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Scientific Method


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Scientific Method

  1. 1. TheScientific Method
  2. 2. Scientific Method – a logical approach to solving problems byobserving and collecting data, formulating and testing hypotheses ,forming theories that are supported by data, then communicating these
  3. 3. Observing – qualitative orquantitative data in a system
  4. 4. Qualitative DataObservable, non-measurable informationEx. Windex is blue
  5. 5. Quantitative Data Measurable, numerical informationEx. the candle is 6.55 cm tall
  6. 6. System-an environment inwhich observations are madeEx. this classroom or a test tube
  7. 7. Hypothesis – a generalizationthat is to be tested
  8. 8. Theory –is a logical explanationfordescribing the behaviorofnatural phenomena.It originates from or issupported byexperimental evidence.
  9. 9. Models – diagrams, equations, or representationsthat help explain a theory
  10. 10. Law – generalization that describesphenomena (does not explain)
  11. 11. Alchemy – responsible for the tools and techniques needed for working with chemicals both mystical and practical.The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C.
  12. 12. An Experimental ApproachIn the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science“Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge” was responsible for this shift.Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence
  13. 13. LavoisierIn the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurementHe settled on long-standing debate about burning, which was…Oxygen was required!
  14. 14. OK, Now a Review…The Scientific MethodA logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.Starts with observation- noting and recording information and factsHypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment
  15. 15. Steps in the Scientific Method1. Observations (uses your senses) a) quantitative involves numbers = 95oF b) qualitative is word description = hot2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) - a testable statement3. Performing experiments (the test) - gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid
  16. 16. Scientific Method “Controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis We gather data and observations by doing the experiment Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle
  17. 17. Outcomes over the long term…Theory (Model) - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be provedNatural Law (or Scientific Law) - The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results - an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass
  18. 18. Law vs. TheoryA law summarizes what has happened.A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.
  19. 19. - Page 22Using your senses to The procedure that is used toobtain information test the hypothesisHypothesis is a proposed Tells what happenedexplanation; should bebased on previous A well-tested explanation for theknowledge; an “educated” observations; cannot be provenguess due to new discoveries
  20. 20. Collaboration / CommunicationWhen scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.