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Platinum

Manufacturing platinum, properties, uses and applications

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Platinum

  1. 1. 1 PURE PLATINUM
  2. 2. Mined in Russia and South Africa, it was first used in decorative applications in ancient Egypt more than 3,000 years ago. Preferred for its remarkable strength and longevity, the metal was used to adorn Egyptian coffins. HISTORY OF PLATINUM
  3. 3.  The South American Indians also made use of platinum to decorate their artifacts. With the Spanish conquest of South America, the metal's value was diminished, as the Spanish people considered it to be far inferior to silver.  It wasn't until the 1800s that platinum began to reclaim its original status as a precious and treasured metal.  Today, it's regarded as the premier choice for the setting of fine diamonds and other gemstones. HISTORY OF PLATINUM
  4. 4. ATOMIC SYMBOL Pt APPEARANCE Silvery white ELEMENT CATEGORY Transition metal ATOMIC WEIGHT 195.084 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION [Xe]4f14 5d9 6s1 GROUP,BLOCK Group10,d-block PERIOD Period 6 GENERAL PROPERTIES
  5. 5. PHASE SOLID MELTING POINT 2041.4 K (1768.3 °C, 3214.9 °F) BOILING POINT 4098 K (3825 °C, 6917 °F) DENSITY 21.45g/cm3 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE FCC PHYSICAL AND ATOMIC PROPERTIES
  6. 6. Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal. Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  7. 7. Platinum reacts with oxygen slowly at very high temperatures. The most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6): Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → H2PtCl6 + CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
  8. 8. As a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent. Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewelry. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
  9. 9. The reason why platinum is today the most valuable of precious metals is because it is required in so many industrial applications. It is estimated that one-fifth of everything we use either contains platinum or requires platinum in its manufacture. Among all the known modern uses of platinum, most of the annual production is consumed by two dominant categories - catalytic converters and fine jewelry. Together, these two applications consume more than 70% of the world's supply of platinum. USES AND APPLICATIONS
  10. 10. AUTOCATALYSTS The best known use of platinum is in the catalytic converter that is part of the exhaust system in the automobile.
  11. 11.  Platinum is now regarded as more prestigious than gold. Its rarity, hypoallergenic and tarnish resistant properties and its ability to repeatedly be heated and cooled without permanent hardening makes platinum the ideal choice for creating the finest of jewelry. Many diamond engagement rings are now fashioned out of platinum because its luster makes it far superior to gold in bringing out the brilliance of diamonds. JEWELRY
  12. 12.  Fuel cells generate electrical power using hydrogen and oxygen as fuel. The most common type of fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which contains platinum catalysts. Besides being used to power automobiles, PEM fuel cells can also be used in power generation for buildings, instead of batteries or generators in portable equipment. FUEL CELLS
  13. 13.  Platinum's excellent catalytic properties also extend to another important industry - the petroleum industry. Platinum mesh or gauze is used in cracking processes in oil refineries. Platinum catalysts play a critical role in extracting gasoline from crude oil and for making high octane fuels. PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
  14. 14. The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. Platinum is also used in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds. PtO2, also known as Adams' catalyst, is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. Platinum also strongly catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. CATALYST
  15. 15. Demand for platinum mainly comes from the autocatalyst industry followed by Jewelry, glass, electronics, petroleum and other industries. GLOBAL DEMAND
  16. 16.  India is the 4th largest consumer of Platinum jewelry in the world.  India’s consumption of platinum in 2008-09 was around 932kgs, which saw a huge rise to around 1200kgs in 2009-10.  Pure platinum costs approximately INR 2,074.56 per gram. INDIAN PLATINUM MARKET
  17. 17. INDIA’S CONSUMPTION (2008)
  18. 18.  Exports and Imports are done with Platinum mostly in the form of 7110 - Platinum, unwrought or in semi- manufactured form, or in powder form.  Pt is exported for spare parts of machinery for textile industry and Winding machine.  Majorly through airways to Israel, Spain, United Kingdom and USA. PLATINUM EXPORTS
  19. 19.  India imports platinum from South Africa, China and United Kingdom through sea and from Belgium, Thailand, Germany, Singapore and Netherlands through air.  Major quantity of Platinum is imported from South Africa. PLATINUM IMPORTS
  20. 20. 1. Anglo Platinum - 2,378,600 ozs (SA and Zimbabwe) 1. Impala Platinum - 1,582,000 ozs (SA and Zimbabwe) 1. Lonmin plc - 687,372 ozs (North SA) 1. Norilsk Nickel - 683,000 ozs (Russia, Botswana and SA) 1. Aquarius Platinum Ltd. - 418,461 ozs (SA and Zimbabwe) 5 BIGGEST PLATINUM PRODUCERS IN THE WORLD
  21. 21.  Platinum is always found alongside other PGMs.  Platinum and PGM ores are found in Canada, South Africa, Russia, and the United States.  In South Africa's Bushveld complex and a limited number of other ore bodies, PGMs occur in sufficient quantities.  In Russia's Norilsk and Canada's Sudbury deposits platinum and other PGMs are extracted as by- products of Ni and Cu. WHERE TO FIND PLATINUM?
  22. 22. MINE PRODUCTION OF PGM
  23. 23. PROCESS: EXTRACTION OF PLATINUM
  24. 24.  Most common minerals containing Platinum-group elements are: 1. Sulfides: Braggite (Pt,Pd)S, Cooperite- PtS, Laurite, Ru and unnamed Pt, Rh, Cu and S minerals 2. Pt-Fe Metallics: Isoferroplatinum, Pt3Fe, Tetraferroplatinum, PtFe 3. Arsenides: PtAs2 (Sperrylite) 4. Tellurides: PtTe2 PLATINUM GROUP METALS
  25. 25.  Extracting Platinum from these ores is arguably one of the most capital and labor intensive operations in the world.  On average, it takes up to six months and up to 12 tonnes of ore to produce 31.135 grams of pure Platinum.  However, in mining using 4.5 tonnes of ore to produce one gram of platinum would not be considered abnormal. PLATINUM
  26. 26.  The extraction process before a mine is even opened the potential site is explored and assessed for viability, in other words, is it profitable to extract the metal from the ore.  Assuming that this process demonstrates the commercial viability the mining operation is established, the actual process can begin. PLATINUM
  27. 27. 1. Gravity Separation 1. Froth Floatation 1. Drying and Purification 1. Electrolysis MAJOR STEPS FOR EXTRACTION
  28. 28. Crusher and Mill Froth Flotation Electric Furnace for Drying and Purification (1500oC) Pt containing ores: Sperrylite and Cooperite Air Crushed solid ore Water and other reagents Air Fe and S Impurities Pt particles Fe and Ni Impurities Agitator Electrolytic Cell Fine powder (<1% Pt) Conc. HCl and HNO3 Ni, Co, Cu From the solution Aqua Regia (Dissolved Pt) Sent for burning to remove other Impurities and pure Pt (97%) is obtained
  29. 29. FURTHER PURIFICATION OF PLATINUM 92-97% TO 99.99%
  30. 30. 1. Redissolution: 1. pH8 Precipitation: 1. Dimethylglyoxime precipitation: 1. Ammonium Chloride precipitation: 1. Reduction: STEPS
  31. 31.  The increased use of Knelson density separators instead of gravity separators.  The use of Nitrogen instead of air in the flotation cells improving metal recoveries.  The oxidative pressure leaching of concentrates to efficiently recover the contained PGMs at high concentration in the residue. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
  32. 32.  Platinum as a metal is not very dangerous, but platinum salts can cause several health effects, such as: 1. DNA alterations 2. Cancer 3. Allergic reactions of the skin and the mucous membrane 4. Damage to organs, such as intestines, kidneys and bone marrow 5. Hearing damage  Finally, a danger of platinum is that it can cause potentiation of the toxicity of other dangerous chemicals in the human body, such as selenium. HEALTH EFFECTS OF PLATINUM
  33. 33.  Platinum is emitted into the air through the exhausts of cars that use leaded gasoline.  Consequently, platinum levels in air may be higher on certain locations, for instance in garages, in tunnels and on terrains of trucking companies.  Micro-organisms may be able to convert platinum substances to more dangerous substances in soils, but on this subject we also have little information. ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS OF PLATINUM
  34. 34.  Books: 1. Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals By Frank Crundwell, Michael Moats, Venkoba Ramachandran, Timothy Robinson, W. G. Davenport 2. Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings edited by Andrew L. Mular, Doug N. Halbe, Derek John Barratt BIBLIOGRAPHY
  35. 35.  Links: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/platinum.aspx http://www.canplats.ca/html/Investor_Information/About _Platinum/index.cfm http://metals.about.com/od/properties/a/Platinum- Production.htm http://metals.about.com/od/Top-10-Producers/tp/The-10- Biggest-Platinum-Producers.htm http://www.mcxindia.com/SitePages/ContractSpecification .aspx?ProductCode=PLATINUM http://www.mcxindia.com//Uploads/Products/238/Englis h_Platinum.pdf BIBLIOGRAPHY
  36. 36. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/L- P/Platinum.html#ixzz3rf7hv0tS http://www.stillwatermining.com/operation/mining.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stillwater_Mining_Company http://ebullionguide.com/platinum-uses.aspx http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/78/platinum http://www.platinum.matthey.com/about- pgm/applications/jewellery#sthash.2fZNUIXh.dpuf BIBLIOGRAPHY
  37. 37. THANK YOU 

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Manufacturing platinum, properties, uses and applications

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