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A Research Proposal entitled “LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MABITAC, LAGUNA S.Y. 2010-2011”

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- 1. LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MABITAC, LAGUNA A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics ALELI M. ARIOLA October 2010
- 2. Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan (Host) Campus Siniloan, Laguna APPROVAL SHEET This research proposal entitled “LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MABITAC, LAGUNA S.Y. 2010-2011” prepared and submitted by ALELI M. ARIOLA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION Major in Mathematics has been examined and hereby recommended for approval and acceptance. ARLENE G. ADVENTO Adviser ________________________________________________________________ PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the COMMITTEE ON ORAL EXAMINATION with the grade of 1.75. SANDRA P. MESINA Chairman of Research Implementing Unit, COEd MERCY GRACE I. SALIENDRA DELIA F. MERCADO English Critic Subject Specialist ROMMEL OCTAVIUS R. NUESTRO CORAZON N. SAN AGUSTIN, Ph. D. Statistician Technical Editor Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education. ROMMEL OCTAVIUS R. NUESTRO CORAZON N. SAN AGUSTIN, Ph. D. Director for Research Dean, College of Education
- 3. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Mathematics deals with solving problems. Such problems are similar to all other problems everyone is confronted with. It consists of defining the problem, entertaining a tentative guess as the solution, testing the guess, and deriving at a solution. Mathematics is definite, logical and objective. The rules for determining the truth or falsity of a statement are accepted by all. If there are disagreements, it can be readily tested. Mathematical knowledge by its distinctive nature differs from knowledge in an empirical science. Under the guidance of a teacher the student can be shown how to “discover knowledge knew to them” and how to convince themselves that what they have discovered is correct. This process of learning mathematics is of great value to them especially in future studies and investigations they will undertake. Student has there own learning style in learning mathematics. A learning style is a student’ consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. Keefe (1979) defines learning style as the “composite of characteristics cognitive, affective, and psychological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment.’ Stewart and Felicetti (1992) define learning as those “education conditions under which a student is most likely to
- 4. learn.” Thus, learning style is not really concerned with “what” learners learn, but rather “how’ they prefer to learn. Since learners have their own learning style in learning mathematics, the researcher wonders to determine the relationship among the learners’ preferences and teaching strategy in teaching mathematics. There are factors to be considered like the students’ performance which is based on how they prefer to learn and what they learn from their mathematics teacher using some teaching strategies. If a teacher is well-equipped with the best teaching strategies, then his teaching can be considered as an effective one. But this only happens when his students learn from the teaching-learning process, and if they can use their knowledge that they have learned in their own lives. Background of the Study Education is one of the foundations of success. It is an experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. Education has been one of the emphases of the government in the national struggle to meet the needs of society. In 1992, the DECS which governs both public and private education in all levels stated that its mission was “to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all by the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good.” The department also stipulated its vision to “develop a highly competent, civic spirited, life-skilled, and God-loving Filipino youth who actively participate in and contribute towards the building of a humane, healthy and productive society.” All these are ambitions
- 5. were embodied in the department strategy called Philippines 2000. (http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1199philippines-EDUCATION- SYSTEM-AN-OVERVIEW-html) In the Philippines the education system aims to provide a broad general education that will assist each individual in society to attain his/her potential as a human being, and enhance the range and quality of the individual and the group, help the individual participate in the basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his/her development into a productive and versatile citizen, train the nation’s manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development, develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life, respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through a system of educational planning and evaluation.(http://www.seameoinnotech.org/resources/seameo_country/educ_dat a/philippines/philippines_ibe.htm). A school is an institution for the teaching of children and it is a group of teachers and students pursuing knowledge together. School should educate an institution of learning, and teach or drill in a specific knowledge or skill. The schools where the researcher will conduct her research study are the four schools found in the town of Mabitac, Laguna. The first one is the Mabitac National High School (MNHS), the school of the researcher took up her high school education. It is located at Barangay Libis ng Nayon Mabitac, Laguna.
- 6. MNHS is formerly called Alas-as National High School. Students studying in this school comes from the different barangay in Mabitac, Laguna which they have different behavior based on their environment and social background. They have their own preferences or styles on how they learn. And because of that, the teacher should be the one to adjust for them to have understanding in the class. The teacher should be used appropriate teaching strategies or techniques to be able his/her students arouse their attention and interest in learning. Paagahan National High School (PNHS) and its extension, the Paagahan National High School (Matalatala Extension) will be another school where the study will be conducted. PNHS is located at Barangay Paagahan Mabitac, Laguna, and its extension is at the Barangay Matalatala Mabitac, Laguna. Obviously, these schools have the same principal, Mrs. Socorro R. Fundivilla. The classroom sectioning of these schools are continuous, the first and second sections of each year level are in the PNHS and the third and fourth sections are in the PNHS (Matalatala Extension). Blessed James Cusmano Academy is the only private school in Mabitac, Laguna. It is located near the researcher’s residence, Barangay San Antonio Mabitac, Laguna. This school was developed by the help of all fathers in the barangay chapel and the Missionary Servants of the Poor. They provide scholarship for those students who want to help and serve in the chapel, and especially, students who have dedication in learning. BJCA has a target behavior to be developed every month, but still, students have their own learning styles
- 7. and in this case, they need the supervision of teachers and the Priest-director of the school. Teaching style or strategies is viewed as a broad dimension or personality type that encloses teacher stance, pattern of behavior, mode of performance, and attitude toward self and others. Penelope Peterson defines teacher style in terms of how teachers utilize space in the classroom, their choice of instructional activities and materials, and their method of student grouping. Student characteristics will influence sometimes greatly how a particular teaching strategy is employed and how successful it will be. Student characteristics will also enter into the selection of a teaching strategy. The teacher needs to arouse the student’ interest and attention during classroom discussion for better understanding of the lessons being discussed. Because there are students who want to work independently or alone, in pairs, with peers or with a team. Most students can learn, but each child concentrates processes and retains new and difficult information in many different ways and they respond according to their perceptual strengths or learning modality. Students are highly mobile. Generally, teachers need to let the students feel physiologically comfortable before asking them to study, learn or concentrate the lessons. When the students feel comfortable, they can think and focus better. Individuals capture and remember information best when it presented in a step-by-step, methodical, sequential structure, one fact after another, little by little, leading toward an understanding of the concepts or lesson presented.
- 8. Students at all levels have individualized learning preferences that greatly affect the way they concentrates on, process, internalize and retain new and difficult academic information. Thus, the researcher will conduct this study to determine the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics. This will be designed to verify how the students perform with respect to the strategies used in teaching. Theoretical Framework This study will be guided by the different theories: Learning/Thinking Style, and Multiple Intelligences. Hilliard describes “learning style” as the sum of the patterns of how individuals develop habitual ways of responding to experience. Learning/Thinking Styles refers to the preferred way individual processes information. They describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. According to Hilliard, there are several perspectives about learning- thinking style, the sensory perspective and global-analytic continuum. In sensory preferences, individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of several inputs and maintain dominance in visual, auditory and tactile/kinesthetic learners. Analytic thinkers tend toward the linear, step-by-step processes of learning while the global thinkers lean towards non-linear thought and tend to the whole pattern rather than particles elements.
- 9. The theory of multiple intelligences was first described by Howard Gardner in Frame of Mind (1983). Gardner defines intelligences as “an ability or set of abilities that allows a person to solve a problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures.” Gardner believes that different intelligences may be independent abilities ─ a person can be low in one domain area but high in another. All of us possess the intelligences but in varying degrees of strength and skills. It is important for teachers to use their knowledge about thinking/learning style and multiple intelligences in planning activities to help their students to effectively learn. The above theories will help the researcher to gather the necessary information needed in evaluating the relationship among the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics to the fourth year high school students. Conceptual Framework The conceptual model as shown in Figure 1 consists of two boxes. The left box shows the independent variable which includes the learners’ preferences such as visual learners, auditory learners, kinesthetic learners, analytic thinkers and global thinkers, and the teaching strategies such as lecture discussion, problem solving, cooperative learning, deductive method and inductive method. The box in the right shows the dependent variable which is teaching strategies.
- 10. The line that connects the independent variable and the dependent variable indicates the relationship between them. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Figure 1. The Conceptual Model showing the relationship among the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable of the Study Learners’ Preferences Visual Learners Auditory Learners Kinesthetic Learners Analytic Thinkers Global Thinkers Teaching Strategies Lecture Discussion Problem Solving Cooperative Learning Deductive Method Inductive Method Teaching Mathematics
- 11. Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the relationship among learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching Mathematics of fourth year high school students at Mabitac, Laguna. Specifically, the study will seek answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the student-respondents in terms of their : 1.1 age; 1.2 gender; 1.3 section; and 1.4 schools? 2. What is the profile of the teacher-respondents in terms of their: 2.1 age; 2.2 gender; 2.3 civil status; 2.4 educational attainments; 2.5 number of years in service; and 2.6 seminars attended? 3. What are the learners’ preferences related to the teaching strategies employed by the teacher in terms of: 3.1 visual learners; 3.2 auditory learners; 3.3 kinesthetic learners; 3.4 analytic thinkers; and
- 12. 3.5 global thinkers? 4. What are teachers’ actualities the students observed, and the teachers prepared? 5. What are the teaching strategies observed by the students in their mathematics teacher such as: 5.1 lecture discussion; 5.2 problem solving; 5.3 cooperative learning; 5.4 deductive method; and 5.5 inductive method? 6. Is there significant relationship between the students’ preferences in learning mathematics and the students’ profile? 7. Is there significant relationship between the teachers’ actualities, teaching strategies, and the teachers’ profile? 8. Is there significant relationship between the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics? Hypotheses The following null hypotheses will be tested. 1. There is no significant relationship between the student preferences in learning mathematics and the students’ profile. 2. There is no significant relationship between the teachers’ actualities, teaching strategies, and the teachers’ profile.
- 13. 3. There is no significant relationship between the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies teaching mathematics. Significance of the Study The result of the study will help the following: Students. This will help them to be aware of their preferences in learning Mathematics. They will understand and identify the teaching strategies employed by their teachers that may affect their performance. Teachers. They will be able to identify their strengths and weaknesses in employing the strategies in teaching mathematics. This will serve as a guide to devise better methods that can be used in the learning process to have better quality of teaching. Parents. The parents who are greatly concerned in the education of their children will be aware of the styles on how their child learns. DepEd. This study will help them to improve the current situation in teaching Mathematics. Through this study, they will be able to establish the implements new programs had can support the improvement of different teaching strategies of Mathematics teachers and the improvement of the students’ performance. School Administrators. This study will help them to be aware of students learning and thinking styles in Mathematics even in other subjects, it will also serve as a guide to provide training and seminars for mathematics teachers regarding teaching strategies.
- 14. Researchers. The results of this study will serve as a guide for future studies pertaining to teaching-learning process, learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in mathematics or for other parallel researches. Scope and Limitation of the Study The main concern of this study is to determine the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching Mathematics. A questionnaire-checklist determines the learner’s preferences and teaching strategies will be used to gather the needed information in this research. This study is limited only to five (5) Mathematics teachers and one hundred fifty-seven (157) selected students of fourth year high school students from all secondary schools at Mabitac, Laguna during the academic year 2010- 2011. This study will be conducted in all secondary schools at Mabitac, Laguna such as Mabitac National High School, Paagahan National High School, Paagahan National High School (Matalatala Extension), and Blessed James Cusmano Academy. Definition of Terms For clarify and understanding of the terms related to this study, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally. Analytic Thinkers refer to learners who tend toward the linear, step-by- step processes of learning.
- 15. Auditory Thinkers refer to learners who learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Cooperative Learning refers to a group helping each other learn but keeping each individual member accountable for his/her learning. Deductive Method refers to the teaching strategies begins with the abstract rule, generalization, principles, and ends with specific examples, and concrete details. Global Thinkers refers to learners who lean towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than particle elements. Inductive Method refers to teaching strategies begins with the specific details, concrete data and ends with an abstract generalization rule, or principle. Kinesthetic Learners refer to person who benefits much more from a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. Learners’ Preferences refers to learners’ prepared learning style in learning Mathematics. They have their own learning style according to how they can easily learn. Learning Style refers to patterns of how individual develop habitual ways of responding to experience. Lecture Discussion refers to teaching strategy which presents information in ways that it can be attended to, easily processed, and remembered.
- 16. Problem Solving refers to teaching strategy that employs the specific method in searching information. Teaching Strategy refers to personality type that enclose teacher stance, pattern of behavior, mode of performance, and attitude toward self and others. Visual Learners refers to learners who must see their teacher’s actions and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson.
- 17. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter shows the related literature and studies on the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics of fourth year high school students at Mabitac, Laguna as will be reviewed by the researcher. The following literature and studies related to this study were presented below. Related Literature Learning styles as described by Litzinger and Ozif (1992) refer to the different ways in which children and adults think and learn. Ellis (1985) described a learning style as the more or less consistent way in which a person perceives, conceptualizes, organizers, and recalls information. Professor Richard Felder of North Carolina State University (1994) has described some of the varied learning preferences. Learning preferences can help an individual begin to understand and choose strategies which work best for him. Some learning inventors include preferences for learning visually, auditory, or kinesthetically when working in groups or individually. One consequence of studying learning styles is the recognition that teachers also have their own approaches to the classroom. While this may have become habitual and while he teacher may define the classroom according to theirs and not the students’ preferences, teachers have to acknowledge that their styles will not necessarily suit cluster of students in their classroom. As teachers
- 18. attempt to modify their classrooms, they need it begin by exploring their own styles (http://web.instate.edu/ctl/style//learning.htm). The book of Sims (1995) emphasized, among other things, the extreme importance of understanding individual differences, learning principles, factors that affect motivation of students and trainees in learning situations, and the variety of individual learning style models that instructors and trainers can consider in their efforts. It should be evident to those responsible for teaching and training that an increased understanding and use of learning style data can provide them with important information. Most importantly, each teaching or training endeavor will have learners with disparate learning style preferences and a variety of learning strengths and weaknesses that have been developed through earlier learning experiences, analytical abilities, and a host of other experiences they bring with them. To enhance learning, instructors and trainers must recognize that individuals learn and teach differently, and what may be an optimal learning or training method for one may discourage another. Indeed, instructors and trainers should make sure that a variety of training or learning opportunities are presented to students and trainees to increase the likelihood of advancing learning. The book of Brophy (2004) describes key features of classroom management, curriculum, instruction, and teacher–student relationships that create a social context that prepares the way for successful use of the motivational strategies. Those strategies are meant to be subsumed within an overall pattern of effective teaching that includes compatible approaches to
- 19. managing the classroom and teaching the curriculum. Students will not respond well to motivational attempts if they are fearful, resentful, or otherwise focused on negative emotions. To create conditions that favor your motivational efforts, you will need to establish and maintain your classroom as a learning community—a place where students come primarily to learn, and succeed in doing so through collaboration with you and their classmates. You also will need to focus your curriculum on things that are worth learning and to develop this content in ways that help students to appreciate its significance and application potential. Related Studies Related studies on the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics of fourth year high school students will be conducted and there studies will be reviewed by the researcher. Those studies will be useful findings in determining the relationship of learners’ preferences in teaching Mathematics. The study of Villamor (2008) as cited by Palino (2010) found out that there was a significant functional relationship between gender, interest towards mathematics, teaching competencies, teaching strategies and techniques and library setting that there is no significant functional relationship between classroom setting and the students’ performance in mathematics. The study of Sieddentop as cited by Bacha (2010) revealed that for a teacher to be effective in instructional strategies that will help the students understand the concepts: the teachers must provide the student with diverse,
- 20. creative and dynamic teaching techniques for the children to become interested in their own health conditions. Gordula (2005) study found out that teachers do have an effect on the students accomplishment and that teachers differs in the ability to get results in highest IQ level have the best achievement in English. Delos Santos (2004) revealed that the faculty members are outstanding in instructing competence although there is still room for improvement especially along utilization of instructional materials and aides, varying teaching methodology and technique and providing up to date materials and information. A study conducted by Palino (2010) found out that the instructional materials and facilities have no significant difference in terms of students gender, age and year level. Effective teachers engage student actively in learning. This implies that teachers must know that students should be brought to the learning experience and to know what they need to learn (Travers and Rebore 1995). The above mentioned studies and literatures are helpful to this study because they provide the researcher with the background information that may help for the development of the problem under study.
- 21. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research design, subjects of the study, determination of sampling techniques, research instrument, research procedure, and statistical treatment that will be used to analyze the data to be gathered. Research Design This study will determine the relationship of learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics to the fourth year high school students at all secondary schools at Mabitac, Laguna. The descriptive method is appropriate in this study. It is necessary to determine the relationship of the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics. Gay defines descriptive research as involving collection of data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. A descriptive study determines and reports the way things are. Descriptive research includes all of those studies that purport presents facts concerning the nature and status of anything. It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist. Subjects of the Study Respondents in this study will be five (5) Mathematics teachers and one hundred fifty-seven (157) selected fourth year high school students of all
- 22. secondary schools at Mabitac, Laguna, school year 2010-2011 using the Slovin’s formula and stratified random sampling. Schools Section No. of Students Percentage Proportional Allocation Blessed James Cusmano Academy 1 14 5.5 9 Paagahan National High School 1 32 12.5 20 2 33 12.9 20 Paagahan National High School (Matalatala Extension) 3 32 12.5 20 4 30 11.7 18 Mabitac National High School 1 43 16.8 26 2 40 15.6 24 3 32 12.5 20 Total 256 100 157 Table 1. Number of students in every school at Mabitac, Laguna Determination of Sampling Techniques Stratified random sampling technique will be used to determine the number of the student-respondents involved in this study. Not all fourth year high school students at Mabitac, Laguna will serve as respondents in this study. However, the samples to be taken are expected to possess characteristics identical to those of the population. Research Instrument The main tool that will be used in the study is a questionnaire checklist. The questionnaire-checklist will be constructed for the teacher and student respondents. Part I of the questionnaire-checklist for the teacher-respondents is
- 23. the teachers’ profile such as gender, age, civil status, educational attainments, number of years in service, and seminars attended. Part II-A and B pertains to the teachers’ actualities and teaching strategies in teaching Mathematics. Each statement will be rated following the scale: 5 - Always 4 - Often 3 - Sometimes 2 - Seldom 1 - Never Another questionnaire-checklist will be constructed for the students’ respondents were adopted from the book of Maria Rita D. Lucas, Ph.D. and Brenda B. Corpuz, Ph.D. (2007) entitled “Facilitating Learning”. While the other parts of it were developed by the researcher with the assistance of the adviser in gathering the data needed in determining the relationship of the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics. One set of questionnaire-checklist will be constructed for the student- respondents in terms of their preferences prepared in the classroom and the teaching strategies they observe from their mathematics teacher. The other set questionnaire-checklist is the students’ profile such as age, gender, section, and school. Part I of the questionnaire-checklist contains the personal information about the student-respondents which includes the age, gender, section, and school.
- 24. Part II pertains to the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies the student observe from their Mathematics teacher. This part is subdivided into two: Part II-A contains several situational statements in order to ascertain the students’ preferences in learning mathematics. Each statement will be rated following the scale: 5 - Strongly Agree 4 - Agree 3 - Moderately Agree 2 - Disagree 1 - Strongly Disagree Part II-B and C consists of teachers’ actualities and teaching strategies observed by the students. Each statement will be rated using the given scale: 5 - Always 4 - Often 3 - Sometimes 2 - Seldom 1 - Never Research Procedure The original title of this study proposed by the researcher was checked, revised and rechecked by the researcher’s adviser to maintain conformity on the subject of research.
- 25. A questionnaire-checklist that aims to draw out proper responses to the objectives of this study will be constructed. This questionnaire-checklist will be presented, analyzed and checked by the researcher’s adviser and experts on different fields of specialization to ensure the validity of responses it would elicit. Permit to conduct research and study on the subject school will be secured from the Dean of the College of Education which is attach to another letter request that will be sent to the school administrators and advisers of the selected students to obtain their learners’ preferences in mathematics. The researcher will administer the questionnaire with the help of some friends in retrieving the accomplished questionnaire. Data gathered from the answered questionnaires will be checked, tabulated and analyzed according to the statistical tool described in this chapter and will be prepared for the final presentation to the experts of different fields of specialization. Statistical Treatment of Data The data to be gathered will be tabulated and interpreted using the following statistical tools. Analysis Statistical Tools 1. Profile of student-respondents Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Rank 2. Profile of teacher-respondents Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Rank 3. The learners’ preferences related to the teaching strategies employed Weighted Mean, Rank
- 26. by the teacher 4. The teachers’ actualities and teaching strategies observed by the students Weighted Mean, Rank 5. The actualities and teaching strategies of Mathematics teacher in teaching Mathematics Weighted Mean, Rank 6. Significant relationship between the students preferences in learning mathematics and the students’ profile Pearson r/Z-test, Probability 7. Significant relationship between the teachers’ actualities, the teaching strategies, and the teachers’ profile Pearson r/Z-test, Probability 8. Significant relationship between the learners’ preferences and teaching strategies in teaching mathematics Pearson r/Z-test, Probability Test of significance will be interpreted based on the threshold p-value of 0.05.
- 27. Bibliography A. Books Corpuz, Brenda B. Ph.D. Salandanan, Gloria G. Ph.D. “Principles of Teaching 1.” Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc. (2007) pg. 71-72, 79, 88. Corpuz, Brenda B. Ph.D. Salandanan, Gloria G. Ph.D. Gigor, Dalisay V. Ph.D. “Principles of Teaching 2.” Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc. (2006) pg. 175-176. Davis, James R. “Better Teaching, More Learning Strategies for Success in Postsecondary Setting.” American Council on Education and The Oryx Press. (1993) pg. 12. Lucas, Maria Rita D. Ph.D. Corpuz, Brenda B. Ph.D. “Facilitating Learning.” Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc. (2007) pg. 75-79. Ornstein, Allan C. “Strategies for Effective Teaching.” Harper Collins Publisher, Inc. (1990) pg. 526. Sanchez, C. A. Ph.D. “Methods and Techniques of Research.” Rex Book Store. (1986) pg. 216. Sevilla, Consuelo G. Ed. D. “Research Methods.” Rex Book Store. (1992) pg. 94. Vega, Violeta A. Ph.D. Prieto, Nelia G. M.A. “Facilitating Learning: A Metacognitive Process.” Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc. (2007) pg. 124. Sims, Ronald R. Sims, Serbrenia J. “The Importance of Learning Styles: Understanding the Implications for Learning, Course Design, and Education.” Greenwood Press. (1995) pg. 193. Brophy, Jere. “Motivating Students to Learn.” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (2004) pg. 26,
- 28. B. Unpublished Books Bacha, Erwin M. “The Effectiveness of Mathematics Games as a Strategy in Teaching Mathematics to First Year High School Students,” 2010, Delos Santos, Cecilla B. “The Teaching of Science and the Students Performance in Publc School.” Master Thesis. 2004, Gordula, Elaine Rose V. “The Teaching of English and the Students Performance Input, the Faculty and Student Development.” Master Thesis. 2004. Palino, Carolyn R. “Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics as Perceived by the Students of Balian National High School A.Y. 2008-2009.” 2010. C. Internet Sources Clark, Donald. “Learning Styles & Preferences.” 2000. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html “Identify Your Learning Preference.” http://www.bcps.org/students/online_learning/learning_preference.html “Principles and general objectives of education.” 2003. http://www.seameoinnotech.org/resources/seameo_country/educ_data/phi lippines/philippines_ibe.htm “Philippines - Educational System—an Overview.” 2010. http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1199/Philippines- EDUCATIONAL-SYSTEM-AN-OVERVIEW.html Tenedero, Henry S. “Elements of a learner’s preferences.” 2009. http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/230164/elements-a-learner-s-preferences ________________________________________________________________ Footnote: This research proposal was presented to Mrs. Mesina P. Sandra (Chairman of Research Implementing Unit), Mrs. Arlene G. Advento (Adviser), Prof. Delia F. Mercado (Subject Specialist), Corazon N. San Agustin Ph. D. (Technical Editor/Dean, College of Education), Ms. Mercy Grace I. Saliendra (English Critic) and Engr. Rommel Octavius R. Nuestro (Statistician) on October 18, 2010 at exactly 1:45 in the afternoon at Community Outreach Center Building.
- 29. LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MABITAC, LAGUNA S.Y. 2010-2011 I. PERSONAL INFORMATION Name: ________________________________ Age: _______ Gender: _____Male _____Female Section: _____1 _____2 _____3 School: ______________________________________________ II. LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES Direction: Please indicate your response in the following items by putting a check ( / ) in the appropriate column. A. Learners’ Preferences Please rate the learners’ preferences in learning mathematics based on what you actually perform using the following scale: 5 – Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 – Moderately Agree 2 – Disagree 1 – Strongly Disagree The first table is according to your sensory preferences such as: V – Visual (sight) A – Auditory (hearing) K – Kinesthetic (action) Sensory Preferences 5 4 3 2 1 1.If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I: (V) watch someone was shows me how. (A) hear someone was tells me how. (K) try to do it myself. 2. When I read, I often find that I: (V) visualize what I am reading in my mind’s eye.
- 30. (A) read out loud or hear the words inside my head. (K) fidget and try to “feel” the content. 3. When asked to give directions, I: (V) see the actual places in my mind as I say them or prefer to draw them. (A) have no difficulty in giving them verbally. (K) have to point or move my body as I give them. 4. If I am unsure how to spell a word , I: (V) write it I order to determine if it is looks right. (A) spell it out loud in order to determine if it sounds right. (K) write it in order to determine if it feels right. 5. When I write, I: (V) am concerned how neat and well spaced my letters and words appear. (A) often say the letters and words to myself. (K) push hard on my pen or pencil and can feel the flow of the words or letters as I form them. 6. If I had to remember a list of items, I would remember it best if I: (V) wrote them down. (A) said them over and over to myself. (K) moved around and used my fingers to name each items. 7. When trying to concentrate, I have a difficult time when: (V) there is a lot of clutter or movement in the room. (A) there is a lot of noise in the room. (K) I have to sit still for any length of time. 8. When solving a problem, I: (V) write or draw diagrams to see it. (A) talk myself through it. (K) use my entire body or move objects to help me think. 9. If I have to verbally describe something to another person, I would: (V) be brief because I do not like to talk at length. (A) go into great detail because I like to talk. (K) gesture and move around while talking. 10. When trying to recall names, I remember: (V) faces but forget names. (A) names but forget faces.
- 31. (K) the situation that I met the person’s name or face. 11. I prefer teacher who; (V) use the board or overhead projector while they lecture. (A) talk with a lot of expression. (K) use hands-on activities. 12. When given written instructions on how to build something, I; (V) read them silently and try to visualize how the parts will fit together. (A) read them out loud and to myself as I put the parts together. (K) try to put the parts together first and read later. 13. To keep occupied while waiting, I; (V) look around, stare, or read. (A) talk or listen to others. (K) walk around, manipulate things with my hands, or move/shake my feet as I sit. 14. If someone were verbally describing to me, I would; (V) try to visualize what he/she was saying. (A) enjoy listening but want to interrupt and talk myself. (K) become bored if his/her description gets too long and detailed. The second table pertains to the Analytic-Global Thinkers. 5 4 3 2 1 Analytic Thinkers I learn best through……. 1. responding to word meaning. 2. linearly information processing. 3. responding to logic. 4. formal study design. 5. well-lighted room while studying. Global Thinkers I learn best through…… 1. responding to tone of voice. 2. information processing in varied order . 3. responding to emotions. 4. sound/music background while studying. 5. frequent mobility while studying.
- 32. B. Teachers’ Actualities Please rate your Mathematics teacher based on what he/she actually perform using the following scale: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Seldom 1 – Never Teachers Actualities 5 4 3 2 1 1. If my teacher teaches me how to do something, he/she show and tells me how to do it, and allows me to do it with myself. 2. When my teacher reads, he/she often stops and tried to describe to us what he/she is reading, reads it out loud and move restlessly. 3. When my teacher gives directions, he/she verbally describes and draws out or moves his/her body as he/she gives them. 4. If my teacher spells a word, he/she spell it out loud or write it on the board. 5. When my teacher is writing something on the board, he/she is concerned on how neat and well- spaced his/her letters and words appear and often say the letters and words while writing. 6. If my teacher has to remind us a list of items, he/she writes or says them over and over to everyone and move around and used his/her fingers to name each items. 7. When my teacher is trying to concentrate, he/she has a difficult time when there is a lot of movement and noise in the room or he/she sits still for any length of time. 8. When solving a problem, my teacher writes or draws diagrams and talks about it, or uses his/her entire body or moves objects to help him/her think. 9. If my teacher has to verbally describe something to another person, he/she prefers to be brief, uses gestures while talking. 10. When my teacher is trying to recall names, he/she remembers faces or sometimes names or the situation that he/she met the person. 11. My teacher prefers to use the board, talk with a lot of expression and use hands-on activities.
- 33. 12. When my teacher gives written instructions on how to build something, he/she read them out loud and describes to us how the parts fit together, and later put the parts together. 13. To keep occupied while my teacher waiting, he/she look around, talk or listen to others, or manipulate things with his/her hands as sitting. 14. If someone were verbally describing to my teacher, my teacher would enjoy listening and he/she visualize what the person was saying and id the persons description gets too long and detailed my teacher become bored. C. Teaching Strategies Please rate the extent by which your teacher in mathematics has used the following strategies in teaching the subject using the following scale: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Seldom 1 – Never 5 4 3 2 1 1. Lecture Discussion 2. By giving word problem activity 3. Cooperative Learning (by grouping) 4. Deductive Method (general-specific details) 5. Inductive Method (specific-general details) ________________________ Signature of respondent Thank you very much for your cooperation. ALELI M. ARIOLA Researcher BSEd III-1
- 34. LEARNERS’ PREFERENCES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MABITAC, LAGUNA S.Y. 2010-2011 Direction: Please indicate your responses on the following items by putting a check ( / ) in the line blank. A. PERSONAL INFORMATION Name: ______________________________________ 1. Gender _____Female _____Male 2. Age: _____ 3. Civil Status _____Single _____Married _____ No. of children 4. Educational Background _____ Bachelor of Elementary Education _____ Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics _____ Master of Arts in Teaching Mathematics _____ Others (pls. specify) 5. Number of years in service _____ One year and below _____ 11 – 15 years _____ 2 – 5 years _____ 16 – 20 years _____ 6 – 10 years _____ 21 years and above 6. Seminars Attended (From 2000 – present) Year ___________________________________ ______ ___________________________________ ______ ___________________________________ ______ ___________________________________ ______ ___________________________________ ______ ___________________ Signature of respondent Thank you very much for your cooperation. ALELI M. ARIOLA Researcher
- 35. B. TEACHERS’ ACTUALITIES Direction: Please indicate your responses on the following items by putting a check ( / ) in the line blank. Please rate your actualities you performed using the following scale: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Seldom 1 – Never As a teacher 5 4 3 2 1 1. I have to teach my students how to do something through showing and telling to them how to do it, and I do it with myself. 2. I describe the context to my students, read it out loud and move restlessly when reading. 3. I give directions to my students through verbally describing and drawing out the actual places. 4. I write or spell the words out loud in order to determine if it is correct. 5. I am concerned on how neat and well-spaced my letters and words appear, and often say it to myself while writing on the board. 6. I had to remember a list of items so I wrote it down, said it over and over to myself, and moved around and used my fingers to name each items. 7. I try to concentrate when I have a difficult time in cases there are lots of movements and noise in the room, or I sit still for any length of time. 8. I draw diagrams and we talk it in my discussions, or use my entire body to help me think when solving a problem. 9. I would be brief, go into details and gestures in verbally describing something to my students. 10. I remember the faces or names, and the situations where I met the person I am trying to recall the names. 11. I use the board and hands-on activities, and I talk with a lot of expressions.
- 36. 12. I give written instructions on how to build something by reading them silently and visualize the parts and later put the parts together. 13. I look around, talk to others and manipulate things with my hands while waiting to keep occupied. 14. I visualize and enjoy listening when ever my students verbally describe something to me. C. TEACHING STRATEGIES Please rate your prepared teaching strategies in teaching Mathematics subject using the following scale: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Seldom 1 – Never 5 4 3 2 1 1. Lecture Discussion 2. By giving word problem activity 3. Cooperative Learning (by grouping) 4. Deductive Method (general-specific details) 5. Inductive Method (specific-general details)

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