Digital landscapes and Archaeology (Peter Rauxloh)

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Digital landscapes and Archaeology (Peter Rauxloh)

  1. 1. Digital landscapes and ArchaeologyPeter RauxlohMuseum of London Archaeologywww.mola.org.ukprauxloh@mola.org.uk
  2. 2. Improving data capture
  3. 3. Improving data capture
  4. 4. Dissemination of data
  5. 5. Dissemination of data
  6. 6. Improving data capture
  7. 7. Improving data capture
  8. 8. Improving data capture
  9. 9. New data capture – Remote sensing
  10. 10. New data capture – Remote sensing
  11. 11. New data capture – Remote sensing
  12. 12. New data capture – Remote sensing
  13. 13. New data capture – Remote sensing
  14. 14. New data capture – Terrestrial
  15. 15. New data capture – Close range
  16. 16. New data capture – Hydrological
  17. 17. Spitalfields Medieval Cemetery
  18. 18. On site data capture
  19. 19. On site data capture
  20. 20. Derived  data capture$
  21. 21. Points and attributes
  22. 22. Alignments and  outlines $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$
  23. 23. Alignments and  outlines $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$
  24. 24. Alignments and  outlines
  25. 25. Alignments and  outlines
  26. 26. Alignments and  outlines
  27. 27. Phasing and structure – a view on stratigraphy
  28. 28. Phasing and structure – a view on stratigraphy
  29. 29. Relative meets absolute
  30. 30. Relative meets absolute
  31. 31. GIS for a truncated landscape• 1920’s toilet centre upper incemetery• Large basement area on eastside of site,• Drainage dividing ditch betweenmain body of cemetery and churchin period 17• Civil war ditch leading up tocharnel house from south.• Catastrophic burial from laterperiods
  32. 32. Quantifying visibility17 1615 14
  33. 33. Quantifying visibility
  34. 34. Truncation and population extrapolation Quantifying visibility 60.0 56.8 54.0 50.0 45.5 40.0 30.0 26.7 20.0 10.0 0.0 14-1100-1200 15 1200-1250 16 1250-1400 17 1400-1538 %of cemetery truncated by area Cemetery Truncated Found Est total Period length Visible area area area Period 14 1100-1200 900 3000 100 4612 2621 1991 Period 15 1200-1250 2839 5600 50 4701 2538 2163 Period 16 1250-1400 5480 7900 150 5687 2587 3100 Period 17 1400-1538 1009 1350 138 2923 780 2143
  35. 35. Investigating a sacred landscapeSpatial targets, what was happening around these target? • Charnel house appears in period 1320s • The Pulpit cross – 1390s • Relationships to the south-east end of church period X • Cannon’s infirmary period X • Cemetery changing boundary
  36. 36. Famine disease and distance Catasrophic burial points 
  37. 37. Data as a surface 
  38. 38. Consecrated ground & buffer queries Boundary proximity & burial type breakdown as % 80 70 60 50 Within 3m of boundary 40 Background 30 20 10 0 A B C Boundary proximity & agecode breakdown as % 35 30 25 20 Within 3m of boundary 15 Background 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Boundary proximity & sex breakdown as % 45 40 35 30 25 Within 3m of boundary 20 Background 15 10 5 0 F M N/U
  39. 39. Age at death period 17 Age at Death P 17 
  40. 40. Buffered subsets 
  41. 41. Buffered subsets 35302520151050 Pre-natal 7-11 1-5 years 6-11 12-17 18-25 26-35 36-45 46 or months years years years years years more Within 3m of monuments >3m From monuments
  42. 42. MOLA Products• An articulated version of Rocque 1746 central London map  georeferenced to both OSGB36 and WGS84 CS• A point dataset of each combination of Parish, Ward and street/place  identifiable on the map.• A replicable methodology Challenges • Accuracy of the map – Stability of Media used – Survey technique used • How to minimise the amount of new data entry • QA of data sets  • How to exploit the first accurate mapping of the area 
  43. 43. Principles• Grounding the GIS work in a geographical reality• Exploiting / re‐purposing existing resources• Creating data sets that required editing rather than  re‐building to be appropriate to early or later  mapping
  44. 44. The Old Bailey on line 
  45. 45. The Old Bailey on line
  46. 46. Putting the map together
  47. 47. Putting the map together
  48. 48. Putting the map together
  49. 49. Putting the map together
  50. 50. Putting the map in the right place
  51. 51. Putting the map in the right place
  52. 52. Putting the map in the right place
  53. 53. Putting the map in the right place62% churches
  54. 54. Identifying places on the mapThe geographical ‘reality’
  55. 55. Identifying places on the map
  56. 56. Identifying places on the map Main thoroughfare ‐ outsized e.g. Holborn, Cheapside typically 20m width.  This code is also to be used for 1 those roads that run around squares and similar entities.  2 Main thoroughfare ‐ standard width (c.15m)3 Secondary thoroughfare ‐ standard width (c.10m)4 Tertiary thoroughfare ‐ standard width (c.6m)5 Alley way  ‐ i.e. a narrow route running between two streets or street and place polygon (1‐2m) Cul‐de‐sac plus area ‐ i.e. a dead end but one which opens out into a court.  The wider area is captured as a 6 polygon and will be amalgamated with class 6 streets  (typically c.2m but up to 10 for a Mews)7 Cul‐de‐sac ‐ i.e. a simple dead‐end. (c.2m but up to 10 for a Mews)
  57. 57. Identifying places on the mapHierarchies of streets
  58. 58. Identifying places on the mapPlaces and precincts
  59. 59. Identifying places on the mapA Traversable network
  60. 60. Identifying places on the mapA Traversable network
  61. 61. Identifying places on the mapThe Holborn viaduct dilemma
  62. 62. Identifying places on the mapThe Holborn viaduct dilemma
  63. 63. Identifying places on the mapLine-polygon-buffer
  64. 64. Identifying places on the mapHierarchical clipping
  65. 65. Identifying places on the map
  66. 66. Naming placesExisting data referenced + cleaned
  67. 67. Generating comprehensive  data
  68. 68. Generating comprehensive  data
  69. 69. Generating comprehensive  data
  70. 70. Generating comprehensive  data
  71. 71. Filename Contents Count TypeLL_PL Places 5887 PolygonsLL_PL_POINTS Places 5887 PointsLL_PA Parishes 191 PolygonsLL_PA_POINTS Parishes 191 PointsLL_WA Wards 99 PolygonsLL_WA_POINTS Wards 99 PointsLL_PL_PA 7,121 PolygonsLL_PL_PA_POINTS Places and Parishes 7,016 PointsLL_PL_WA Places and Wards 6,711 PolygonsLL_PL_WA_POINTS Places and Wards 6,711 PointsLL_PL_PA_WA Places and parishes and wards 7,847 PolygonsLL_PL_PA_WA_POINTS Places and parishes and wards 7,847 PointsLL_PA_WA Parishes and wards 555 PolygonsLL_PA_WA_POINTS Parishes and wards 555 PointsLL_STREET_NETWORK Street network Lines
  72. 72. Ode to a Spell Checker I have a spelling checker I disk covered four my PC. It plane lee marks four my revue Miss steaks aye can knot see. Eye ran this poem threw it. Your sure real glad two no. Its very polished in its weigh, My checker tolled me sew• People are subjective observers• Computers are subjective‘observers’• Identifying bias andhumanization• To be useful they must beunderstood
  73. 73. •Defensive ? • On top of steep slopes • Good views of surrounding land? • Invisible interiors ?Or Constructing a sense of place? Seeing and being seen?
  74. 74. •Contextualising the act of interpretation e.g. Video, diaries•Broadcasting the data, e.g. hypermedia•Storing multiple interpretations in parallel•Reactive site investigation

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