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Ch13 presentation

  1. 1. Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich
  2. 2.  Vatican as center of wealth, stability  Many artists migrated to the Vatican to be recipients of patronage when the Medici declined.  Patronage – artists were paid and supported to create specific works of art  Pope Sixtus IV – commissioned artists who were famous in Florence to fresco the side walls of the Sistine Chapel:  Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, Perugino
  3. 3.  Pope Julius II  Beginnings of High Renaissance (1503)  Appreciated fine art; influenced by his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV  “il papa terribile” – the awesome pope  Summoned Raphael Sanzio and Michelangelo Buonarroti to Rome
  4. 4.  From Urbino to Perugia  Born in Urbino and practiced art under his father’s direction  His father died in 1494  Became apprentice to Perugino, the painted  Moved from Perugia to Florence (1505)  Worked there for 3 years  Painted many madonnas while in Florence
  5. 5.  Madonna of the Meadow (1508) (Fig. 13.1)  Typical Raphael style of madonna  Pyramidal configuration – believable and balanced space  This geometrical device was popularized by Leonardo da Vinci  Rationally ordered  Modeling of human forms  Conveys genuine sweetness and warmth  Human quality of the divine figure is Raphael’s trademark
  6. 6.  Went from Florence to Vatican (Rome) (1508)  Pope Julius had him working on various projects in the Vatican by the next year.  Commissioned him to decorate rooms of his palace  School of Athens (1509-1511) (Fig. 13.2)  Large fresco on the wall of the Stanza della Segnatura, an office in the Vatican Palace  Symbolic homage to philosophy  Sets the great philosophers of old in an immense architectural framework inspired by Roman architecture  Renaissance ideal – sensitivity to ordered space, ease with Classical thought, Roman architecture, brilliant color and form, and love for intellectual clarity
  7. 7.  The Transfiguration (1527) (Fig. 13.3)  Last work, unfinished at his death  Balance of philosophy and theology  Old and New Testament figures; light and dark to reflect balance
  8. 8.  Called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create a monumental tomb: Tomb for Pope Julius II  Tomb was never finished; Michelangelo was interrupted by Julius, his death, and later the Medici family
  9. 9.  Moses (1513-1515) – one of the finished pieces of the tomb (Fig. 13.4)  Fiercely inspired look on Moses’ face; bulky physicality, carefully modeled musculature, drapery, and hair  Face radiates divine fury, divine light  Terribilità - awesomeness
  10. 10.  Boboli Captives (1527-1528) (Fig. 13.5)  Rough and unfinished:  Neo-Platonic notion of form and matter – ideal form struggles to be freed from gross matter  Insight into artist’s methods  Captives were possible meant to serve as corner supports for the bottom level of the tomb (Fig. 13.6)
  11. 11.  The Sistine Chapel (Fig. 13.8)  Julius commanded Michelangelo to fresco the ceiling.  He resisted the project and fled Rome; he was ordered back by papal edict.  Finished the ceiling in 3 years (1508-1511).  “Michelangelo, Sculptor” – signed the ceiling to remind Julius of his reluctance to paint.  Architectural and thematic motifs  Heroic action of the Old Testament; biblical ancestors of Christ; pagan sibyls and OT prophets; scenes from Genesis
  12. 12.  Interpretation – the overall meaning is problematic  The following elements must all be considered:  Neo-Platonism – manipulation of dark and light; liberation of spirit from matter; and geometrical allusions  Old Testament and pagan prophets – points to the coming of Christ  Complex tree symbolism – trees in the Bible: tree of good and evil, the cross, etc.); and allusion to the pope’s family name (della Rovere – “of the oak tree”)  Human wisdom (sibyls) + God’s revelation (prophets)
  13. 13.  Michelangelesque: describes the style  Masculine anatomy, musculature  Combines physical bulk with linear grace, & powerful display of emotion  Creation of Adam (1508-1511) (Fig. 13.9)  The Last Judgment (1534-1541) (Fig. 13.10)
  14. 14.  Medici Chapel in Florentine Church of San Lorenzo (Fig. 13.11)  Worked under patronage of popes Leo X and Clement VII, both from Medici family  Designed and executed both sculptures and the chapel  Never completely finished the chapel  Meditation of the shortness of life, inevitability of death, and hope for resurrection  Brothers Lorenzo the Magnificent and Giuliano are buried in the chapel  Night and Day; Dawn and Dusk (Fig. 13.12)
  15. 15.  The New Saint Peter’s Basilica – 1,000 years old, and had suffered from roof fires, structural stresses, and ravages of time  Donato Bramante (1444-1514), architect  Envisioned a central domed church with a floor plan in the shape of a Greek cross with 4 equal arms (Fig. 13.13)  Tempietto (little temple) – small chapel he built in 1502 in Rome may give a clue to Bramante’s vision for St. Peter’s.
  16. 16.  Raphael and Sangallo worked on the project, as well , after Bramante’s death.  Added nave and aisles.  Michelangelo as architect (1546)  Used Bramante’s plan for central domed Greek cross  Major difference: ribbed, arched dome modeled after a cathedral in Florence  Michelangelo lived to see the completion of the drum to support dome  Drum was raised 30 years later (after his death) by Giacomo della Porta
  17. 17.  Rome excelled in fresco, sculpture, and architecture – Venice had tradition of easel painting  Use of oil paints because of damp atmosphere  Could enrich and deepen color – make color more brilliant  Subtlety of light  Eye for close detail  Love of landscape
  18. 18.  Giorgione (c.1477-1510) – most celebrated painter in 16th century Venice  Venetian Renaissance Style  Enthroned Madonna with Saints (1500-1505) (Fig. 13.15)  Painted for his hometown cathedral  Highly geometric work – use of pyramid/triangle  More typical work – painting without religious content or recognizable storyline/narrative  Le Concert Champêtre (c. 1510) (Fig. 13.16)  Secular homage to joy of life rendered with richness and lushness of concept and color.
  19. 19.  Titian (c. 1488-1576)  Use of striking color  Very popular and created many works  Two representative paintings demonstrate his abilities:  Assumption of the Virgin (1516-1518) (Fig. 13.17)  Panel painting in the Venetian Church of the Frari  Use of triangular composition; shift from dark to light; and lines converging on the Madonna for movement  Venus of Urbino (1538) (Fig. 13.18)  Homage to feminine beauty from human perspective  Architectural background; evenly divided between light and dark; lush and rich
  20. 20.  Tintoretto (1518-1594)  “little dyer” – name for his father’s occupation  Over his studio door: “The drawing of Michelangelo and the color of Titian.”  Scuola - most famous work; cycle of frescoes  The Last Supper (Fig. 13.19) – Church of San Giorgio Maggiore  Energetic and dramatic style
  21. 21.  Artistic “mood” – exaggeration of Renaissance form and loosening of Renaissance intellectuality  Frederick Hartt’s schema  ***See page 325 in textbook***  Michelangelo’s mannerist style in later works  Night, Day, Dawn, and Dusk  Entrance to Laurentian Library (Fig. 13.20)  Windows aren’t windows, columns support nothing; staircase steps seem agitated and in motion  The Last Judgment – example of Mannerism
  22. 22.  Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo (1494-1557)  Eccentric and reclusive painter; studied with da Vinci  Deposition (c. 1528) (Fig. 13.21)  Shocking colors: pinks, greens, and blues  Parmigianino (1503-1540)  Madonna of the Long Neck (c. 1535) (Fig. 13.22)  Gigantic proportions  Implied eroticism – shape of her body; long fingers; curving S of her neck; and partially clad figures clustered at her side  Mannerism is a testament to inventiveness, restlessness of human spirit
  23. 23.  Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614)  Daughter of Bolognese painter  Portrait painter in Rome, Bologna  Adopted Mannerist style: Exaggerated angles, use of color  Dead Christ with the Symbols of the Passion (1581) (Fig. 13.23)  Sofonisba Anguissola (1532?-1624)  Influenced by both Renaissance and Baroque masters  Pictorial representations – self-portrait (Fig. 13.24)  Contrasts of dark and light
  24. 24. Music at the Papal Court  Sistine Choir and Julian Choir – established permanent choirs for private chapels  Sistine Choir was composed of male voices  Preadolescent boys sang soprano, older men sang alto, tenor, and bass  a capella – without musical accompaniment
  25. 25.  Josquin des Prez (c. 1440-1521)  Sistine Choir, composer and director  True genius for creative musical composition: Motet for four voices  Praised for his homogenous musical structure, balance, lyrical quality  Motet uses sacred text sung by four voices in polyphony  Clear division in text, but used overlapping voices to avoid sense of break in the music  Tu Pauperum Refugium (Thou Refuge of the Poor)
  26. 26. Music at the Papal Court  Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)  Choirmaster of capella Guilia (Saint Peter’s)  1571-1594 Vatican’s music director  Conservative masses in response to Catholic reform movement  Returning to the simpler ways of the past  Music reflects that conservation
  27. 27. Venetian Music  Adrian Willaert – Dutchman who became choirmaster of the Church of St. Mark  Trained both Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli  Church of St. Mark  Split choirs – 2 choirs permitted variation of composition  Could sing to and against each other  Instrumental music in liturgy; pioneered the use of the organ for liturgical music  Intonazione (music played before service), toccata (virtuoso prelude)
  28. 28. Castiglione’s Courtier (1528)  Characters discuss chivalry, classical virtues, Platonic love  Courtiers should be a person of humanist learning, impeccable ethics, refined courtesy, physical and martial skills, and fascinating conversation  Uomo universale – well-rounded person  Sprezzatura – effortless mastery  Criticism: Overly refined, idealized worldview  Courtier’s world is that of elite aristocracy
  29. 29. Cellini’s Autobiography  Chronicles a life of violence, intrigue, sex, egotism, politics  Vignettes of all walks of life; realistic snapshots  Popes, commoners, artists, soldiers, cardinals, prostitutes, assassins  Insight into methods of the artist  Describes the process of casting the bronze statue of Perseus (Fig. 13.26)