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PostGIS - Conhecendo o Elefante Geoespacial

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Workshop sobre PostGIS ministrado no evento CONSEGI 2012 (www.consegi.gov.br)

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PostGIS - Conhecendo o Elefante Geoespacial

  1. 1. PostGIS – Conhecendo o Elefante Geoespacial Rodrigo Hjort Serviço Federal de Proc. Dados Ignacio Talavera Intendencia de Montevideo
  2. 2. O que é um banco de dados geoespacial?
  3. 3. Um banco de dados possui... Tipos de dados Texto, número, data/hora Índices B-tree, hash Funções length(), now()
  4. 4. Um banco de dados espacial... armazena e manipula objetos espaciais como qualquer outro objeto do banco de dados
  5. 5. Banco de dados espacial... Tipos de dados espaciais geometry, geography Índices espaciais r-tree, quad-tree, kd-tree Funções espaciais ST_Length(), ST_X()
  6. 6. Evolução das arquiteturas GIS
  7. 7. A hierarquia da geometria
  8. 8. Os índices espaciais
  9. 9. As funções espaciais Análise ST_Function(geometry) → algo Construção ST_Function(algo) → geometry CriaçãoST_Function(geometry) → geometry
  10. 10. O que é o PostGIS? PostGIS "spatially enables" the PostgreSQL server, allowing it to be used as a backend spatial database for geographic information systems (GIS)
  11. 11. Por que não usar Shapefiles?Jamais! Banco de dados é melhor! Transações Consultas ad hoc Modelos de dados complexos Linguagem SQL
  12. 12. Web Mapping GeoServer servidor empresarial, implementa los protocolos WMS WFS,WFS-T.
  13. 13. Web Mapping DataClient Web GeoServer DataClient Data
  14. 14. Web Mapping DataClient WFS GeoServer DataClient WMS Data
  15. 15. WMS
  16. 16. Mão na massa!
  17. 17. 1. Criar banco com suporte a GISCREATE DATABASE consegi TEMPLATE template_postgis;
  18. 18. 2. Importar o shapefile de municípios do Paráshp2pgsql -s 4674 -d -g geom -D -W LATIN1 15MUE250GC_SIR mun > mun.sqlpsql consegi < mun.sql
  19. 19. 3. Criar a tabela de municípiosCREATE TABLE municipios ( codigo int not null primary key, nome varchar(50) not null, area geometry(MULTIPOLYGON, 4326));
  20. 20. 4. Popular a nova tabelaINSERT INTO municipiosSELECT cd_geocodm::int, nm_municip, ST_Force_2D(ST_Transform(geom, 4326))FROM mun;DROP TABLE mun;
  21. 21. 5. Criar coluna contendo o centro dos municípiosALTER TABLE municipios ADD centro geometry(point, 4326);UPDATE municipiosSET centro = ST_Centroid(area);
  22. 22. 6. Importar o shapefile de mamíferosshp2pgsql -s 4326 -d -g geom -D -W LATIN1 mamiferos mamiferos > mam.sqlpsql consegi < mam.sql
  23. 23. 7. Importar os dados do Censo 2010 para o Parápsql consegi -f censo-pa.sql
  24. 24. 8. Utilizando GeoServer ● Configurar GeoServer ● Data Store PostGIS ● Publicar layers WMS ● Publicar layer groups
  25. 25. Exercícios
  26. 26. 1. Quais são e qual a área dos 5 mais extensos municípios do Estado? Dica: ST_Area()
  27. 27. 2. Qual a área e o perímetro total do Estado do Pará?Dica: ST_Collect(), ST_Perimeter()
  28. 28. 3. Quais são os 3 municípios maissetentrionais (ao norte) do Estado? Dica: ST_Y()
  29. 29. 4. Qual a distância de cada município à capital do Estado? Dica: ST_Distance()
  30. 30. 5. Quais são os municípios que fazem fronteira com Altamira? Dica: ST_Intersects()
  31. 31. 6. Quais são os municípios a um raio de até 50km do centro de Marituba? Dica: ST_DWithin()
  32. 32. 7. Quais são os mamíferos e osmunicípios em que eles se encontram no Pará? Dica: ST_Contains()
  33. 33. 8. Qual a população total de Itupiranga e municípios limítrofes? Dica: ST_Intersects()
  34. 34. 9. Quais são os municípios a até 80km de Ananindeua com maior população feminina? Dica: ST_DWithin()
  35. 35. Desafios
  36. 36. 1. Exibir somente os municípios com mais de 200 mil habitantes.
  37. 37. 2. Exibir os municípios vizinhos aSantarém cuja população rural seja maior que a urbana.

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