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  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Heather Gammel<br />Bachelors in Psychology, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br /> I have been working with children who have been diagnosed with autism and other developmental disabilities since 1998. Autism and behavioral intervention are my true passion and I try to keep up to date on the new research. research available on my free time. <br />I have been attending various city colleges while working full time until I found Argosy University Online. AUO has been the best academic choice that I could make. Attending AUO in my own time with an accelerated course schedule has worked for my advantage. <br /> After completing my Bachelors degree in Psychology, I intend to get my Masters degree in childhood and adolescent developmental psychology so that I can become site supervisor for the school district that I currently work for. I want to start my own sibling program for the siblings of children with autism, creating a safe and educational place for the siblings to understand and learn more about autism. The sibling program would not only have an educational aspect, but mostly it would be for the siblings to be in a safe place with peers who truly understand their family lives. <br />
  3. 3. Reflection<br />Attending Argosy University was the best choice academically, that I could have made. I was nervous in the beginning, having always attended junior colleges. I was anxious about the courses and the demands of not only holding myself accountable at home, but also on an accelerated pace. I learned that online accelerated courses are the only way to go for me now.<br />I’ve learned about myself, about my work ethics and an enormous amount of psychological theories and applications. <br />
  4. 4. Table of Contents<br /><ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
  5. 5. Research Skills
  6. 6. Communication Skills: Oral and Written
  7. 7. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
  8. 8. Foundations of Psychology
  9. 9. Applied Psychology
  10. 10. Interpersonal Effectiveness</li></li></ul><li>Critical Thinking<br />Attitudes & Persuasion<br />Psy310<br />Heather Gammel<br />September 22, 2010<br />Recruiting participants from the public to take part in designing a test for the environmental organization wouldn’t be difficult if done in a strategic and smart way. What I would do, is go to a community that I know is aware of recycling and practices it on a daily basis. I would also make fliers with the organization’s key points and messages on it and post them at supermarkets and shopping centers around different communities. After posting the fliers around the community, I would have spokespeople set up information booths to educate the community and get people interested. “Though persuasion involves being influenced by others, being persuaded involves more than behaving as others do or following the directives of others. Persuasion involves an actual shift in your belief and attitude as a direct or indirect result of a communication or message from another entity” (Argosy University, 2010). <br />To assign the participants to either the experimental group or the control group, I would first create a simple questionnaire to find out the rating of recycling importance to each participant. Once the questionnaires are filled out, I would determine the participants location by rating; those who feel that recycling is less important to themselves or their community would be in the experimental group, whereas the people who feel that recycling is fairly important to themselves or their community would be in the control group. Those people that feel recycling is extremely important would unfortunately be disqualified as they are already biased. <br />The participants in the control group would not be exposed to the organizations public service announcement, and would only have their preexisting opinions and feelings about recycling. “…(in an experiment or clinical trial) a group of subjects closely resembling the treatment group in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results are evaluated” (, 2010). <br />The dependent variables for the experimental group are the participants involved. People are the dependent variables in this study because everyone’s reactions and opinions are different. Even if people agree with each other on a specific fact, their reasoning and true opinions are diverse. The independent variable in the experimental group is the pro-recycling public service announcement. <br />The persuasiveness of the message would depend on the final outcome of the participants and how the experimental group reacted to the public service announcement. “Researches now suggest that much of what influences persuasion or attitudinal change is rooted in the person receiving the message. Though how meaningful or relevant a message is to you is positively related to the ability of the message to persuade you, some personalities are more likely to deliberately think through the content of a message, regardless of its personal relevance” (Argosy University, 2010). <br />There would be stronger confidence in the results with 200 people rather than with only 10 because there would be more opinions, more thoughts, and more people to persuade. With more participants, the likelihood of increasing pro-recycling activities is much higher. <br />Reference:<br />Argosy University. (2010). Persuasion. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from: <br /> (2010). Control group. Retrieved from: browse/control+group. <br />
  11. 11. Research Skills<br />Behavioral intervention and its effects on maladaptive behaviors in children with Autism<br />PSY302<br />February 12, 2011<br />Heather Gammel<br />Participants: I would randomly select 100 children from the West Coast who have been diagnosed with Autism. <br /> Instruments: Within this study the instruments used would be intense behavior modification and applied behavior analysis (ABA). The ABA & behavior modification would be delivered the same way for each participant and would be provided by experienced, trained, and knowledgeable behavior therapists. <br /> Procedure: A behavior therapist would see a child diagnosed with Autism within the home and school settings 20-25 hours a week for four weeks. The therapist would work on learning to learn skills such as, attending, transitions, and compliance. The therapist would also work on specific IEP (Individualized Education Plan) goals for each child. When the child engaged in any maladaptive or undesired behaviors, the behavior therapist would work through them in a specifically trained fashion. For example, if a child is spitting at the therapist while looking at them, it is likely that the child is engaging in maladaptive attention seeking behavior. The therapist will not provide any attention to the spitting and will positively reinforce the child when they are not spitting. For data collection, the therapist will take impeccable DTT (Discrete Trial Training) data. The therapist will be able to have an IEP goal and a way to teach it in mind and be able to take data that includes incorrect, correct, and prompting. They will also note what kind of prompting is used. The therapist will also be able to take behavior data that shows when in the day the child is engaging in maladaptive behaviors as well as the behavior modification and how well it is working to decrease those behaviors. <br /> Ethical issues: Ethical issues are a huge part of research as well as working with children. Within this study, we must remember any ethical issues pertaining to anonymity. We must also consider the person first approach where we look at the child first rather than the diagnosis. <br />How effective is behavioral intervention with reducing maladaptive behaviors in children diagnosed with Autism? This is a very important question regarding the Autism community. Working within this community for the past 12 years, I have personally seen how behavior intervention has reduced maladaptive behaviors in children who have been diagnosed with Autism and other developmental disabilities. “Parents should critically evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of a treatment approach and look for carefully conducted scientific research and beware of pseudoscience. What the research consistently shows is that one approach meets this scientific standard and more than three decades of research has shown to be highly effective: Intensive Behavioral Treatment based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). There is no other treatment has shown to be more effective or has the same amount of scientific evidence to support it” (Autism Partnership, n.d.). <br />Using a quantitative approach versus a qualitative approach is much more beneficial in this circumstance as quantitative deals with numbers and facts rather than observations. When discussing behavior intervention and its effects on children diagnosed with Autism, seeing numbers and specific data is instrumental. Most ABA based programs are data driven and the behavior modification can be graphically seen typically within 3 to 6 months. <br />The reliability instruments that were used in the Brackenbury (2008) article were the children diagnosed with Autism as well as their families and caregivers that have been greatly affected by the diagnosis. In this article, the research was explanatory while examining the guidelines for language intervention with children diagnosed with Autism. The participants in the research study were the children diagnosed with Autism. The limit of generalizing with this study is that the study is based on humans, which are individuals to the core, no matter the similarities. Also, the humans that the study is based on are children diagnosed with a neurological disorder that does not affect every person the same although there are specific characteristics and tendencies. The kids in this study are also taught by humans, which teach the same thoughts differently. <br />In the Griffin (2006) article, the reliability instruments that were used were the children diagnosed with Autism and Asperger’s syndrome as well as the various therapists that conducted the intervention in the school and clinic settings. This study was a replication with modifications because they were studying the effects of the intervention that the children were receiving. Within this study, they looked at different interventions and what their effects were. The participants in this study were the children and therapists that were involved in the intervention process. The limit of generalizability with this study is that is was based on humans who can not be generalized, but individualized.<br />
  12. 12. Research Skills p.2<br />The Jones (2007) article was an exploratory study. The participants in this study were the children diagnosed with Autism, the teachers and therapists. The limit of generalizability in this situation is that the main idea if this study is based on humans; the children that are being taught as well as the therapists and teachers that are providing intervention and different teaching strategies. <br />In the Kraemer (2008) article, the participants were the educators of children diagnosed with Autism. The limit of generalizability is that the educators all teach various subjects differently. The National Autism Association definitions (2010) that describes what Autism generally looks like is an explanatory article because it only defines Autism, rather than testing a specific hypothesis. The limit of generalizability with this article is that there is not a study being tested, but rather a list of explanations to the diagnosis of Autism. <br />Reference:<br />Autism Partnership. (n.d.). Science based treatment. Retrieved from: <br />Brackenbury, T., Burroughs, E. & Hewitt, L. (2008). A qualitative examination of current guidelines for evidence-based practice in child language intervention. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. 39(1), 78-89. Retrieved from: =8&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1264 787352&clientId=82498. <br />Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M. & Winter, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The early start Denver model. Pediatrics. 1(17). Retrieved from: LMldP115855/url= 84/abstract?accountid=34899. <br />Griffin, H., Griffin, L., Fitch, C., Albera, V. & Gingras, H. (2006). Educational interventions for individuals with Asperger syndrome. Intervention in School and Clinic. 41(3), 150-156. Retrieved from: 24& did= 960626741 &SrchMode=2&sid=8 &Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&Vtype =PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1264787352&clientId=82498. <br />Jones, E., Feeley, K. & Takacs, J. (2007). Teaching spontaneous response to young children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis. 40(3), 565-571. Retrieved from: &SrchMode=2&sid=8&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&Vna me=PQD&TS=126 4787352&clientId=82498. <br />Kraemer, B., Cook, C., Browning-Wright, D., Mayer, G. & Wallace, M. (2008). Effects of training on the use of the behavior support plan quality evaluation guide with autism educators: A preliminary investigation examining positive behavior support plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 10(3), 179-191. Retrieved from: &SrchMode=2&sid=8&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VNa me=PQD&TS=1264787352&clientId=82498. <br />National Autism Association. (2010). Definitions. Retrieved from: <br />
  13. 13. Communication Skills<br />Groups and Effective Communication<br />PSY320<br />October 25, 2010<br />Heather Gammel<br />Social loafing, free riding, the sucker effect, process loss and groupthink can all have a negative affect to an organization’s productivity. “In social loafing, some group members take advantage of others by decreasing their own contributions to group work. Such individuals may either do less work or work more slowly than fellow group members. If group rewards are distributed equally among group members, the social loafer still receives the same rewards as the fellow group members, but with less effort” (Argosy University, 2010). I have come into contact with social loafers in both my work life as well as in my school life. Social loafing can affect an organization’s productivity by irritating hard working employees and possibly making them less productive. Free riding is another detrimental idea that can negatively affect an organization’s productivity. Free riding is similar to social loafing where certain people within the group let everyone else do the work while they take a free ride. When employees engage in groupthink, they can become too concerned with not wanting to disturb the peace and will become hesitant to introduce new ideas or to contest the other ideas. This will negatively affect an organization’s productivity because if no one is contesting the ideas or plans that were set down and they are unconstructive, it will decrease the efficiency of the employees. “An important feature of the performance of groups is process loss, which is the difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group. Sometimes, individuals working in groups are less productive than individuals working by themselves” (Argosy University, 2010). <br />Because Li wants to improve the productivity of the company, I would try to discourage him from using groups and encourage him to find the most creative and best selling employees that he has. Once he has determined who the best people in the company are, I would suggest to Li that he put them in pairs to develop new ideas to increase productivity. Putting the best people in the company in pairs, would maximize the organizations productivity because there wouldn’t be any of the free riding, social loafing or people engaging in groupthink. <br />To make sure that brainstorming in these groups is as effective as possible, I would suggest that the group understood the “rules” before engaging with each other. “The basic rules in brainstorming sessions are: (a) No idea is too far out; (b) criticism of any idea is not allowed; (c) the more ideas the better; and (d) members should try to build on each other’s ideas” (Riggio, 2008). Once the pairs understand the rules of brainstorming, I would support them all to bounce ideas out there to increase productivity. I would also encourage Li to supervise the pairs and their brainstorming. Once there have been some high-quality ideas, I would have Li present them to the other employees to make sure that everyone was on board. <br />For Li to effectively communicate his expectations to his employees, I would encourage him to have a list of what exactly he wants and then go over it with myself. After going over the list and making sure that I understand exactly what he wants, I would help him write out some bullet points and have them worded in a way that the majority of employees can understand. Once the bullet points have been made, I would then have Li call a company wide meeting so that he can present his expectations and what the ramifications are of completing the work. <br />Reference<br />Argosy University. (2010). Social influence in groups. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from: <br />Riggio, R. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Pearson. Retrieved from: /14/chapter?page=33&q=brainstorming. <br />
  14. 14. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />“The ADA has a three-part definition of "disability." This definition, based on the definition under the Rehabilitation Act, reflects the specific types of discrimination experienced by people with disabilities. Accordingly, it is not the same as the definition of disability in other laws, such as state workers' compensation laws or other federal or state laws that provide benefits for people with disabilities and disabled veterans. Under the ADA, an individual with a disability is a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; has a record of such an impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment. Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine” (<br />This interview was definitely different than any other interview that I have had to do before. I asked if I could interview a parent that is within the company I work with who is profoundly deaf. I had to plan this interview out more carefully and communicate via American Sign Language (ASL). I also had to take his answers and put them into a formulated paragraph instead of question and answer style. <br />This man works at the local post office sorting mail in the backroom on the graveyard shift. He typically is not in the public eye much at work, but he still has to deal with discrimination with his co-workers. Because he can not hear and the majority of his co-workers do not know ASL, it is difficult for him to become friends with or communicate. When he is out in public, he has to try to use his voice and form his lips so that hearing people can understand what he is asking for. He also is sure to have a piece of paper and a pen if he really needs to communicate something long or important. On top of being profoundly deaf, his wife is profoundly deaf, they are black and they have two sons whom both have been diagnosed with Autism. This family experiences discrimination while in society more than any other family that I have seen. <br />People look at the kids because they are engaging in maladaptive behaviors such as screaming, arm flapping or humming. They look at the parents because they are trying to stop the maladaptive behaviors, but they are unable to communicate freely with their kids; instead they are signing to them while using guttural sounds. When at the bank, the grocery store or Starbucks, if he needs help with something or wants something he needs to physically try to communicate with the people that work in these places. People in society typically either stare or ignore him and avoid his eye contact. <br />“The disability rights movement has focused on the notion that all people, able bodied or not, have the right to eat in the same restaurants, ride the same busses, attend the same schools, and enjoy the same legal protection and access as able-bodied people. This movement began with a focus on access to physical structures, assured people with disabilities of equal access to employment and education, and guaranteed access to transportation” (Argosy University, 2009). This man is definitely aware of his disability civil rights. He knows who he needs to contact to get an interpreter for important meetings and who he can contact to get services for his children. He is teaching all four of his hearing children ASL while school and the company I work for teach them verbal skills. Although he is very proud of the deaf culture and the deaf community, he is always worried that the boys are not speaking correctly. <br />As for phone calls and such for companies that do not have a TTY (text telephone), he has to either find an email address or have his oldest daughter talk to the company on the phone. Although he does not have text messaging or a video phone that could work for the hearing people in his life, he gets very discouraged when companies do not have a TTY or an email address. <br />Reference:<br /> What is the ADA: Definition of a disability. Retrieved from: <br />Argosy University. (2009). Federal laws, state laws, IDEA, and ADA. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from: 3500522&Survey=1&47=4821835&ClientNodeID=404511&coursenav=2& bhcp=1.<br />
  15. 15. Foundations of Psychology<br />PSY410 Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology<br />Week 6_Assignment 3<br />Paranoid Schizophrenia<br />“The cornerstone of schizophrenia is psychosis. Psychosis is a state defined by loss of contact with reality. In this condition, the affected person's ability to perceive and respond to the environment is significantly disturbed, and it may affect the person's ability to function. Psychotic symptoms may include hallucinations, which are false sensory perceptions and/or delusions which are false beliefs” (Argosy University, 2009). There are three groups of symptoms for schizophrenia. One group is deemed positive. These positive symptoms can include delusions, heightened perceptions, hallucinations, inappropriate affect and disordered thinking and speech. With disordered speech and thinking, the patient may engage in loose associations, neologisms or clanging. “Clanging is running a group of words that sound similar but in a nonsensical way. For example, if someone asks a person with schizophrenia "how are you?" he or she may respond, ‘Well, hell, its well to tell’” (Argosy University, 2009). Some negative symptoms that Mark may show are poverty of speech, restriction of quantity of speech, flat affect and social withdrawal. “Psychomotor symptoms may take extreme forms, collectively called catatonia, which includes stupor, rigidity, posturing, and excitement. Jim may be found staring into infinity with his arms raised to the sky for several minutes at a time, without seeming to tire” (Argosy University, 2009). <br />Mark’s social skills and ability to hold a job and meaningful relationships in the future depend on how well he can accept the fact that he has been diagnosed with schizophrenia and is willing to get help. More factors of Mark’s future is the type of schizophrenia that he has been diagnosed with as well as if his disease develops past its initial showing. “Type I schizophrenia is dominated by positive symptoms. There is better adjustment prior to the onset of symptoms, later onset of symptoms, and a more positive outcome. Type II schizophrenia is dominated by negative symptoms. There is poor adjustment prior to the onset of symptoms, early onset of symptoms, and less positive outcome and symptoms are related to structural brain abnormalities” (Argosy University, 2009). <br />Some treatment options for Mark are anti-psychotic drugs such as Thorazine and psychotherapy. The therapist may engage Mark in insight therapy where they will set limits, perform active roles, express opinions and challenge their patients’ statements. Another type of psychotherapy that Mark’s therapist may engage in is family therapy. “Family therapy attempts to address such issues as well as create more realistic expectations and psychoeducation about the disorder. Families also may turn to family support groups and psychoeducation programs” (Argosy University, 2009). <br />A resource that you as Mark’s family can use is the internet and visit the page: for more information on the disease. You can also visit the page: to find out information about the differences between community and institutional care and the rights that Mark and your family have. <br />Reference:<br />Argosy University. (2009). Schizophrenia. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from:<br />Argosy University. (2009). Treatment for schizophrenia. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from:<br />
  16. 16. Applied Psychology<br />Personality Theory<br />PSY361<br />Heather Gammel<br />October 16, 2010<br />“Bandura used the term self-efficacy to refer to people's belief that they can successfully perform a specific action in a situation with an unpredictable outcome. In other words, self-efficacy is a person's belief about their competence in a particular situation” (Argosy University, 2010). My Aunt has struggled with the occupation and parenthood domains her entire adult life. She currently cleans houses as her profession and makes some decent money, but she essentially is a maid. My aunt told me once that when she was in high school, it was told to the females that if they were going to go to get higher learning, they could only go into nursing. If they weren’t going to become a nurse, they could be a receptionist or a stay-at-home mom. None of these options were something that my aunt wanted to choose from, so she ended up working at my grandmother’s family owned nursing home, cleaning. It was a comfortable and fairly enjoyable job throughout her 20s and mostly 30s. The nursing home got sold to a different owner, and my aunt left to work for herself in people’s homes. She is now in her mid 50s, with no pension, no retirement, no 401K, no health benefits and still cleaning. My aunt suffers from back, knee and wrist complications with no end in sight. Had she felt that there were more options for her and other women of that era, she would’ve went into a different occupation and been in a better place now. As for the parenthood and marriage domain, it all goes hand in hand with my aunt. She was married for years to her first husband, who had a son from a previous marriage. Unfortunately, he was sucked into the 1980s cocaine scene, and that for obvious reasons made their marriage suffer, ultimately ending with a divorce, wasted years and no children. My aunt then married her 2nd husband who also had children from a previous marriage. He told my aunt that he didn’t want anymore children, so she went on birth control, hoping that he would change his mind, or that she would be content with her step-sons. This relationship too dissolved after 12 years of marriage and left my aunt yet again divorced and childless. This time though, she had a longtime relationship with her step-sons, which made it even harder when they lost contact with each other. After years of being single, a wonderful aunt and someone to look up to, she married a 3rd time. This time it was for totally the wrong reasons. Taxes are better when you’re married and that retirement and health benefit issue that she had because of her career choice would work out for her if she married again. Had someone convinced her when she was younger that her choice in men was poor and had they built up her self-esteem, she may not have had the poor choice in men, the career that is now destroying her body and she may have had some children that could take care of her. All of these domains go hand in hand with each other for my aunt and that the continued lack of self-efficacy made a downward spiral for her life. <br />“Self-efficacy is acquired through experiences. Previous success and failure in attempted goals are the most important regulators of self-efficacy. [It is also acquired through] vicarious experiences. When you witness the successes and failures of others, you are provided with information that you can use as a basis for comparing your own competence in similar situations. [Another way that self-efficacy is obtained is through] verbal persuasion. Being told by others that you can or cannot competently perform a particular behavior can lead to an increase or decrease in self-efficacy. Emotional arousal [is a last way that self-efficacy is gained]. The degree and quality of the emotional arousal you experience when engaging in specific behavior in a particular situation also influence levels of self-efficacy” (Argosy University, 2010). With my aunt, I believe that her lack of self-efficacy occurred through many instances, or lack there of. I don’t think that she experienced success in anything truly important early on in her life. Watching her some of her sisters and one of her brothers fail at their marriages and relationships obviously did not teach my aunt anything that she could personally learn from. Also, most of her family members and friends didn’t go to college and fell into a job when they were young and were able to expand that into a career later in life. Seeing that one can make a decent living without going to college, one would think that it is not important. <br />
  17. 17. Applied Psychology p.2<br />This late in my aunt’s life, it is nearly impossible and is not desirable for her to go to any kind of schooling to get trained for a different career. She is also past her baby prime, so children are also out of the question for her, along with being comfortable within her relationship and living situation. For me, watching all of these behaviors as well as looking back on her life, I can see the things that I would not like to endure within my own life. I see her failures and deficits and know what I do and don’t want in my life. When I am told that I can not do something, it only makes me want to do it more; that is my rebellious attitude that I inherited from my grandmother. “The cognitive perspective of personality is based on the idea that people are who they are, not only because of the way they think but also because of the way they attend to, perceive, analyze, interpret, encode, and retrieve information. People tend to have habitual thinking patterns, which are characterized as their personality” (Argosy University, 2010). <br />Reference<br />Argosy University. (2010). Bandura’s social-cognitive theory. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from: <br />Argosy University. (2010). The cognitive perspective. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from: <br />
  18. 18. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Interviewing Techniques<br />PSY405<br />Heather Gammel<br />October 18, 2008<br />Katherine was diagnosed with Autism at the 18 months old. She has been receiving behavioral intervention in her home, 17 hours a week for the past 2 years. Katherine has also been receiving Occupational therapy and speech therapy twice a week at school. Currently, her occupational therapist (O.T.) is moving out of state and her mother is in desperate need of a new O.T. The school has provided a new O.T., but Mrs. Nutt feels that Katherine doesn’t get along very well with her. Mrs. Nutt has been referred to me and my agency by another client’s mother. <br />After interviewing Mrs. Nutt within the clinic, observing Katherine at the clinic as well as at her school and doing the necessary evaluation with her, it is recommended that Katherine receives 5 hours a week of occupational therapy in a clinic setting, one on one. Katherine lacks fine motor skills as well as some gross motor skills. She also is in need of deep pressure and seeks it from whatever and whoever she can get it from. She will run and jump into a person’s arms, run into walls and fall down on the floor for no reason. Katherine has deficits in speech and language, which can be worked on while in occupational therapy. She does know how to use a spoon, but has difficulties in using a fork and a knife. She can drink out of a straw as well as an open cup. She needs help with day to day activities such as brushing her hair, brushing her teeth and getting herself dressed. I have advised Mrs. Nutt of the things she can do at home in the mean time to help her and her daughter. <br />The information that I decided to put in the report was the obvious, what the child was diagnosed with, what services she has been receiving, what tests and observations were done and what the recommendations for future services. There were certain things that I left out of the report, such as all of the personal information, where she lives, her sibling’s information and her home life situation. These things are usually included in the report, but at this time, were not necessary. “Confidentiality is extended to supervisory relationships to get an objective opinion about specific cases. A degree of anonymity can be retained for a client if the therapist does not disclose the client's name or distinguishing details” (Argosy University, 2008, 2 of 2). I also kept the mother’s biases out of the report so that the agency that approves the services will not also be biased. The agency that I report to and where I send my recommendations to is a place where the terminology and such needs to fit their approval just right, or the client will loose out on necessary services. “To some extent, power differentials are a reality of life. All of us have a number of authority figures in our life. Children have parents and teachers, parents have bosses, and citizens have police officers and the government. The problem is not that some people have more power than others, but how those people use that power. When people use power to degrade or demean others, the differences in power increase and become detrimental” (Argosy University, 2008, 1 of 3). <br />The information in my report supports the need for future services because of the testing and observations that were done. I included specific strengths and deficits that the child has and what the mother can do to help at home before the services are granted. My report is free from technical errors and language bias. My report definitely could use more professional terminology, but I am unaware as to use the language appropriately. I used the information and terminology the best that I could. <br />Reference:<br />Argosy University. (2008). PSY405 UB: Interviewing techniques. Module 7. Ethics: Confidentiality. Retrieved from on October 18, 2008. <br />Argosy University. (2008). PSY405 UB: Interviewing techniques. Module 7. Ethics: Power differentials. Retrieved from on October 18, 2008.<br />
  19. 19. My Future in Learning<br /> The saying, “You learn something new everyday”, is something that I try to live by. I am always learning something new either in my personal, work, or educational life and truly enjoy it!<br />Getting my Masters degree after finishing my Bachelors is the first major step to my future in learning. <br />
  20. 20. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /><br />