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# Pl sql

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### Pl sql

1. 1. More Advanced PL/SQL Programming
2. 2. Lesson B Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Create PL/SQL decision control structures • Use SQL queries in PL/SQL programs • Create loops in PL/SQL programs • Create PL/SQL tables and tables of records • Use cursors to retrieve database data into PL/SQL programs • Use the exception section to handle errors in PL/SQL programs 2
3. 3. IF/THEN • • • Decision control structures – Alter order in which statements execute – Based on values of certain variables Syntax: IF condition THEN commands that execute if condition is TRUE; END IF; Condition – Expression evaluates to TRUE or FALSE – If TRUE commands execute 3
4. 4. • Question: What two lines do you need to change to make the program display Today is not Friday when the current day is different than Friday? 4
5. 5. • Syntax: IF/THEN/ELSE IF condition THEN commands that execute if condition is TRUE; ELSE commands that execute if condition is FALSE; END IF; • Evaluates ELSE command if condition FALSE Nested IF/THEN/ELSE • Placing one or more IF/THEN/ELSE statements within program statements that execute after IF or ELSE command • Important to properly indent program lines 5
6. 6. IF/THEN/ELSE
7. 7. Nested IF/THEN/ELSE
8. 8. IF/ELSIF 8
9. 9. Logical Operators AND, OR, and NOT • Create complex expressions for decision control structure condition • AND: Expressions on both sides of operator must be true for combined expression to be TRUE • OR: Expressions on either side of operator must be true for combined expression to be TRUE • Order of evaluation (precedence): – NOT – AND – OR • Parentheses can be used to override precedence and force the program to evaluate the OR first 9
10. 10. Using SQL Queries in PL/SQL Programs • Use SQL action query – Put query or command in PL/SQL program – Use same syntax as the syntax used to execute query or command in SQL*Plus – Can use variables instead of literal values like ‘Tammy’ • To specify data values INSERT INTO Student (s_first) VALUES (curr_first_name); WHERE s_first = curr_first_name; 10
11. 11. Changing the values one by one and adding them to the table requires a lot of coding. What is the best way of handling this kind of repetitive job in programming?
12. 12. Loops • Systematically executes program statements • Periodically evaluates exit condition to determine if loop should repeat or exit • Pretest loop – Evaluates exit condition before any program commands execute • Posttest loop – Executes program commands before loop evaluates exit condition for first time • PL/SQL has 5 types of loop structures: – LOOP…EXIT - WHILE…LOOP – LOOP…EXIT WHEN - Numeric FOR loop – Cursor FOR loop 12
13. 13. The LOOP...EXIT Loop SQL statement CREATE TABLE count_table (counter NUMBER(2)); • Pretest or posttest • Syntax: Syntax LOOP [program statements] IF condition THEN EXIT; END IF; [additional program statements] END LOOP;
14. 14. The LOOP...EXIT WHEN Loop Syntax (posttest loop) LOOP program statements EXIT WHEN condition; END LOOP;
15. 15. The WHILE...LOOP Syntax • WHILE…LOOP is a Pretest loop Q: Why the SELECT * FROM count_table shows only counter 6 to 10? WHILE condition LOOP program statements END LOOP;
16. 16. The Numeric FOR Loop • Does not require explicit counter increment Syntax FOR counter_variable IN start_value .. end_value LOOP program statements END LOOP;
17. 17. Cursor • A pointer to memory location on database server • Used to: – Retrieve and manipulate database data in PL/SQL programs • Types: – Implicit cursor – Explicit cursor
18. 18. Implicit Cursors • Context area – A memory location created by INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or SELECT – Contains information about query (# rows, etc.) • Active set – Set of data rows that query retrieves when a SELECT query is issued • Implicit cursor – A pointer to the context area – Called so, because you do not need to write code to explicitly create the cursor or retrieve its values – Used to assign output of SELECT query to PL/SQL program variables when query will return only one record* * Error occurs if query returns no records or more than one record
19. 19. Implicit Cursors (continued) • To retrieve data using implicit cursor in PL/SQL, you add an INTO clause to the SELECT query • Syntax: SELECT field1, field2, ... INTO variable1, variable2, ... FROM table1, table2, ... WHERE join_conditions AND search_condition_to_retrieve_1_record; • Variables must be declared in Declaration section • Variables must have same data types as fields • To avoid errors, %TYPE reference data type should be used
20. 20. Implicit Cursors (continued)
21. 21. Explicit Cursors • Retrieve and display data in PL/SQL programs for query that might – Retrieve multiple records – Return no records at all • Must explicitly write the code to – – – – Declare cursor Open cursor Fetch data rows Close cursor
22. 22. Explicit Cursors (continued) • Declare explicit cursor syntax: – CURSOR cursor_name IS select_query; • Open explicit cursor syntax: – OPEN cursor_name; • Fetch values using LOOP…EXIT WHEN loop: LOOP FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_name(s); EXIT WHEN cursor_name%NOTFOUND; • Close cursor syntax: – CLOSE cursor_name; Note: When the cursor is declared, system doesn’t check syntax error in the query. It creates the memory structure to store the active set. The PL/SQL interpreter checks for error and interprets the query when opening the cursor
23. 23. Q: At this point, what is the value for current_bldg_code?
24. 24. • Using %ROWTYPE variable to display explicit cursor values Using a cursor and a single variable to retrieve multiple fields values
25. 25. Handling Runtime Errors in PL/SQL Programs • Runtime errors – Occur when an exception (unwanted event) is raised – Cause program to fail during execution • Possible causes (exceptions): – Division by zero – Constraint violation - inserting incompatible data - retrieving 0/several rows with implicit cursor • Exception handling – Programmers place commands in EXCEPTION section • Handle exception options – Correct error without notifying user of problem – Inform user of error without taking corrective action • After exception handler executes – Program ends DECLARE variable declarations BEGIN program statements EXCEPTION error-handling statements END;
26. 26. • Handling error procedure depends the type of exception: – Predefined exception – User-defined exception - undefined exception
27. 27. Predefined Exceptions • Most common errors that occur in programs • PL/SQL language: – Assigns exception name – Provides built-in exception handler for each predefined exception • System automatically displays error message informing user of nature of problem
28. 28. Exception Handler Syntax • Can create exception handlers to display alternate error messages
29. 29. Using the WHEN OTHERS exception • • The SQLERRM built-in function is used to handle other exception To use the SQLERRM function, you must – Declare a VARCHAR2 variable – Assign the declared variable the error’s text and code
30. 30. Undefined Exceptions • Less common errors • Do not have predefined names • Must explicitly declare exception in program’s declaration section • Associate new exception with specific Oracle error code • Create exception handler in exception section – Using same syntax as for predefined exceptions
31. 31. Example of undefined exception Loc_id 60 doesn’t exist in LOCATION • The ORA-02291 exception is not predefined. • Need to explicitly declare the exception and write a handler
32. 32. User-defined Exceptions • Used to handle an exception that – Does not raise Oracle runtime error – But requires exception handling to • Enforce business rules or • Ensure integrity of database • Example: – Internal Northwoods’ rule is “Users can delete row from the ENROLLMENT table only if s_grade is NULL” – Trying to delete a delete an ENROLLMENT row where the s_grade is not NULL will raise an exception that needs to be handled