Back Ground• Came to light on April 1,1948 after partition of Punjab• Cut across the rivers and canals• India cutoff flow of canal water to West Punjab• Stopped the water of the rivers Ravi and Sutlej• India wanted to damage Pakistan economically
HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?• Ferozepur and Madhopur head-works given to India.• June 1947, Kashmiris revolted against Maharaja of Kashmir.• Maharaja signed accession with India on 26th October 1947.• Standstill Agreement signed on 18 December 1947.• India cut off supplies from Ferozepur on 1 st April 1948.
Effects• It was a grave blow to agriculture of Pakistan• Pakistan’s agriculture vitally and entirely depend on canals drawn from Indus• Rain fall is scanty and undependable• Effected agriculture very badly• Pakistan also purchased water from India to avoid economic disaster.
Role of World Bank• Critical disputes resolution was the intervention of the World Bank• Both countries had applied to W.B. for development loans• WB decided to refuse development loans to India and Pakistan
WB Con’tWB would approve loans if 3 conditionswere met:• 1)Indus basin had enough water for both countries• 2) The basin was treated as a single unit implying all the rivers were to be discussed• 3) Past grievances put aside and technical rather than a political focus retained
WB Plan• Divide Indus Basin into 2 parts• India- 3 eastern rivers i.e. Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi• Pakistan – 3 western rivers i.e. Chenab , Jhelum and the Indus
WB con’t• Pakistan – not fully convinced refused to sign until 1958• Treaty formalized 1960
Indus Waters Treaty• The Indus Waters Treaty is a water sharing treaty between the Republic of India and Islamic republic of Pakistan• The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India• It could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war.
Con’t• The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960• By Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan
Clauses of Treaty• The Indus System of Rivers comprises three Western Rivers the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab and three Eastern Rivers - the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi; and with minor exceptions• the treaty gives India exclusive use of all of the waters of the Eastern Rivers and their tributaries before the point where the rivers enter Pakistan
Con’t• Pakistan has exclusive use of the Western Rivers- the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab• The agreement set up a commission to adjudicate any future disputes arising over the allocation of waters• The Commission is required to meet regularly to discuss potential disputes as well as cooperative arrangements for the development of the basin
Con’t• Either party must notify the other of plans to construct any engineering works which would affect the other party and to provide data about such works• In cases of disagreement, a neutral expert is called in for mediation and arbitration• Commission was created to resolve, the annual inspections and exchange of data continue, unperturbed by tensions on the subcontinent.
Conclusion• India always want to damage Pakistan economically• The Indus Water Treaty (1960) signed with India under Stress• It was a result of Pakistan’s fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India
Con’t• No interference was agreed by India and Pakistan in the natural flows of the western rivers (Indus, Jhelum and Chenab) and eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas and Sutlej), respectively• Pakistan strongly object to the designs of such projects for having potential to change / disrupt flows downstream• It is in the interest of India and Pakistan to follow the treaty in letter and spirit
Con’t• Undisturbed flow from the western rivers is must for survival of the country – no one should be allowed to play with it as it is matter of life and death for Pakistan.• We must have a strategy to ensure so. Absence of such strategy could spell disaster for the entire region!!!!