br />Economic Equality: A principle common to the collectivist ideologies which can have different meanings depending on the person or the ideology. Governments may try to foster economic equality through tax policies and by ensuring that all people earn equal wages for work of similar value. <br />Collective Norms: The rules of behavior that are part of the ideology of the group. They tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those actions that are proper and those that are inappropriate, as well as rewards for adherence and the punishment for conformity.<br />Related Issue #2 – Resistance to Liberalism <br />John Locke: Advocate for democracy and direct involvement of citizens in government.<br />Baron de Montesquieu: Believed that all things were made up of rules or laws that never changed. He set out to study these laws scientifically with the hope that knowledge of the laws of government would reduce the problems of society and improve human life.<br />Adam Smith: Idea of the “invisible Hand.” As well as the idea that pursuing your own interest/wealth is in the interest of society- furthers social progress.<br />John Stuart Mill: Aim of his philosophy is to develop a positive view of the universe and the place of humans in it, one which contributes to the progress of human knowledge, individual freedom and human well-being<br />Laissez Faire Capitalism: Non- interference or non-intervention. Laissez-faire economics theory supports free markets and an individual’s rights to own private property.<br />Industrialization: The stage of economic development during which the application of technology results in mass production and mass consumption within a country.<br />The Class System: The division of a society into different classes of people, usually based on income or wealth<br />Limited Government: The principle of little government involvement in the affairs of an economy, in the belief that this results in more efficient self-regulating markets.<br />Classic Conservatism: An ideology that says government should represent the legacy of the past as well as the well-being of the present, and that society should be structured in a hierarchical fashion, that government should be chosen by a limited electorate, that leaders should be humanitarian, and that the stability of society is all important<br />Marxism: A radical form of socialism, often called scientific socialism or communism to distinguish it from other socialist ideologies. <br />Socialism: Any ideology that contains the belief that resources should be controlled by the public for the benefit of everyone in society, and not by private interests for the benefit of private owners and investors<br />Welfare Capitalism: Initiatives by industrialists to provide workers with non-monetary rewards to head off the growing demand for labour unions; also refers to government programs that would provide social safety networks for workers.<br />Labour Standards: Government-enforced rules and standards aimed at safe, clean working environments, and the protection of workers’ rights to free association, collective bargaining, and freedom from discrimination.<br />Unions: a political unit formed from previously independent people or organizations<br />Universal Suffrage: The right of all members of society, once they reach the age of accountability, to fully participate politically. This participation begins with the right vote.<br />Welfare State: A state in which the economy is capitalist, but the government uses policies that directly modify the market forces in order to ensure economic stability and a basic standard of living for its citizens. Usually through social programs.<br />Human Rights: The basic rights and freedoms, to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.<br />Feminism: The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. The term also stands for the movement that advocate for these equalities.<br />Communism: A system of society with property vested in the community and each member working for the common benefit according to his or her capacity and receiving according to his or her needs.<br />Fascism: An extreme, right-wing, anti-democratic nationalist movement which led to a totalitarian forms of government in Germany and Italy from the 1920’s to and 1940’s. <br />Expansionism: A country’s foreign policy of acquiring additional territory through the violation of another country’s sovereignty for reasons of defense, resources, markets, national pride, or perceived racial superiority. <br />Expansionism: A country’s foreign policy of acquiring additional territory through the violation of another country’s sovereignty for reasons of defence, resources, markets, national pride, or perceived racial superiority.<br />Containment: The American Cold War foreign policy of containing the spread of communism by establishing strategic allies around the world through trade and military alliances. <br />Truman Doctrine and Domino Theory : The Cold War “containment” notion was born of the Domino Theory, which held that if one country fell under communist influence or control, its neighboring countries would soon follow<br />Deterrence: The Cold War foreign policy of both major powers aiming to deter the strategic advances of the other through arms development and arms build up. Deterrence depends on each combatant creating the perception that each is willing to resort to military confrontation.<br />Brinksmanship: International behavior or foreign policy that takes a country to the brink of war; pushing one’s demands to the point of threatening military action; usually refers to the showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union over Cuba in October 1962.<br />Détente: A period of the Cold War during which the major powers tried to lessen the tensions between them through diplomacy, arms talks and reductions, and cultural exchanges.<br />Non-alignment: The position taken during the Cold War by those countries in the United Nations that did not form an alliance with either United States of the Soviet Union. This group of countries became a third voting bloc with the UN and pushed for more aid for the developing world. <br />Liberation Movements: Military and political struggles of people for independence from countries that have colonized or otherwise oppressed them.<br />Neo-Conservatism: An ideology that emerged in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s as a reaction against modern liberal principles. Some aspects of neo-conservatism challenge modern liberal principles and favour a return to particular values of classical liberalism. Other neo-conservative ideas challenge both classical and modern liberal principles and favour values identified as “family values” and traditional values, often resting on a religious foundation. <br />Environmentalism: A political and ethical ideology that focuses on protecting the natural environment and lessening the harmful effects that human activities have on the ecosystem.<br />Post-modernism: A movement of thought, art, and criticism, that raises questions about the faith that moderns have in reason and in progress, and tries to get people to rethink their assumptions about the meaning of modern life.<br />Extremism: A term used by others to describe the beliefs and actions of those perceived to be outside of the accepted norms of political or social behaviour. Extremism mat be a response adopted by those whom ordinary political means of redressing perceived wrongs are deemed ineffective.<br />Related Issue #3 – Contemporary Liberalism <br />Consensus: General agreement or accord<br />Direct vs. Representative Democracy: The representatives form more than what it used to be when it was an independent ruling body (for an election period) charged with the responsibility of acting in the people's interest, but not as their proxy representatives; that is, not necessarily always according to their wishes, but with enough authority to exercise swift and resolute initiative in the face of changing circumstances. It is often contrasted with direct democracy, where representatives are absent or are limited in power as proxy representatives.<br />Authoritarianism: A form of government with authority vested un an elite group that may or may not rule in the interests of the people. Authoritarian political systems take many forms, including oligarchies, military dictatorships, ideological one-party states, and monarchies.<br />Command Economies: An economic system based on public (state) ownership of property in which government planners decide which goods to produce, how to produce them, and how they should be distributed; also known as centrally planned economy; usually found in communist states.<br />Free market Economies: A market that operates with limited government intervention. In a free-market economy, questions regarding production and marketing of goods and services are decided through the free interaction of producers and consumers. <br />Traditional Economies: An economic system usually practiced by a pre-industrialized society, where need are met through agriculture, hunting, and fishing, and where there tends to be a division of labour based on custom and tradition.<br />Mixed economies: An economic system based on free-market principles but with some government intervention, usually to regulate industry, to moderate the boom-and-bust nature of the free-market business cycle, and to offer social welfare programs. In some mixed economic systems, the government owns some key industries (such as communications, utilities, or transportation). <br />American Bill of Rights: The first 10 amendments to the US Constitution. Ratified by the original 13 states by 1791, it is based primarily on John Locke;s concept of “natural rights” for all individuals, including life, liberty, and the protection of property. <br />Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: A document entrenched in the Constitutional Act, 1982, that lists and describes the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to Canadians. <br />Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms: A statutory bill of rights and human rights code that was passed by the National Assembly of Quebec in 1975.<br />War Measures Act: A Canadian law that gave the federal cabinet emergency powers for circumstances where it determines that the threat of war, invasion, or insurrection, real or apprehended, exists. It was replaced by the Emergencies Act (1988).<br />Patriot Act: The Act increases the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eases restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States; expands the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and enhances the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expands the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act’s expanded law enforcement powers can be applied.<br />Debt: An amount of money, a service, or an item of property that is owed to somebody<br />Poverty: The state of not having enough money to take care of basic needs such as food, clothing, and housing<br />Racism: He belief that people of different races have different qualities and abilities, and that some races are inherently superior or inferior<br />Pandemics: Outbreaks of disease on a global scale<br />Terrorism: The policy of various ideological groups to disrupt the affairs of an enemy state or culture by the use of violent acts against non-combatants, in order to create debilitating terror and confusion<br />Censorship: The act of restricting freedom of expression or access to ideas or works, usually by governments, and usually to protect the perceived common good; may be related to speech, writings, works of art, religious practices, or military matters. <br />Illiberalism: Ideologies opposed to the values, beliefs, and principles of liberalism; usually refers to undemocratic actions but may be found in democratic countries during times of crisis.<br />Issue #4 – Citizenship <br />The Human Condition: refers to the distinctive features of human existence<br />Dissent: The political act of disagreeing the right to disagree. Sometimes dissent takes the form of popularly organized opposition to a tradition or an official policy or statute.<br />Civility: Thoughtfulness about how out actions may affect others, based on the recognition that human being live together.<br />Civil Disobedience: The refusal to obey a law because it is considered to be unjust; a form of non-violent political protests. <br />Political Participation: Any number of ways a citizen can be involved in the political process, such as voting, running as candidate, supporting a candidate, attending constituency meetings, speaking out, demonstrating, protesting, writing letters to elected representatives. <br />Citizen Advocacy: A movement to strengthen citizen action and motivation to participate in community and civic affairs; often focuses on bringing the marginalized back into the community.<br />Humanitarian Crises: Is an event or series of events which represents a critical threat to the health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community or other large group of people, usually over a wide area<br />Civil rights movements: Popular movements, notably in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, that works to extend rights to marginalized members of society. Often these struggles aim not only for legal and civic rights, but also for respect, dignity, and economic and social equality for all.<br />Anti-war movements: Organized campaigns against war. The Vietnam anti-war movement gained public support during the late 1960s and contributed to the United States ending that war. These movements can be pacifist in general, and aimed at ending or restricting the military policy options, or they can be movements opposing specific military campaigns.<br />McCarthyism (Red Scare): An anti-communist movement in the United States during the 1950s, led by Republican senator Joseph McCarthy. It was intended to uncover and persecute those with perceived ties to communism within the US government, universities, and entertainment industries.<br />Pro-democracy movements: Movements or campaigns in favour of democracy.<br />Collective and Individual action: is the pursuit of a goal or set of goals one or more people.<br />