READING
      COMPREHENSION
        PRACTICE SETS                                            CHAPTER 17




READING COMPRE...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           The relevance of formal economic models to     1. The a...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



3. The most significant criticism leveled against      4. It can be inferred that t...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           A basic principle of ecology is that popula-     5. The...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



8. It can be inferred that the study of lemmings       10. Bryant’s interpretation ...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           There is an intriguing note to the current call   12. I...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



15. The author mentions textiles (line 37) in order to   17. In the final paragraph...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



ANSWER KEY
1. B
2. B
3. B
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. D
8. D
9. A
10. C
11. ...
READING COMPREHENSION SET 2
     Time: 25 minutes—18 Questions
     Directions: Each passage in this section is followed b...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           The debt crisis affecting many developing         1. Th...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



4. The author suggests that methods currently in         6. If the passage were to ...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           Deser t plant populations have evolved           7. The...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



9. The passage suggests that which of the                11. All of the following a...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           The great migration of European intellectu-       13. T...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



15. Which of the following statements describe            17. It can be inferred th...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



ANSWER KEY
1. A
2. C
3. E
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. E
8. D
9. C
10. B
11. ...
READING COMPREHENSION SET 3
     Time: 25 minutes—18 Questions
     Directions: Each passage in this section is followed b...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           The astronomical study of hot gas—gas with       1. Whi...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



3. According to the passage, the Uhuru X-ray            5. Which of the following b...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           We must question the assumption that for-         7. Th...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



9. According to the passage, the federal                12. It can be inferred from...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



           A theorist of modernization in underdevel-        14. T...
READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS



16. The author mentions the practice of substituting     18. The author implied tha...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



ANSWER KEY
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. E
8. B
9. D
10. E
11. ...
READING
            COMPREHENSION
              EXPLANATIONS                                                  CHAPTER 22

...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



2. B                                                          find...
R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S



PASSAGE 2—Ecology                                       ...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



9. A                                                      PASSAGE ...
R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S



fied in paragraph 1 as things that collective bargain-  ...
READING COMPREHENSION EXPLANATIONS SET 2
Answer Key:
1. A                      7. E                       13. C
2. C      ...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



Finally, question III asks how taxpayers in lending         the th...
R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S



PASSAGE 2—Desert Plants                                 ...
P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S



11. D                                                     PASSAGE ...
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets   18 Questions Each
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3 Gmat Reading Comprehension Practice Sets 18 Questions Each

  1. 1. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS CHAPTER 17 READING COMPREHENSION SET 1 Time: 25 minutes—18 Questions Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by several questions. After reading the passage, choose the best response to each question and mark it on your answer sheet. Your replies are to be based on what is actually stated or implied in the passage, and not on your own knowledge. You may refer to the passage while answering the questions. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 207
  2. 2. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S The relevance of formal economic models to 1. The author is primarily concerned with real-world policy has been a topic of some dis- pute. The economists R. D. Norton and S. Y. (A) proposing a new type of economic Rhee achieved some success in applying such a analysis (5) model retrospectively to the Korean economy (B) criticizing an overly formal economic model over a fourteen-year period; the model’s figures (C) advocating the use of statistical models in for output, prices, and other variables closely determining economic policy matched real statistics. The model’s value in pol- icy terms, however, proved less clearcut. Norton (D) suggesting an explanation for Korean (10) and Rhee performed simulations in which, keep- inflation ing long-term factors constant, they tried to pin- (E) determining the accuracy of Norton and point the effect of short-term policy changes. Rhee’s analysis Their model indicated that rising prices for imported oil would increase inflation; reducing (15) expor ts by five percent would lower Gross 2. The author mentions “a fourteen-year period” Domestic Product and increase inflation; and (line 6) in order to slowing the growth of the money supply would (A) indicate how far into the future Norton and result in slightly higher inflation. Rhee’s model can make accurate These findings are somewhat star tling. predictions (20) Many economists have argued that reducing exports will lessen, not increase, inflation. And (B) acknowledge the accuracy of Norton and while most view escalating oil costs as inflation- Rhee’s model in accounting for past ary, few would think the same of slower monetary events growth. The Norton-Rhee model can perhaps be (C) explain the effect of reducing exports on (25) viewed as indicating the pitfalls of a formalist inflation approach that stresses statistical “goodness of fit” at the expense of genuine policy relevance. (D) demonstrate the startling nature of Norton and Rhee’s findings (E) expose the flaws in Norton and Rhee’s model GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 208
  3. 3. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 3. The most significant criticism leveled against 4. It can be inferred that the most surprising finding Norton and Rhee’s model is that it of the Norton-Rhee study is that (A) excludes key statistical variables (A) reducing exports would reduce inflation (B) is too abstract to be useful in policy (B) high oil prices worsen inflation making (C) an increase in exports can slow the rate of (C) fails to adjust for Korea’s high rate of growth inflation (D) slower monetary expansion would worsen (D) underestimates the importance of inflation economic growth (E) long-term factors do not affect economic (E) fails to consider the effect of short-term growth variations in the economy GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 209
  4. 4. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S A basic principle of ecology is that popula- 5. The author provides specific information to tion size is partly a reflection of available food answer which of the following questions? resources. Recent experiments suggest that the relationship is more complex than formerly (A) What factors other than food supply affect (5) thought. Specifically, the browsing of certain the population size of rodents? rodents appears to trigger chemical reactions in (B) Why is the timing of the voles’ food plants which, in turn, affect the size of the reproductive effort important? rodent populations. Two examples of such regu- (C) Are phytochemical reactions found only in lation have been reported. northern environments? (10) Berger has demonstrated the power of a nat- urally occurring chemical called 6-MBOA to stim- (D) How does 6-MBOA trigger reproductive ulate reproductive behavior in the mountain vole, activity in the mountain vole? a small mouse-like rodent. 6-MBOA forms in (E) What are the causes of the periodic young grass in response to browsing by voles. increase in the snowshoe hare (15) Berger experimented by feeding oats coated with population? 6-MBOA to non-breeding winter populations of voles. After three weeks, she found a high inci- dence of pregnancy among females. Since the 6. The passage describes the effect of 6-MBOA on timing of reproduction is crucial to the short-lived voles as a “significant biological adaptation” (20) vole in an environment in which the onset of veg- (line 23) because it etative growth may be considerably delayed, the (A) limits reproductive behavior in times of phytochemical triggering of reproductive behavior food scarcity represents a significant biological adaptation. In an example reported by Bryant, plants (B) prompts the vole population to seek new (25) appear to have developed a phytochemical food sources defense against the depredations of snowshoe (C) supports species survival during periods hares in Canada. Every ten years, for reasons of fluctuating food supply that are unclear, the hare population swells. The result is overbrowsing of certain deciduous trees (D) maximizes the number of offspring in (30) and shrubs. Bryant found that trees favored by individual litters the hare produce young shoots high in terpene (E) minimizes territorial competition and phenolic resins, which discourage hare browsing. After treating non-resinous willow twigs 7. Which of the following statements can be with resinous extracts and placing treated and inferred about plant shoots containing large (35) untreated samples at hare feeding stations, amounts of terpene and phenolic resins? Bryant found that samples containing at least half of the resin concentration of natural twigs I. They serve as a form of natural defense. were untouched. The avoidance of resinous shoots, he concludes, may play a role in the II. Their growth is stimulated by increases in (40) decline of the hare population to normal levels. the hare population. Both of these reports suggest areas for fur- III. They are unappetizing to hares. ther research. For example, data should be (A) I only reviewed to determine if periodic population explosions among lemmings (another small (B) II only (45) rodent living in a northern environment) occur (C) III only during years in which there is an early onset of (D) I and III only vegetative growth; if so, a triggering mechanism similar to that prompted by the vole may be (E) I, II, and III involved. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 210
  5. 5. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 8. It can be inferred that the study of lemmings 10. Bryant’s interpretation of the results of his proposed by the author would probably experiment (lines 36–38) depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) strengthen the conclusions of Bryant (B) cast doubt on the conclusions of Bryant (A) The response of hares to resinous substances may be different in nature (C) support the specific findings of Berger than under experimental conditions. (D) provide evidence as to whether Berger’s (B) The periodic rise in the hare population is conclusions can be generalized triggered by an unknown phytochemical (E) disprove common beliefs about the response. relationship between population size and (C) Many hares will starve to death rather food supply than eat resinous shoots. (D) Hares alter their breeding behavior in 9. The author of the passage is primarily concerned response to the declining availability of with food. (A) reviewing findings about phytochemical (E) Significant numbers of hares die from regulation of rodent populations ingesting the resins in shoots. (B) outlining the role of 6-MBOA in regulating population size 11. The experiments described in the passage did each of the following EXCEPT (C) summarizing knowledge on population size of rodents (A) measure changes in the behavior of test (D) explaining why earlier studies of animals population size were wrong (B) measure changes in the populations of (E) describing mechanisms used by plants to experimental animals protect themselves (C) simulate a hypothesized phytochemical effect in nature (D) measure the consumption of foods by test animals (E) analyze the effects of food on breeding behavior GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 211
  6. 6. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S There is an intriguing note to the current call 12. In line 13, this most likely refers to upon civil rights law to help remedy the underval- uation of women’s work. Until fairly recently, gov- (A) increasing the wages of women and men ernment was not expected to solve workers’ eco- in a single industry (5) nomic grievances, however valid they might be. (B) bringing about changes in market Many assumed that the responsibility lay with conditions workers themselves. Collective bargaining was (C) changing the dynamic of collective the preferred instrument for pursuing pay equity bargaining for women. Rather than call upon the law to reg- (10) ulate the market from the outside, one could try (D) relying on civil rights law to remedy to reshape or otherwise influence the market so economic grievances that women themselves would be better able to (E) applying group pressure on an employer address the problem. This could be done by rais- ing absolute wage levels in low-paying, predomi- 13. According to the author, the process of (15) nantly female industries (such as retail clothing) unionization and collective bargaining could do or by changing the pay relationship between all of the following EXCEPT largely female and largely male occupations with- in a single industry, such as auto manufacturing. (A) overcome market pressures that keep Through union representation, employees in tra- wages in some industries lower than in (20) ditionally female jobs in an industry could identi- others fy the actual degree of underpayment of their (B) encourage worker flexibility in adjusting a work and then, as a group, pressure their employ- new pay scale to economic conditions er to remedy it. In addition, this process would encourage those affected—men and women (C) help workers to apply group pressure on (25) alike—to be sensitive to the limits of available employers resources, to be pragmatic about the pace at (D) aid in determining the degree to which which the wage structure could be revised. women are being underpaid I do not mean to suggest that collective bar- (E) sensitize workers to the limits of their gaining is a foolproof means for closing the gen- industry’s ability to institute change (30) der gap in wages. To the extent that the problem involves the undervaluation of nonunion female occupations in an otherwise unionized industry, 14. Which of the following best summarizes the political hurdles will discourage unionized author’s main point? employees from supporting revisions in the wage (A) Pay inequity for women exists because of (35) structure. And to the extent that the problem is the lack of unionization in traditionally the concentration of women in low-paying indus- female occupations. tries—textiles, for example—the product market imposes serious economic constraints on a sub- (B) Government regulation of industry to stantial closing of the wage gap. achieve pay equity for women is (40) Despite the imperfections of tools like col- unnecessary because management has lective bargaining for redressing wage disparities the power to effectively determine wages. between men and women, a reliance on law or (C) Unionization would solve all industry government is favorable for neither individual problems relating to the valuation of firms nor our economy as a whole. Nonetheless, women’s work. (45) although opponents of mandatory public reme- (D) Government regulation of women’s wages dies may correctly fear those remedies as being is necessary only in those industries a cure worse than the disease, they are wrong where collective bargaining is ineffective. when they imply that the current system of wage determination by business management is per- (E) Collective bargaining is preferable to (50) fectly healthy. government actions in redressing the undervaluation of women’s work. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 212
  7. 7. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 15. The author mentions textiles (line 37) in order to 17. In the final paragraph, the author addresses “opponents of mandatory public remedies” (A) demonstrate the potential harm of (lines 45–46) by government regulation of industry (B) outline a strategy for achieving pay equity (A) arguing that those remedies would benefit for women the economy (C) indicate how quickly employees can (B) implying that alternative methods of reasonably expect to achieve pay equity correcting wage disparities would be worse (D) give an example of a situation in which collective bargaining may be ineffective (C) asserting that the present approach to setting wages is flawed (E) show why civil rights laws are the most important tool for increasing women’s (D) defending civil rights legislation as a wages solution to social problems (E) insisting that those remedies are a viable means of correcting wage disparities 16. It can be inferred that the author’s attitude toward opponents of government regulation of wage determination mentioned in the last 18. The passage refers to which of the following as paragraph is characterized by which of the reasons for preferring collective bargaining to following? legislation as a method of ending the undervaluation of women’s work? I. Distrust of their motives II. Sympathy with some of their concerns I. The greater responsiveness of collective bargaining to existing conditions that III. Disagreement with some of their affect wage levels assumptions II. The general desirability of using private IV. Opposition to their political principles rather than public remedies (A) I only III. The potential of collective bargaining for (B) III only achieving a uniform national solution to the problem of gender wage disparities (C) I and II only (A) I only (D) II and III only (B) III only (E) I, II, and IV (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III ANSWERS ON THE NEXT PAGE STOP! END OF TEST 213
  8. 8. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S ANSWER KEY 1. B 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. A 10. C 11. E 12. B 13. A 14. E 15. D 16. D 17. C 18. C GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 214
  9. 9. READING COMPREHENSION SET 2 Time: 25 minutes—18 Questions Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by several questions. After reading the passage, choose the best response to each question and mark it on your answer sheet. Your replies are to be based on what is actually stated or implied in the passage, and not on your own knowledge. You may refer to the passage while answering the questions. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 215
  10. 10. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S The debt crisis affecting many developing 1. The primary purpose of this passage is to countries has had three causes: imprudent man- discuss agement and borrowing by debtor countries; imprudent lending by banks; and rising interest (A) the causes of the debt crisis and potential (5) rates. The rise in real interest rates to about 6 solutions to it percent by 1982 increased the burden on bor- (B) the effects of rising interest rates rowers and completely changed the nature of the (C) American banking in the 1980s debt problem. Such an increase had not been seen previously. In past debt crises, when loans (D) the future of banking in the U.S. (10) were made at fixed rates, real interest rates rose (E) economic conditions in developing with deflation. But once price levels stabilized, countries the interest burden would be higher only to the extent of the proportional decline in price levels. And it remained quite possible that inflation 2. The passage provides information that helps to (15) would eventually reduce the burden. In this crisis, answer which of the following questions? though, the real interest rate has risen and I. Did errors of economic management by stayed high, and inflation has brought no relief. developing countries contribute to the debt During the 1980s, fear of financial loss led crisis? U.S. commercial banks to sharply curtail their (20) lending activity in debtor countries. In 1982, nine II. Are steps currently being taken to alleviate large banks had over 250 percent of their capital the debt crisis? in loans to developing countries; by mid-1986, III. Do taxpayers in lending countries support the nine banks had reduced their activities to the the notion of debt relief? point where they had sufficient equity and (25) reserves to withstand potential losses. Although (A) I only banks have stabilized their positions, many con- (B) II only tinue to carry developing-country debt at face (C) I and II only value. Present bank strategies deal with the debt (D) II and III only (30) crisis by extending the effective maturity of loans. (E) I, II, and III Although any method that reduces the flow of resources from debtor countries will help in the short run, further lending promises little relief to 3. Which of the following characterized responses the debt problem. So long as real interest rates to the debt crisis in the 1980s? (35) remain high, developing countries will remain in (A) Increased pressure on debtor countries to debt. There are two choices. Either the piecemeal pay interest due on loans approach continues, or some form of debt relief occurs. For years, developing countries have paid (B) An increase in the percentage of their total the price of low growth and significant falls in real capital large banks devoted to foreign (40) wages while making cash transfers to service loans their debt. Citizens of developing countries are (C) A decrease in the funds designated by kept at low levels of income for the sake of capi- banks to cover potential losses tal gains for banks and their shareholders. With (D) Reliance by banks on inflationary pressure sensible debt relief, developing countries and to reduce debt levels (45) lending institutions can begin to formulate growth-oriented development policies. This (E) A decline in bank lending and an increase should be possible without increasing burdens on in capital reserves taxpayers in lender countries. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 216
  11. 11. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 4. The author suggests that methods currently in 6. If the passage were to continue, the next topic place for dealing with the debt crisis are the author would logically discuss would most inadequate because they likely be (A) increase the upward pressure on real (A) possible steps which might bring about interest rates without allowing any effective debt relief opportunity for reduction (B) options other than debt relief that might (B) allow real wages to rise at the expense of alleviate the debt crisis economic growth in debtor countries (C) current attitudes of bankers toward (C) fail to address problems of international lending mismanagement in debtor and creditor (D) measures currently taken by debtor countries countries to reduce inflation (D) lessen the immediate burden of debt (E) the effects of 1980s banking activities on service but do not promote long-term debtor countries growth (E) sacrifice a reduction of real interest rates for a short-term increase in loan maturity 5. In the passage, the author identifies all of the following as contributing to the current debt crisis EXCEPT (A) self-interest on the part of commercial banks (B) sustained high real interest rates (C) unwillingness of banks to extend the maturation periods of loans (D) unwise decisions made by commercial lending institutions (E) failure of inflation to reduce the interest burden GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 217
  12. 12. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S Deser t plant populations have evolved 7. The passage refers to the spines and thorns of sophisticated physiological behavioral traits that desert plants as aid survival in arid conditions. Some send out long, unusually deep taproots; others utilize shal- I. genetically evolved structural adaptations (5) low but widespread roots, which allow them to that protect against predation absorb large, intermittent flows of water. Certain II. genetic modifications that aid in the plants protect their access to water. The creosote reduction of water loss bush produces a potent root toxin which inhibits III. structures that do not participate directly the growth of competing root systems. Daytime in food production (10) closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime (A) I only water loss, later allowing the stomata to open (B) III only when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment. (C) I and II only (15) Certain adaptations reflect the principle that (D) II and III only a large surface area facilitates water and gas (E) I, II and III exchange. Most plants have small leaves, modi- fied leaves (spines), or no leaves at all. The main food-producing organ is not the leaf but the stem, 8. The author suggest that the guard cells of (20) which is often green and non-woody. Thick, waxy desert plants act to do which of the following? stems and cuticles, seen in succulents such as cacti and agaves, also help conserve water. I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between Spines and thorns (modified branches) protect the plants and their surroundings against predators and also minimize water loss. II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only (E) I, II, and III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 218
  13. 13. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 9. The passage suggests that which of the 11. All of the following are mentioned as examples following weather-related conditions would most of adaptation by desert plants EXCEPT benefit plants with shallow root systems? (A) deep roots (A) An unusually prolonged drought (B) shallow roots (B) A windstorm (C) poisonous roots (C) A flash flood (D) food-producing leaves (D) A light spring rain (E) spines and thorns (E) A winter snowfall 12. The passage suggests that the adaptations of 10. The adaptations of desert plants to their desert plants function to do all of the following environment would tend to support the EXCEPT statement that (A) protect the plants’ access to water (A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in (B) prevent the loss of water during the day the desert than in more temperate surroundings (C) maximize the water and gas exchange (B) structures in a plant which usually perform (D) shield the plant from daytime heat one function may, under certain (E) guard against predators conditions, perform different functions (C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments (D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants (E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 219
  14. 14. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S The great migration of European intellectu- 13. The author’s main concern in the passage is to als to the United States in the second quarter of the twentieth century prompted a transformation (A) characterize the effects of migration on in the character of Western social thought. The U.S. history (5) influx of Continental thinkers fleeing fascist (B) show how Paul Tillich’s career was regimes had a great impact on American acade- representative of the migration experience mic circles, leading to new developments in such (C) discuss the effects of the great migration diverse fields as linguistics and theology. But the on modern social thought greatest impact was on the emigrés themselves. (10) This “migration experience” led expatriates to (D) reveal the increased sophistication of reexamine the supposedly self-evident premises post-migration thought inherited from the Continental intellectual tradi- (E) contrast European social thought with that tion. The result, according to H. Stuart Hughes in of the United States The Sea-Change, was an increased sophistica- (15) tion and deprovincialization in social theory. One problem facing newly arrived emigrés in 14. The author probably mentions H. Stuart Hughes the U.S. was the spirit of anti-intellectualism in (line 13) in order to much of the country. The empirical orientation of (A) give an example of a European intellectual American academic circles, moreover, led to the who migrated to America (20) conscious tempering by many European thinkers of their own tendencies toward speculative ideal- (B) cite an important source of information ism. In addition, reports of oppression in Europe about the migration experience shook many Old World intellectuals from a stance (C) demonstrate how one American academic of moral isolation. Many great European social was influenced by European scholars (25) theorists had regarded their work as separate from all moral considerations. The migration (D) pay tribute to Americans who provided experience proved to many intellectuals of the fol- European thinkers with a refuge from lowing generations that such notions of moral fascism seclusion were unrealistic, even irresponsible. (E) name a leading disciple of Paul Tissich (30) This transformation of social thought is per- haps best exemplified in the career of the German theologian Paul Tillich. Migration confronted Tillich with an ideological as well as a cultural dichotomy. Hughes points out that Tillich’s thought was “sus- (35) pended between philosophy and theology, Marxism and political conformity, theism and disbelief.” Comparable to the fusion by other expatriate intel- lectuals of their own idealist traditions with the Anglo-American empiricist tradition was Tillich’s (40) synthesis of German Romantic religiosity with the existentialism born of the twentieth-century war experience. Tillich’s basic goal, according to Hughes, was to move secular individuals by making religious symbols more accessible to them. Forced (45) to make his ethical orientation explicit in the con- text of American attitudes, Tillich avoided the eso- teric academic posture of many Old World scholars, and was able to find a wide and sympathetic audi- ence for his sometimes difficult theology. In this (50) way, his experience in America, in his own words, “deprovincialized” his thought. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 220
  15. 15. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 15. Which of the following statements describe 17. It can be inferred that postmigration social Tillich’s achievement? thought is distinguished from premigration thought by its I. He elucidated religious symbols in a secular context without sacrificing their (A) less secular nature impact. (B) greater social consciousness II. He shunned the esotericism of much (C) more difficult theology theological scholarship. (D) diminished accessibility III. He adapted a traditional religiosity to the temper of the modern world. (E) more theoretical nature (A) I only 18. The passage suggests that the migration (B) II only experience (C) I and II only (A) had little major effect on American (D) II and III only academic circles (E) I, II, and III (B) led to the abandonment of the idealist philosophical tradition 16. According to the passage, reports of (C) made American intellectuals sensitive to “oppression in Europe” (line 22) affected social oppression in Europe thinkers by forcing them to (D) caused emigré social thinkers to question (A) rethink their moral responsibilities certain of their beliefs (B) reexamine the morality of European leaders (E) negated Tillich’s influence on modern (C) analyze the effects of migration on morality social thought (D) reconsider their anti-social behavior (E) justify the moral value of social thought ANSWERS ON THE NEXT PAGE STOP! END OF TEST 221
  16. 16. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S ANSWER KEY 1. A 2. C 3. E 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. E 8. D 9. C 10. B 11. D 12. D 13. C 14. B 15. E 16. A 17. B 18. D 222
  17. 17. READING COMPREHENSION SET 3 Time: 25 minutes—18 Questions Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by several questions. After reading the passage, choose the best response to each question and mark it on your answer sheet. Your replies are to be based on what is actually stated or implied in the passage, and not on your own knowledge. You may refer to the passage while answering the questions. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 223
  18. 18. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S The astronomical study of hot gas—gas with 1. Which of the following can be inferred from the a temperature of a million degrees Kelvin or passage about “recent study of hot gas” (line greater—began with observations of the solar 18)? atmosphere. In the 1930s, techniques were (5) developed to perform optical studies of the solar (A) It has prompted the rejection of earlier corona during solar eclipses. The detection of studies of the solar corona. highly ionized atoms of iron, calcium, and nickel, (B) It has taken place largely outside the as well as an extended gaseous region, implied earth’s atmosphere. the presence of gas at temperatures of about a (C) It has led to full understanding of the (10) million degrees K. However, detailed study of the production and evolution of hot gas. solar corona had to await the advent of space astronomy and the chance to observe the sun at (D) It was aimed primarily at gathering data ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths outside the related to the birth and death of stars. earth’s opaque atmosphere. These wavelengths (E) It was hindered by astronomers’ (15) are crucial for studying hot gas because highly dependence on outdated research ionized atoms are visible in these regions and techniques. because most radiated energy is emitted there. Recent study of hot gas began with the launching in the 1970s of space observatories 2. Which of the following is mentioned in the (20) which gathered data on ultraviolet and X-ray wave- passage as evidence for the presence of hot lengths. These observations led to a new picture interstellar gas in our galaxy? of the production and evolution of hot gas. Before (A) The varying levels of radiation given off by 1970, direct evidence for the presence of hot gas distant stars in large volumes of space was lacking. Although (25) there were theoretical arguments for pervasive (B) The large quantity of ionized atoms interstellar gas, interstellar space in our galaxy detected during solar eclipses was thought to be occupied by gas with a tem- (C) The presence of gas with a temperature of perature of about 10,000 degrees K. In the about 10,000 degrees K in our galaxy 1970s, however, the observatory Copernicus (30) revealed the widespread presence in our galaxy (D) The production of highly ionized oxygen in of highly ionized oxygen that could only be pro- our galaxy duced at high temperatures. At the same time, (E) The frequent occurrence of supernovae in the Uhuru X-ray satellite discovered emissions our galaxy from hot gas in the space between galaxies in (35) clusters. Subsequent studies confirmed these findings. It is believed that interstellar gas is heated through two mechanisms: the motions of stars and matter ejected from them, and gravitational (40) infall. Hot gas has been observed on a smaller scale, between stars in our galaxy, and in large- scale structures (clusters of galaxies). On a smaller scale, supernovae, or exploding stars, probably create an interstellar medium of hot gas (45) within galaxies; they may also drive gas out of galaxies. On a larger scale, gravitational infall— during which gas slumps toward the center of a galaxy—may play a role in the heating of gas. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 224
  19. 19. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 3. According to the passage, the Uhuru X-ray 5. Which of the following best describes how the satellite has been instrumental in helping to second paragraph relates to the first paragraph? (A) provide detailed images of the remnants (A) The second paragraph qualifies a of supernovae in our galaxy conclusion stated in the first paragraph. (B) determine the precise sequence of events (B) The second paragraph elaborates on leading to a supernova developments identified in the first (C) document the widespread presence of hot paragraph. gas in interstellar space (C) The second paragraph examines in detail (D) identify the different types of particles the particular studies referred to in the commonly ejected by stars first paragraph. (E) measure the varying strength of (D) The second paragraph identifies a more gravitational fields at galactic centers fruitful area of study than that discussed in the first paragraph. (E) The second paragraph illustrates the 4. The author suggests that the studies of the solar degree of speculation involved in the atmosphere discussed in the first paragraph studies mentioned in the first paragraph. (A) conflict with current assumptions about the extent of the gaseous region 6. The passage specifically mentions information surrounding the sun relevant to all of the following questions EXCEPT: (B) reached conclusions which were overlooked by later studies (A) In what way does hot gas affect the evolution of stellar systems? (C) were constrained by the technology then available to scientists (B) What may result from the migration of gas toward the center of a galaxy? (D) confirmed then-current beliefs about the presence of hot gas between stars (C) What effect can the release of energy during a stellar explosion have on (E) are largely irrelevant to recent studies of interstellar gas? hot gas (D) What evidence have researchers gathered for the presence of hot gas near the sun? (E) Why is the ability to monitor ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths necessary for the study of hot gas? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 225
  20. 20. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S We must question the assumption that for- 7. The author’s primary concern in the passage is profit health care institutions are obligated to to discuss provide free care for people who cannot afford to pay for it. Supermarkets, after all, are not expect- (A) the level of expenditures required to (5) ed to donate food to the hungry, and real estate ensure access to health care for all developers are not expected to let people live (B) measures that might be enacted to carry rent-free in their housing. Yet food and housing, out a program of subsidized health care like health care, are necessities. If there is a (C) differences among states and localities in basic right to health care, it is reasonable to think the provision of basic social services (10) there are such rights to food and shelter. Whose obligation is it to secure adequate (D) whether a national commitment to health health care for those without it? There are sever- care can be reconciled with the federal al reasons to believe that the obligation rests structure of the United States with the federal government. First, the obligation (E) who bears the obligation for assuring (15) to secure a just distribution of benefits and adequate health services for those who burdens across society is a general societal lack it obligation. Second, the federal government is the institution society employs to meet society-wide distributive requirements. It has the capacities to 8. The author mentions federal “food stamp (20) finance a hugely expensive program for guaran- programs and housing subsidies” (lines 36–37) teed adequate health care. The government’s primarily in order to taxing power also allows the burden of financing (A) modify a previous point in response to health care to be spread across society and not new information to depend on the vagaries of how wealthy or poor (25) a state or local area may be. The government (B) support his argument by mentioning a also has the power to coordinate health care pro- comparable situation grams across local and state boundaries. This (C) argue that these programs should be would reduce inefficiencies that allow people to modified fall between the cracks of the patchwork of local (30) and state programs, and ensure that there are (D) make a concession to a contrasting opinion not great differences in the minimum of health (E) acknowledge that not all programs would care guaranteed to all in different locales. benefit from the same approach If we are one society, then the level of health care needed for all citizens should not vary in dif- (35) ferent areas because of political and economic contingencies. It is worth noting that food stamp programs and housing subsidies, also aimed at basic necessities, similarly are largely a federal responsibility. These are reasons for the federal (40) government having the obligation to guarantee access to health care. It could provide this care itself, or it could supply vouchers to be used in the health care marketplace. How access should be secured—and to what extent market (45) mechanisms ought to be utilized—is a separate question. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 226
  21. 21. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 9. According to the passage, the federal 12. It can be inferred from the passage that the government possesses all the following powers author considers the method in which health in regard to health care EXCEPT the power to care is guaranteed to people to be (A) raise the revenue to finance health care (A) an issue that may prevent agreement on expenditures the principle of securing health care for all (B) distribute the costs of health care fairly (B) a responsibility primarily of state and local among different parts of the country governments (C) ensure that people have access to health (C) an issue that is distinct from the care regardless of state and local guarantee of health care itself boundaries (D) dependent on variations in market (D) require businesses and charities to mechanisms among different locales assume a greater role in providing health (E) a practical problem that may never care to the needy satisfactorily be resolved (E) set comparable and reasonable standards for minimum acceptable levels of health 13. If the passage were to continue, the next topic care the author would logically discuss would most 10. The first paragraph serves primarily to likely be (A) corroborate a theory (A) the duty of private hospitals to provide free health care for the poor (B) advocate new research (B) the role of the federal government in (C) reconcile differing views establishing standards of health care (D) explain a procedure (C) various ways that the federal government (E) introduce an opinion could assure all citizens access to health care 11. Which of the following actions would be most (D) a plan for making health care the consistent with the “society-wide distributive responsibility of the individual states requirements” mentioned in lines 18–19? (E) the argument that access to health care (A) The revenue from a federal tax increase is should not be considered a basic human used in part to raise standards of health right care in less affluent regions and communities (B) The federal government consents to less stringent health care standards for less affluent communities (C) The federal government disavows legislation designating elementary health care as a public responsibility (D) A revenue shortfall caused by a federal tax cut is compensated for by an increase in state taxes (E) The federal government transfers allocated funds from its food stamp program to a program which guarantees health care GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 227
  22. 22. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S A theorist of modernization in underdevel- 14. The author’s primary concern in this passage is to oped countries has defined this process as one of passing from “traditional authority,” derived from (A) describe a Nigerian society long-standing custom and the authority of kinship (B) reveal a shortcoming in a theory (5) leaders, to “legal-rational authority,” based on (C) show how one form of authority gives way procedures specifically established for particular to another goals. No doubt this scheme works well enough in categorizing some societies, but how is one to (D) explain the interplay of colonialism and classify the Ibo society of southeastern Nigeria? In capitalism (10) precolonial Ibo society, village decisions were (E) prove that Ibo society is modern reached in general meetings, and formalized by striking the ground with an ofo, a staff possessed by the head of a kinship group. This might seem to 15. Which of the following can be inferred to be fit the theorist’s model; but the Ibo altered this consistent with the conception of “legal-rational (15) procedure whenever appropriate—for instance, if authority,” as defined in this passage? the senior kinship head forgot his ofo, any other I. A procedure is acceptable if it is not ofo could be used. The Ibo, too, freely revised any forbidden by law and is suited to a customary procedures in order to pursue trade—a specified purpose. flexibility that served them well in the new capital- (20) ist economy introduced by colonialism. If this II. A leader has unlimited authority within an theorist is to be consistent, he must concede that area determined by custom. the Ibo were “modern” before the first colonist III. A practice is correct if is one that has stepped ashore. always been used in the past. (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only (E) I and III only GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 228
  23. 23. READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE SETS 16. The author mentions the practice of substituting 18. The author implied that the categories used by one ofo for another as an example of the theorist of modernization would compel him to assert that precolonial Ibo society was (A) the fixity of custom in a traditional authority structure (A) not a valid example of “modern” authority (B) behavior that does not fit the typology of structures “traditional authority” (B) an example of a third type of society not (C) the ability of the theorist’s categorization previously analyzed to yield useful insights about society (C) dominated by established custom in (D) the Ibos’ ability to adapt to a commercial activities other than meetings and trade society (D) not suited to sociological analysis (E) the lack of a defined kinship structure in (E) not “traditional” Ibo society 17. The author would state that the categorization used by the theorist of modernization is (A) applicable in some cases (B) totally without merit (C) universally valid (D) incapable of being empirically tested (E) relevant only to societies that were never colonized ANSWERS ON THE NEXT PAGE STOP! END OF TEST 229
  24. 24. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S ANSWER KEY 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. B 6. A 7. E 8. B 9. D 10. E 11. A 12. C 13. C 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. A 18. E GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 230
  25. 25. READING COMPREHENSION EXPLANATIONS CHAPTER 22 READING COMPREHENSION EXPLANATIONS SET 1 Answer Key: 1. B 7. D 13. A 2. B 8. D 14. E 3. B 9. A 15. D 4. D 10. C 16. D 5. B 11. E 17. C 6. C 12. B 18. C PASSAGE 1—The Norton and Rhee Model 1. B Topic and Scope: A discussion of the relevance of for- The passage begins by posing the question of how mal economic models to real-world policy. The useful formal models are, and concludes by calling author uses the model applied to Korea by Norton Norton and Rhee’s model an example of the “pitfalls” and Rhee to show shortcomings of such models. of formalism. (B) captures this critical approach, though it misses the broader implications hinted at in Purpose and Main Idea: Author wants to reveal the the opening sentence. There’s nothing that indicates shortcomings of formal economic models. that Norton and Rhee’s method of analysis was “new” (A), nor is the author “proposing” it; on the other Paragraph Structure: Paragraph 1 describes the hand, she doesn’t propose any other approach. (C) is Norton and Rhee model. Paragraph 2 shows how the what the author is very skeptical about; certainly she results of the application contradict the general doesn’t “advocate” using such models. (D) is a mess. trends of real-world economic policy. N & R were not trying to explain Korean inflation as a whole, but to see how various economic factors would affect inflation; and the author is not even try- ing to do that, but to discuss N & R’s work. (E) is something the author does do, but it is incidental to the broader purpose of criticizing “formalism.” 313
  26. 26. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S 2. B finding. N & R contended that reduced exports The passage says that Norton and Rhee “achieved would increase inflation (AÑthe choice paraphrases some success in applying such a model retrospective- the “orthodox” view). And they argued that lower ly to the Korean economy over a fourteen-year peri- (not higher) exports would lower GDP (C)—no od.” In other words, the model is fairly effective in finding about higher exports is implied. Lastly, keep- analyzing past events, as (B) suggests. ing the long-term factors constant (E) does not mean that they don’t affect growth, simply that N & R were Since the “fourteen-year period” refers to the past, not examining their effects on growth. not the future, (A) is clearly wrong; in fact, one of the main points of the passage is that Norton and Rhee’s model is not particularly useful for predicting the future. Choices (C), (D), and (E) refer to matters discussed later in the passage. 3. B The whole passage is critical of Norton and Rhee, but the last sentence offers the only explicit criticism: their approach is “formalist” (or abstract) and lacks “policy relevance.” (B) paraphrases this criticism. The only economic factors specifically excluded from the model (A) are the long-term factors mentioned in the middle of paragraph 1; there is no suggestion that N & R should be criticized for this procedure. (C) is something that the model does do, since it is aimed at finding the effect of various factors on inflation. The “importance” of economic growth (D) is not dis- cussed at all and certainly not underestimated. (E) is contradicted by paragraph 1: these are exactly the fac- tors N & R did consider. 4. D The last paragraph calls N & R’s findings “startling,” and then cites other economists’ views on three points discussed in the preceding paragraph. The most surprising finding is the one “few” economists would agree with; the least surprising is the one “most” economists would agree with; and the one that “many” economists dispute lies somewhere in between. The finding “few” economists would agree with, that slower monetary growth is inflationary, is summarized in correct choice (D). (B) refers to the least controversial point, that rising oil costs are infla- tionary (N & R share the orthodox view on this ques- tion). Choices (A) and (C) refer to the “in between” finding, on the effects of reduced exports, and are wrong for this reason. In addition, they distort the 314
  27. 27. R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S PASSAGE 2—Ecology 6. C Topic and Scope: A basic scientific principle: This question asks about a detail from paragraph 2. “Population size is partly a reflection of available The cited sentence says that timing is crucial because food resources.” Specifically, author uses two experi- voles are short-lived and the timing of plant growth ments (one by Berger, one by Bryant) to illustrate is unpredictable. You can infer that the plant-rodent how changes in food supply can dramatically affect relationship increases the vole population at times the size of rodent populations. when food is more plentiful. The best restatement of this inference is (C). (A) goes the wrong way. 6- Purpose and Main Idea: Author wants to MBOA triggers breeding—it doesn’t discourage it. demonstrate that the relationship between (B), (D) and (E) are never mentioned anywhere. population and food supply “is more complex than formerly thought.” 7. D Paragraph Structure: In paragraph 1 the second The resinous shoots are discussed in the third para- sentence is key: “Recent experiments suggest that the graph. There, we are told that these shoots function relationship is more complex than formerly thought.” as part of “a phytochemical defense against the depre- You can guess from these words that the passage will go dations of snowshoe hares in Canada.” This means on to discuss these experiments. The next sentence that statement I is correct. We are also told the resins identifies the nature of the complexity—rodent in these shoots “discourage hare browsing,” and that browsing affects plant chemicals, which in turn affect hares avoid shoots artificially treated with these the rodents. Paragraph 2 details Berger’s experiment, resins. This means that statement III must also which studied how plant chemicals trigger appear in the correct answer. But the passage does not reproductive activity among voles. Paragraph 3 details say that increases in the hare population cause plants Bryant’s experiment, which studied the effect of plant to produce more resinous shoots, so statement II is chemicals on declining populations of snowshoe hares. not supported by the passage. Therefore, the answer Paragraph 4 discusses possible future research is (D). involving lemmings, another rodent with fluctuating populations. 8. D The lemmings are mentioned in the last paragraph, 5. B which speculates that lemmings might, like voles, be With a question like this, you need to check each affected by a plant trigger for breeding behavior. choice against the passage. A faster way to eliminate Some answer choices mention Berger and some men- choices is to remember that the right answer often fits tion Bryant. The lemmings are likened to voles, so with the main idea, here the food-population rela- Berger is the pertinent researcher here. This elimi- tionship. Thus, (A) is wrong because it ventures away nates (A) and (B). (E) conflicts with the main idea. from this. (B) looks excellent, because the author The author wants to prove something, not disprove devotes several lines at the end of paragraph 2 to it. explaining the importance of timing for vole repro- That leaves (C), supporting Berger’s specific findings, duction. (C) is simply never covered. (D) is wrong and (D), indicating whether Berger’s findings can be because the author discusses the significance of 6- generalized. The paragraph doesn’t talk about MBOA, but not its biologic mechanism. With (E), proving Berger’s specific results with the voles; those why the hares overpopulate is dismissed in the third are accepted as given. It does say that the lemmings, paragraph with the words “for reasons that are like voles, may be affected by a plant trigger. This unclear.” The answer is (B). implies (D), that Berger’s findings may be applicable to other animals. 315
  28. 28. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S 9. A PASSAGE 3—Civil Rights Law The answer to this global question has to focus on Topic and Scope: Unfair differences between something about the complex relationship between women’s and men’s wages; specifically, how to reme- food and population size, including the rodent exam- dy such pay inequities. ples; it should also encompass the entire passage. Thus, the best answer is (A). (B) is a detail appearing Purpose and Main Idea: The author argues that only in the second paragraph, while (E) appears only collective bargaining is a more desirable way of in paragraph 3. (C) is too general, and (D) mentions solving wage disparities than are government- a topic the author never covers. sponsored remedies such as civil rights laws. Paragraph Structure: Paragraph 1 cites the use of 10. C civil rights law for remedying women’s pay inequities, When you read about the hares, notice that Bryant’s but immediately jumps to the topic of collective conclusion is pure speculation. He sees that the hares bargaining, asserting that it’s a better alternative. A don’t eat resinous shoots, and concludes that this number of reasons are then given. Paragraph 2 “may play a role” in population decline. The assump- acknowledges that collective bargaining is not tion is that there’s a connection between not eating foolproof and explains why. Paragraph 3 confirms the the plants and a population reduction. Choice (C) author’s preference for collective bargaining. Note the corresponds: The avoidance of plants would lead to conclusion: while the author agrees with opponents starvation, and population decline. of “public remedies,” she also issues a warning: that (A), if true, would weaken, not strengthen, Bryant’s “the current system of wage determination” is far conclusion. (B) is irrelevant—the cause of the rise is from “perfectly healthy.” unknown and doesn’t concern Bryant; it’s the decline that interests him. (D) mixes up the hares with the 12. B voles and their breeding behavior. The hare Since “This” is the first word in the sentence, you have experiment has nothing to do with breeding and to check the previous sentence to determine its reproduction. Finally, (E) is never suggested. Bryant meaning. The previous sentence says that instead of concluded that the population decline was caused by invoking civil rights law, one could try to influence avoiding the shoots, not by eating them. the market so that women could address their own problems. The correct answer will paraphrase “influ- 11. E ence the market” (B). For this question, you need to eliminate each choice (A) and (E) appear after “This” and thus cannot be that was part of both experiments. Choice (A) was what the pronoun refers to. (C) mentions collective part of both—Berger measured how voles changed bargaining, but “changing its dynamic” is never breeding behavior and Bryant measured how hares discussed. (D) goes against the main idea, by favoring changed eating behavior. (B) also appears in both: use of civil rights law over collective bargaining. Berger measured the rise and fall of vole populations, while Bryant measured hare populations. (C) and (D) apply to both experiments, since both scientists 13. A fed the animals chemically treated foods and noted Figuring out where in the passage to look for an consumption. (E) is correct: Only Berger’s experi- answer is vital! For something that collective bargain- ment dealt with the effect of food on breeding behav- ing can’t do, you look at paragraph 2, which lists the ior. Bryant’s hare experiment dealt with the effect of shortcomings. There the author states that “the prod- food on eating behavior. uct market imposes serious economic constraints on a substantial closing of the wage gap,” which makes (A) correct. Choices (B), (C), (D) and (E) are identi- 316
  29. 29. R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S fied in paragraph 1 as things that collective bargain- Statements I and IV suggest that the author’s hostile ing can accomplish. to the opponents. The author generally agrees with them! The author takes issue with one point only. 14. E The bold and efficient approach here is to restate the 17. C main idea in your own words and then look for an Questions are sometimes consistent with each other! equivalent. Here, (E) is close to the idea we came up You examined the last paragraph in the previous with earlier: Collective bargaining isn’t perfect but it’s question, and found that the author agrees with the preferable to civil rights law for addressing women’s conclusion that public remedies are bad, but sharply labor issues. (E) “jumps out.” questions the assumption that the present system is fine just the way it is. (C) restates this latter point. The With the wrong answers, (A) offers a detail. (B) four wrong choices run counter to the author’s argu- distorts the passage—the author believes that ment—at no point does the author endorse any form government regulation is bad, but not that of government regulation or civil rights law. management should have unlimited power to set wages. (C) is a sweeping generalization—a negative sign in itself. Correct choices seldom use absolute 18. C words such as “all,” “never,” “always” and “every.” And As always, knowing where to look is crucial. The the passage explicitly states that unionization doesn’t answer to this question will appear in the first para- solve all problems. (D) runs counter to the author’s graph, which lists all the reasons collective bargaining attitude: The author never endorses any type of is good. Option I is implied at the end of the para- government remedy. graph with “sensitive to the limits.” Option II occurs at the beginning of the paragraph, which endorses self-help over civil rights law. Option III, however, is 15. D not found here. In fact, option III appears in the dis- The textile industry is mentioned in the course of the cussion of the weaknesses of collective bargaining in author’s admission that collective bargaining is not paragraph 2. “foolproof.” The passage says that “the concentration of women in low-paying industries” raises problems that are not easily resolved by collective bargaining. Thus, (D) is the best answer. Choice (A) is wrong, because the second paragraph is not where the author makes a case against government regulation. Choices (B) and (C) refer to mattes discussed earlier in the passage. And (E) contradicts the author’s argument. 16. D The answer to this question is in the last paragraph, where the author refers to the “opponents” of gov- ernment regulation. The author says that they aren’t right about everything, although they are right about the evils of government intervention. This confirms options II and III—the author is sympathetic, but disagrees with part of their argument. Since only (D) includes both II and III, it must be the correct answer. 317
  30. 30. READING COMPREHENSION EXPLANATIONS SET 2 Answer Key: 1. A 7. E 13. C 2. C 8. D 14. B 3. E 9. C 15. E 4. D 10. B 16. A 5. C 11. D 17. B 6. A 12. D 18. D PASSAGE 1—Debt Crisis 1. A Topic and Scope: The debt crisis; specifically, the As we’ve seen, the purpose of the passage as a whole causes of the debt crisis and the strategies for dealing is to state the causes of the debt crisis, and suggest with it. what can be done about it. Choice (A) best conveys this idea. The other answer choices focus on details: Purpose and Main Idea: The author’s purpose is to (B) refers to the first paragraph, (C) to the second, discuss both the causes of the debt crisis and the and (D) and (E) to the third. strategies for handling it. This is a descriptive passage, so there really isn’t a very focused main idea. The 2. C author does say, however, that debt relief is a better This roman numeral question poses three questions way to deal with the debt problem than current bank and asks which are answered in the passage. Question strategies. I is about a cause of the debt crisis, which is covered Paragraph Structure: The first paragraph lists the in the first sentence of the passage. The question asks causes of the debt crisis and goes on to amplify the about management errors by developing countries, third cause, rising interest rates. The second and the passage lists “imprudent management.” Since paragraph outlines bank strategies for dealing with the passage answers question I, (B) and (D) can be the debt crisis in the 1980s. The third paragraph eliminated. Question II asks if anything is currently contrasts current bank strategies with debt relief, being done about the debt crisis. This question is arguing that the latter is a more effective approach to answered in the last paragraph, which discusses cur- the debt problem. rent bank strategies. So you can eliminate (A), too. 319
  31. 31. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S Finally, question III asks how taxpayers in lending the third paragraph, which says that the economies of countries feel about debt relief. In the last sentence of developing countries are being damaged in order to the passage, the author says debt relief can be accom- profit the banks and their shareholders. That leaves plished without burdening taxpayers, but never (C) as the correct answer. Indeed, not only is (C) not addresses the attitudes of the taxpayers themselves. cited as a contributing factor to the current debt cri- Because the passage does not answer question III, you sis, but it is contradicted by information in the pas- can eliminate (E). Since the passage answers ques- sage as well. tions I and II, but not III, the correct answer is (C). Keep in mind that it’s usually possible to use option 6. A combinations in the answer choices to eliminate For a “continuation” question, you need to look at incorrect choices. where the passage leaves off and pick an answer con- sistent with that issue. In this passage, the author fin- 3. E ishes by talking about debt relief. If the passage were This question asks about bank responses to the debt to continue, it would take up the issue of debt relief. crisis in the 1980s, the subject of the second para- That makes (A) the correct answer. (B) is not logical graph. This paragraph says that banks curtailed their because the last sentence is about debt relief itself: lending until they had sufficient reserves. (E) is a nice The author wouldn’t suddenly take up the issue of paraphrase of this information. (B) and (C) are au alternatives to debt relief. (C), (D), and (E) play on contraire choices. (A) and (D) bring up issues not issues brought up earlier in the passage. dealt with in the second paragraph. 4. D The key to most passages is not so much an overall comprehension of their content, but rather knowing where in them to look for information. In this pas- sage, the author’s opinion appears in the last few sen- tences, where he states that current approaches to the debt crisis are inadequate because debt service pre- vents long-term economic growth in developing countries. A good paraphrase of this notion appears in (D). (A) and (C) distort information in the passage and, moreover, relate to the first paragraph rather than the third, which is the one you’re interested in here. (B) and (E) contradict the passage. 5. C Since this is an “all/EXCEPT” question, you’re look- ing for the choice that is not contributing to the cur- rent debt crisis. Begin by consulting the first para- graph because it lists the causes of the debt crisis. The author mentions high interest rates, imprudent lend- ing, and no relief from inflation as causes of the cri- sis. Therefore, you can eliminate (B), (D), and (E). (A), self-interested commercial banks, comes up in 320
  32. 32. R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N E X P L A N AT I O N S PASSAGE 2—Desert Plants thus clearly suggested. The third option, however, is Topic and Scope: Desert plant adaptations and how an unjustified inference. Nothing at all is stated to aid in these plants’ survival. link the functioning of guard cells to sudden down- pours. Purpose and Main Idea: The author is trying to describe the physiological traits that desert plants 9. C have adapted in order to survive in arid conditions. The stem is looking for the weather-related condition Paragraph Structure: The first paragraph describes that would especially benefit plants with shallow root some general adaptations. The second paragraph systems. Shallow root systems are mentioned up in discusses adaptations based on the principle that a the second sentence, and the point is that these spe- large surface area facilitates water and gas exchange. cially adapted roots allow desert plants to take advan- tage of heavy, irregular flows of water. One example would be a very heavy, torrential downpour. The only 7. E choice that comes close to this is a flash flood. Flash The whole passage focuses on structural and behav- floods result from unexpected, torrential rainfall. (A) ioral adaptations that desert plants have made in and (B) are impossible; neither drought nor wind- order to survive. While the word “genetic” is used storms involve water. (D won’t work because a light only once (in the last sentence of paragraph 1), it’s rain doesn’t fit with the idea of a large, sudden quan- clear that many of these modifications are genetic. tity of water. (E), finally, is pretty impossible , too. Spines and thorns, which are identified in the second First, this choice doesn’t suggest a heavy, intermittent paragraph as modified leaves and branches, are infer- snowfall, and second, nothing is said in the passage to ably among these genetic adaptations. In the last sen- suggest snow would be of special benefit to shallow tence, it’s further stated that they protect against pre- rooted plants. dation (I) and also that they help minimize water loss (II). Option III is confirmed in the third sentence of the second paragraph: most of a desert plant’s food is 10. B produced in its stem, not in its leaves, so it’s pretty The second paragraph contains several examples of clear that spines and thorns (again, modified leaves structures that in desert plants perform different and branches) have little or nothing to do with food functions than those they normally perform in plants production. in other environments. Spines and thorns in desert plants are modified leaves and branches, to reduce water loss. And as a result of their lack of normal 8. D leaves, most desert plants produce their food in their Like question 7, this is another detail question, this green, fleshy stems. As for the wrong choices, three of time focusing on the functioning of guard cells, men- them—(A), (D), and (E)—simply can’t be answered. tioned in the sentence that concludes paragraph 1. There’s no information to support any of these state- This sentence discusses two closely related plant fea- ments. Finally, in choice (C), while the passage does tures: the stomata and the guard cells. You read first indicate that a small leaf surface area is a critical fac- that daytime closing of the stomata is an adaptation tor for desert plants, nothing suggests that leaf sur- that helps to minimize daytime water loss. The sec- face area isn’t critical for plants in most other envi- ond half of the sentence clearly implies that it’s the ronments. Since the general principle is that a large guard cells that control this opening and closing of surface area facilitates gas and water exchange one the stomata. So, the guard cells force the stomata to can infer that the larger leaf surface area of other close during the day, to minimize water loss, and then plants helps in this process. they later cause the stomata to open, when conditions for gas exchange between the plant and its environ- ment are more favorable. The first two options are 321
  33. 33. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S 11. D PASSAGE 3—Migration We are told in the second paragraph that most desert Topic and Scope: The great migration; specifically, plants produce food in their stems, not their leaves. how the migration experience transformed the social Therefore, (D) is the correct answer: it names some- thought of European intellectuals who came to thing that’s not mentioned in the passage. Choices America, especially Tillich. (A), (B), and (C) are mentioned in the first para- graph, and (E) is mentioned in the second paragraph. Purpose and Main Idea: The author’s purpose is to describe the changes in the social thought of 12. D European intellectuals who immigrated to America, The passage mentions several different adaptations using Tillich as an example. The main idea is simply and the purpose of each. The creosote bush produces that, as a consequence of the migration experience, a toxin which prohibits competing root systems from European thinkers in America transformed their intruding on its space, therefore protecting its access ideas to have more relevance to “real world” issues. to water. Guard cells function to “minimize daytime Paragraph Structure: The first paragraph introduces water loss.” The second paragraph starts by talking the topic and scope of the passage. The second about adaptations which facilitate gas and water paragraph describes in general terms how the social exchange. Spines and thorns are adaptations which thought of European intellectuals was transformed. protect against predators. There is no mention of any And the third paragraph provides a specific example adaptation shielding plants from the heat, so (D) of this transformation by describing the case of must be the answer. Tillich. 13. C To answer this question, it’s important to realize that the author’s purpose is to discuss the transformation of social thought that resulted from the great migra- tion. Tillich is merely an example of how this trans- formation manifested itself among European emi- grés; he is not the primary focus of the passage. Therefore, (B), which places emphasis on Tillich, is out. (A) and (D) fail to mention “social thought.” (D) mentions only “thought,” not “social thought.” Finally, (E) gets in the idea of social thought but leaves out the migration experience. (C), which includes the important elements of the author’s pur- pose—the effects of the great migration on social thought—is correct. 14 B Hughes is mentioned in the first paragraph as the author of a book that says something about European expatriates in the United States. He’s also cited in the third paragraph in the course of analysis of Tillich’s thought. In other words, Hughes is cited as a source of information, as (B) suggests. 322

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