Ch. 8 Photosynthesis

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Biology notes on photosynthesis. Chapter 8 sections 1, 2 & 3

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Ch. 8 Photosynthesis

  1. 1. Saving for a Rainy Day <ul><li>Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account. </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are the benefits of having a bank account? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does your body do when it needs energy? </li></ul>Section 8-1 Interest Grabber
  2. 2. <ul><li>8–1 Energy and Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Chemical Energy and ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Storing Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Releasing Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Using Biochemical Energy </li></ul></ul>Section 8-1 Section Outline
  3. 3. 8-1 & 8-2 Photosynthesis Introduction <ul><li>A. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>a. Make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>b. Ex. Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotroph </li></ul><ul><li>a. Get energy from foods they eat </li></ul><ul><li>b. Ex. Human </li></ul>
  4. 4. B. ATP <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>a. Principal chemical compound used to store and release energy in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>a. 3 phosphates are key to storing and releasing energy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Section 8-1 ATP
  6. 6. B. ATP cont. <ul><li>Storing energy </li></ul><ul><li>a. ADP (similar to ATP, but only 2 phosphates) adds on a phosphate group and is now ATP </li></ul><ul><li>b. ADP is like a partially charged battery, add on a third phosphate and now its fully charged </li></ul><ul><li>c. ADP + P ----  ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Releasing energy </li></ul><ul><li>a. To use the stored energy, take off the third phosphate and make back into ADP </li></ul><ul><li>b. ATP --  ADP + P </li></ul>
  7. 7. ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery
  8. 8. ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery
  9. 9. C. Photosynthesis Equation <ul><li>6CO 2 + 6H 2 O ---(light)-------  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water (and light) make glucose and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Light and Pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Pigments </li></ul><ul><li>a. Light absorbing molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>a. Plants’ principal pigment </li></ul><ul><li>If you are absorbing light, you are absorbing energy </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis.swf </li></ul>
  10. 10. Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2 Section 8-2 Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products
  11. 11. Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b V B G Y O R Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Section 8-2 Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption
  12. 12. Trapping Energy <ul><li>Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it. </li></ul>Section 8-2 Interest Grabber
  13. 13. <ul><li>1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes? </li></ul>Section 8-2 Interest Grabber continued
  14. 14. <ul><li>8–2 Photosynthesis: An Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Investigating Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Van Helmont’s Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Priestley’s Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Jan Ingenhousz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. The Photosynthesis Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Light and Pigments </li></ul></ul>Section 8-2 Section Outline
  15. 15. A Look Into the Future <ul><li>It is 100 years in the future and you are a research scientist. An enormous volcanic eruption has recently sent huge quantities of dust and ash into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>2. plant life </li></ul><ul><li>3. animal life </li></ul><ul><li>4. human societies </li></ul>Section 8-3 Interest Grabber
  16. 16. <ul><li>8–3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Inside a Chloroplast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Electron Carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Light-Dependent Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. The Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>Section 8-3 Section Outline
  17. 17. 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis <ul><li>Light Dependant Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Occurs : </li></ul><ul><li>a. across the thylakoid membrane and in the stroma </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>2. Uses </li></ul><ul><li>a. H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>b. ADP </li></ul><ul><li>3. To make: </li></ul><ul><li>i. Energy splits apart the water molecule into 2 –Hydrogen + atoms and 1 Oxygen atom </li></ul><ul><li>ii. O find a friend to make O 2 – gets released </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Extra 2e - collect sun’s energy </li></ul><ul><li>i. Picks up a phosphate to make ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Goes on to Calvin Cycle </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Light energy </li></ul><ul><li>d. NADP + </li></ul><ul><li>i. From sun </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Turns electrons into high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Drives the light reactions </li></ul><ul><li>i. High energy electron carrier </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Picks up 2 e- and a H+ to become NADPH </li></ul>
  20. 20. 4. Steps in Light Reactions <ul><li>Sun energy gets absorbed by pigments in Photosystem II </li></ul><ul><li>This energy splits H 2 O into 2H + atoms and 1 oxygen atom, leaves 2 electrons to hang out and wait in PSII </li></ul><ul><li>Sun is absorbed by the pigments, the electrons get this energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons become high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Travel down the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), losing energy as they travel down each protein </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>f. Come to Photosystem I, light gets absorbed again, electrons become high energized again </li></ul><ul><li>High energy electrons need a special “carrier” to bring them to the Calvin Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Get picked up by NADP + , which also picks up an H + left over from H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NADP + + 2e- + H +  NADPH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. High energy electron carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Heads to Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>J. ADP + P  ATP at the ATP Synthase </li></ul><ul><li>i. heads to Calvin Cycle </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hydrogen Ion Movement Photosystem II Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma ATP synthase Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions
  23. 23. B. Calvin Cycle / Light Independent Reaction / Dark Reactions <ul><li>Takes place in: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Stroma </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>a. ATP </li></ul><ul><li>b. CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>c. NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>To make </li></ul><ul><li>Need energy to make glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Gets broken back down into ADP </li></ul><ul><li>Heads back to the light reactions to get used again there </li></ul><ul><li>i. Uses 6 molecules of CO 2 to produce 1 molecule of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>i. High energy electrons help to make glucose </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Gets broken back down to NADP + and returns to light reactions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Photosynthesis includes of take place in takes place in uses to produce to produce use Section 8-3 Concept Map Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Thylakoid membranes Stroma NADPH ATP Energy from sunlight ATP NADPH O 2 Chloroplasts High-energy sugars
  26. 26. Chloroplast Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP + Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Light O 2 Sugars CO 2
  27. 27. ChloropIast CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Section 8-3 Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle
  28. 28. Video Contents <ul><li>Click a hyperlink to choose a video. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin Cycle </li></ul>Videos
  29. 29. Video 1 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 1 ATP Formation
  30. 30. Video 2 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 2 Photosynthesis
  31. 31. Video 3 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 3 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1
  32. 32. Video 4 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 4 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2
  33. 33. Video 5 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 5 Calvin Cycle
  34. 34. Internet <ul><li>ATP activity </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive test </li></ul><ul><li>For links on Calvin cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082. </li></ul><ul><li>For links on photosynthesis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083. </li></ul>Go Online
  35. 35. Section 1 Answers <ul><li>1. What are the benefits of having a bank account? </li></ul><ul><li>To save money and earn interest. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money? </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the bank and take out the money you need. </li></ul><ul><li>3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities? </li></ul><ul><li>Students will likely say that the body stores the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does your body do when it needs energy? </li></ul><ul><li>Student answers may include that energy is gotten from food. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  36. 36. Section 2 Answers <ul><li>1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works? </li></ul><ul><li>They convert light energy into electrical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants? </li></ul><ul><li>Plants convert light energy into chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green? </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are green, as are some stems. </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes? </li></ul><ul><li>The green color is the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun and converts it to chemical energy in the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  37. 37. Section 3 Answers <ul><li>Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. photosynthesis The rate of photosynthesis will decrease due to reduced sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>2. plant life Plants will grow more slowly or die off due to decreased rate of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>3. animal life Animal populations will decrease after a while due to fewer plants for herbivores to eat. Fewer herbivores will eventually result in fewer carnivores. Also, less oxygen will be available. </li></ul><ul><li>4. human societies Human societies will have to adjust their eating habits as some food species die out. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  38. 38. End of Custom Shows <ul><li>This slide is intentionally blank. </li></ul>

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