Scientific Method – a logical approach to solving problems byobserving and collecting data, formulating and testing hypotheses ,forming theories that are supported by data, then communicating these
Observing – qualitative orquantitative data in a system
Qualitative DataObservable, non-measurable informationEx. Windex is blue
Quantitative Data Measurable, numerical informationEx. the candle is 6.55 cm tall
System-an environment inwhich observations are madeEx. this classroom or a test tube
Hypothesis – a generalizationthat is to be tested
Theory –is a logical explanationfordescribing the behaviorofnatural phenomena.It originates from or issupported byexperimental evidence.
Models – diagrams, equations, or representationsthat help explain a theory
Law – generalization that describesphenomena (does not explain)
Alchemy – responsible for the tools and techniques needed for working with chemicals both mystical and practical.The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C.
An Experimental ApproachIn the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science“Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge” was responsible for this shift.Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence
LavoisierIn the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurementHe settled on long-standing debate about burning, which was…Oxygen was required!
OK, Now a Review…The Scientific MethodA logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.Starts with observation- noting and recording information and factsHypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment
Steps in the Scientific Method1. Observations (uses your senses) a) quantitative involves numbers = 95oF b) qualitative is word description = hot2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) - a testable statement3. Performing experiments (the test) - gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid
Scientific Method “Controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis We gather data and observations by doing the experiment Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle
Outcomes over the long term…Theory (Model) - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be provedNatural Law (or Scientific Law) - The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results - an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass
Law vs. TheoryA law summarizes what has happened.A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.
- Page 22Using your senses to The procedure that is used toobtain information test the hypothesisHypothesis is a proposed Tells what happenedexplanation; should bebased on previous A well-tested explanation for theknowledge; an “educated” observations; cannot be provenguess due to new discoveries
Collaboration / CommunicationWhen scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.