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# Chapter 10: Cell Cycle

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### Chapter 10: Cell Cycle

1. 1. Interest Grabber <ul><li>Getting Through </li></ul><ul><li>Materials move through cells by diffusion. Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste products move out of cells. How does the size of a cell affect how efficiently materials get to all parts of a cell? </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a partner to complete this activity. </li></ul>Section 10-1 1. On a sheet of paper, make a drawing of a cell that has the following dimensions: 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm. Your partner should draw another cell about one half the size of your cell on a separate sheet of paper. 2. Compare your drawings. How much longer do you think it would take to get from the cell membrane to the center of the big cell than from the cell membrane to the center of the smaller cell? 3. What is the advantage of cells being small?
2. 2. Section Outline <ul><li>10–1 Cell Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Limits to Cell Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. DNA “Overload” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Exchanging Materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Cell Division </li></ul></ul></ul>Section 10-1
3. 3. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells Cell Size Surface Area (length x width x 6) Volume (length x width x height) Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Section 10-1
4. 4. Interest Grabber <ul><li>Cell Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The cell cycle represents recurring events that take place in the period of time from the beginning of one cell division to the beginning of the next. In addition to cell division, the cell cycle includes periods when the cell is growing and actively producing materials it needs for the next division. </li></ul>Section 10-2 1. Why is the cell cycle called a cycle? 2. Why do you think that it is important for a cell to grow in size during its cell cycle? 3. What might happen to a cell if all events leading up to cell division took place as they should, but the cell did not divide?
5. 5. Section Outline <ul><li>10–2 Cell Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. The Cell Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Events of the Cell Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Prophase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Metaphase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Anaphase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Telophase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Cytokinesis </li></ul></ul>Section 10-2
6. 6. Concept Map includes is divided into is divided into Section 10-2 Cell Cycle M phase (Mitosis) Interphase G 1 phase S phase Prophase G 2 phase Metaphase Telophase Anaphase
7. 7. A. Chromosomes <ul><li>1. Made up of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>2. Only seen during cell division (M phase) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the time DNA is hanging out in nucleus as chromatin – granular </li></ul><ul><li>material </li></ul><ul><li>4. Before cell division, DNA replicates itself </li></ul><ul><li>5. During prophase, 1 st phase in mitosis chromatin condenses to form replicated chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>6. Because of DNA replication, each replicated chromosome has 2 identical “sister” chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>7. Sister chromatids are joined at the centromere, center of chromosome </li></ul>
8. 8. Figure 10–4 The Cell Cycle M phase G 2 phase S phase G 1 phase Section 10-2
9. 9. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
10. 10. C. Mitosis (M Phase) <ul><li>1. Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Longest phase </li></ul><ul><li>b. Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>c. Centrioles separate and move to opposite ends of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>d. Spindle fibers come out of centrioles and attach to chromosomes centromere </li></ul><ul><li>e. Nucleolus disappears </li></ul><ul><li>f. Nuclear envelope breaks down </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis Animation </li></ul>
11. 11. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
12. 12. <ul><li>2. Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Chromosomes line up in middle of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis Animation </li></ul>
13. 13. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
14. 14. <ul><li>3. Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Chromosomes split apart, each sister chromatid going to an opposite end of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis Animation </li></ul>
15. 15. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
16. 16. <ul><li>4. Telophase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Chromosomes begin to go back to chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>b. Nuclear envelope reforms </li></ul><ul><li>c. Spindle fibers break down </li></ul><ul><li>d. Nucleolus reappears in each daughter cell’s nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis Animation </li></ul>
17. 17. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
18. 18. D. Cytokinesis <ul><li>1. Division of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Happens at same time as telophase </li></ul>
19. 19. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Section 10-2
20. 20. Interest Grabber <ul><li>Knowing When to Stop </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose you had a paper cut on your finger. Although the cut may have bled and stung a little, after a few days, it will have disappeared, and your finger would be as good as new. </li></ul>Section 10-3 1. How do you think the body repairs an injury, such as a cut on a finger? 2. How long do you think this repair process continues? 3. What do you think causes the cells to stop the repair process?
21. 21. Section Outline <ul><li>10–3 Regulating the Cell Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Controls on Cell Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Cell Cycle Regulators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Internal Regulators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. External Regulators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Uncontrolled Cell Growth </li></ul></ul>Section 10-3
22. 22. Control of Cell Division Section 10-3
23. 23. Figure 10–8 Effect of Cyclins A sample of cytoplasm is removed from a cell in mitosis. The sample is injected into a second cell in G 2 of interphase. As a result, the second cell enters mitosis. Section 10-3
24. 24. Video Contents <ul><li>Click a hyperlink to choose a video. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Cell Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Cell Cytokinesis </li></ul>Videos
25. 25. Video 1 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 1 Animal Cell Mitosis
26. 26. Video 2 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 2 Animal Cell Cytokinesis
27. 27. Internet <ul><li>Links on cell growth </li></ul><ul><li>Links from the authors on stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>Share cell cycle lab data </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive test </li></ul><ul><li>For links on cell division, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3102. </li></ul><ul><li>For links on the cell cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3103. </li></ul>Go Online
28. 28. Section 1 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. On a sheet of paper, make a drawing of a cell that has the following dimensions: 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm. Your partner should draw another cell about one half the size of your cell on a separate sheet of paper. 2. Compare your drawings. How much longer do you think it would take to get from the cell membrane to the center of the big cell than from the cell membrane to the center of the smaller cell? It would take twice the amount of time. 3. What is the advantage of cells being small? If cells are small, materials can be distributed to all parts of the cell quickly.
29. 29. Section 2 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. Why is the cell cycle called a cycle? It represents recurring events. 2. Why do you think that it is important for a cell to grow in size during its cell cycle? If a cell did not grow in size, each cell division would produce progressively smaller cells. 3. What might happen to a cell if all events leading up to cell division took place as they should, but the cell did not divide? Students may infer that a cell that undergoes all sequences of the cell cycle would grow increasingly larger—to a point at which the cell could no longer exchange materials with the environment efficiently enough to live.
30. 30. Section 3 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. How do you think the body repairs an injury, such as a cut on a finger? The cut is repaired by the production of new cells through cell division. 2. How long do you think this repair process continues? Cell division continues until the cut is repaired. 3. What do you think causes the cells to stop the repair process? Students will likely say that when the cut is filled in, there is no room for more cells to grow.
31. 31. End of Custom Shows <ul><li>This slide is intentionally blank. </li></ul>