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Ophthalmology ospe cc


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Ophthalmology ospe cc

  1. 1. Ophthalmology OSPE Girls work fromGirls work from Dr.Sameer jamal lecturesDr.Sameer jamal lectures recordsrecords 20102010 1
  2. 2. Optic nerve swelling Normal optic nerve (central pinkish disk) Papillededema With severe swelling in addition to a circumferential halo, the edema covers major blood vessels as they leave the optic disk and vessels on the disk . A subretinal hemorrhage is present at 7 o'clock. 2
  3. 3. Acute visual loss 3
  4. 4. papilledema papilledema, characterized by 360 degree nerve elevation without obscuration of the vessels. 4
  5. 5. Vitreous Hemorrhage Acute Persistent Visual Loss: Vitreous Hemorrhage 5
  6. 6. Vitreous detachment patient presenting with floaters and an acute posterior vitreous detachment. Blot hemorrhage on the optic nerve in a patient with an acute posterior vitreous detachment. This type of hemorrhage can mimic a Drance hemorrhage. 6
  7. 7. Retinal detachment 7
  8. 8. Optic neuritis 8
  9. 9. Ischemic optic neuropathy 9
  10. 10. Orbital cellulititis 10
  11. 11. Amblyopia 11
  12. 12. Keratitis 12
  13. 13. uveitis Red eye in patient with anterior uveitis 13
  14. 14. Central retinal artery occlusion 14
  15. 15. Central retinal vein occlusion 15
  16. 16. Branch occlusion 16
  17. 17. ‫صور‬ ‫لقيتلهم‬ ‫ما‬ CVA Temporal arteritis 17
  18. 18. Acute angle closure glaucoma Eye of a patient with acute angle closure glaucoma. Note the hazy cornea with semi-dilated and distorted pupil which are the common signs in this condition. In addition, digital palpation usually reveals that the affected eye is firmer than the unaffected eye due to the high intraocular pressure 18 Angle-closure glaucoma: central corneal oedema with an oval-shaped mid-dilated pupil
  19. 19. Alkali burn 19
  20. 20. Instruments 20
  21. 21. Ophthalmoscope used to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures Direct Ophthalmoscope Indirect Ophthalmoscope •It is crucial in determining the health of the retina and the vitreous humor. •It is used to detect and evaluate symptoms of retinal detachment or eye diseases such as glaucoma 21
  22. 22. Retinoscope •Used to objectively determine the refractive power of the eye. 22
  23. 23. Fluorescein dye Finger Nail Abrasion Staining Using Fluorescein Dye--Diffuse Illumination •Used as a diagnostic tool, where topical fluorescein is used in the diagnosis of corneal abrasions, corneal ulcers and herpetic corneal infections. •It is also used in rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting to evaluate the tear layer under the lens. •to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. 23
  24. 24. Patch & shield Eye patch Eye shield •Used in the management of children at risk of amblyopia, especially strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia. •To initially relieve double vision (diplopia) caused by an extra-ocular muscle palsy •To protect injured eyes 24
  25. 25. Slit lamp • provides a high magnification view of the front structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris and lens, and retina. • It is used to detect tissue damage to the ocular surface including the cornea, conjunctiva and lids. • It also can detect inflammation of the internal structures, cataract changes of the crystalline lens. • It is used extensively for the fitting of contact lenses and is the instrument of choice for detecting contact lens related tissue changes to the cornea and surrounding tissues. 25
  26. 26. Phoropter used in refraction testing 26
  27. 27. Tonometers used to determine the intraoccular pressure (IOP) - useful in glaucoma Direct tonometer Indirect tonometer 27
  28. 28. Snellen's chart used to measure visual acuity • 20/20 means a "normal" human being should be able to see when standing 20 feet away from an eye chart • In metric, the standard is 6 meters and it's called 6/6 vision • If you have (20/“X”) vision, it means that when you stand 20 feet away from the chart you can see what a normal human can see when standing “X” feet from the chart. 28
  29. 29. Ishihara color test plate 29
  30. 30. Management of traumatic eye 30
  31. 31. Management of traumatic eye Corneal perforation Foreign body Severe tear deficiency leads to breakdown of the corneal epithelial layer. 31
  32. 32. Peripheral corneal ulceration Abrasion Note the crescent-shaped destructive inflammation of the juxtalimbal corne 32
  33. 33. When a patient come with eye trauma, then you have to role out 4 conditions… • Perforation • Abrasion • Foreign body • Corneal ulcer ‫بوكس‬ ‫ادالو‬ ‫احد‬ ‫او‬ ‫العين‬ ‫جوا‬ ‫دخلت‬ ‫لقصقة‬ ‫عدسة‬ ‫كان‬ ‫سواء‬ ‫تسمى‬ ‫فكلها‬ ‫عينوا‬ ‫في‬ Eye trauma 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Differences between abrasion & ulcer 35
  36. 36. Management of perforated eye by GP 36
  37. 37. • The more serious the injury, the more pain the Pt. will feel (perforation & ulcer are more painful than abrasion) • First thing you have to do in eye trauma is to make sure that the Pt. does not have perforation • Don’t touch the Pt. & don’t try to make the eye open by force if she/he has a perforation • The pathognomonic feature that’s of trauma that causes perforation & can be seen by the physician by naked eye without touching the Pt. is flattening of the led & loss of led contour! ‫تنسم‬ ‫!العين‬ 37
  38. 38. Other non-pathognomonic signs of perforation-due- to-trauma are: • Bleeding (it could be a conjunctival trauma or an iris trauma in case of bleeding from the perforation site) • Irregular pupil • Irregularity in AC depth 38
  39. 39. • Don’t put anything on the injury site, no antibiotics or any drops. You might worsen the injury if you did. • All you can do is just putting a shield on the eye to protect the eye from further injury. NO PATCHING! • ‫العين‬ ‫فوق‬ ‫نحطها‬ ‫و‬ ‫نصين‬ ‫الورقية‬ ‫الكاسة‬ ‫نكسر‬ ‫الشيلد‬ ‫نسوي‬ ‫عشان‬ ‫العين‬ ‫فوق‬ ‫نلصقها‬ ‫و‬ • Then, call an ophthalmologist and refer the case to him 39
  40. 40. • Check the visual acuity when the Pt. comes to ER without touching him! • In all trauma cases, you always have to document the amount and severity of trauma. And this is only after you role out perforation!. Don’t touch the Pt until you do that. 40
  41. 41. Management of foreign body by GP 41
  42. 42. • Look by your naked eyes with the help of pin light for any foreign body in the fornix &cornea and try to flip the eye led and see behind it • See if there is any foreign body and remove it only by washing! This the only thing you’re allowed to do as a GP! • If the foreign body could not be removed by washing, then it’s not your responsibility to remove it! 42
  43. 43. Management of corneal ulcer by GP 43
  44. 44. • REFER THE CASE TO AN OPHTHALMOLOGIST! It’s not your job to treat the ulcer • ‫حأحولوا‬ ‫ماراح‬ .. ‫حأعالجو‬ ‫راح‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫بودي‬ ‫الفورين‬ ‫و‬ ‫اللسر‬ • No shield neither patch should be applied in case of ulcers • ‫حيتاخر‬ ‫المريض‬ ‫لوكان‬ ‫ال‬ ‫حيوي‬ ‫مضاد‬ ‫قطرة‬ ‫تحطي‬ ‫ما‬ ‫انك‬ ‫يفضل‬ ‫من‬ ‫لمدة‬ ‫العيون‬ ‫لدكتور‬ ‫روحتوا‬ ‫في‬24‫الحالة‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ففي‬ ‫ساعة‬ ‫النفيكشن‬ ‫تمنعي‬ ‫عشان‬ ‫حيوي‬ ‫مضاد‬ ‫قطرة‬ ‫تحطيلو‬ • If you suspect an ulcer, you need to give antibiotics more frequently • ‫عمل‬ ‫في‬ ‫بعدين‬ ‫حيتعب‬ ‫انو‬ ‫الحيوي‬ ‫المضاد‬ ‫قطرات‬ ‫في‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫لللسر‬ ‫المسبب‬ ‫الميكروب‬ ‫لمعرفة‬ ‫كلتشر‬ 44
  45. 45. Management of corneal abrasionr by GP 45
  46. 46. • It’s the job of GP to treat abrasions! • It’s the most common ocular emergency • The most important thing in TTT is double horizontal PATCHING the eye! • Don’t forget to make the Pt. close his eye under the patch. Otherwise, the abrasion will get worse. • You can apply antibiotic ointment on the eye if it was available • Refer the Pt. to an ophthalmologist for follow up. The period for referral should not exceed 24 hours 46
  47. 47. ‫منو‬ ‫تطلعوا‬ ‫تبو‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫للصور‬ ‫لينك‬ ‫دا‬ • •‫شي‬ ‫اي‬ ‫عن‬ ‫مسؤولة‬ ‫مو‬ ‫انا‬ ‫خطا‬ ‫او‬ ‫ناقص‬ •‫باي‬ ‫قووووووز‬ ‫يالل‬ •^__^ 47