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Writing a Big Data History of Music

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Writing a Big Data History of Music

  1. 1. A Big Data History of Music Stephen Rose, Royal Holloway
  2. 2. 2 Trends in music history – source studies
  3. 3. 3 Trends in music history – social / intellectual contexts of ‘work’
  4. 4. 4 Franco Moretti’s ‘distant reading’ Franco Moretti, Graphs, maps, trees: abstract models for a literary history (2005), p.11
  5. 5. 5 Charting the ‘Great Unread’ Franco Moretti, Graphs, maps, trees: abstract models for a literary history (2005), p.19
  6. 6. 6 Big Data in music… Machine readable scores? Audio libraries? Metadata about music publications?
  7. 7. 7 Machine readable scores e.g. www.peachnote.com
  8. 8. 8 Audio Big Data e.g. Digital Music Lab chord visualiser
  9. 9. 9 Vision for project How can the vast amount of bibliographical data held by research libraries be unlocked for music researchers to analyse? Can this data be interrogated in ways that challenge the traditional narratives of music history?
  10. 10. 10 Aims of project • To clean and enhance two existing bibliographical datasets • To pilot big data research techniques on these and five other datasets • To make the British Library datasets publicly available for download
  11. 11. 11 Project datasets • RISM A/I (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales) - single-composer printed editions issued before 1800), ca. 100K records. opac.rism.info since May 2015 • RISM B/I - printed anthologies, 1500-1700, ca. 17K records. Not yet fully online • RISM A/II - music manuscripts, 1600-ca. 1850, opac.rism.info, incorporating the RISM UK catalogue of music manuscripts, ca. 900K records • British Library catalogue of printed music, explore.bl.uk, ca. 1 million records • British Library catalogue of manuscript music, searcharchives.bl.uk, ca. 16K records • Augustus Hughes-Hughes: Catalogue of Manuscript Music in the British Museum (London, 1906-9), ca. 35K records. Not yet online • Concert Programmes Database, www.concertprogrammes.org.uk, ca. 6K records
  12. 12. 12 RISM volumes
  13. 13. 13 RISM online catalogue
  14. 14. 14 Data facets or types Composers Musical works Places Time Subjects/genres Printers/publishers
  15. 15. 15 Data facets captured in music datasets Composer Work title Country of origin City of origin Creation date Subject/ genre Printer/ publisher A/I Y some Y some Y Y B/I Y Y Y Y CPM some some Y Y Y (though many are approx.) some some A/II Y Y Y Y N/A BL MSS Y some Y N/A H-H Y Y Y Y N/A Key: A/I – RISM A/I (single-composer printed editions) B/I – RISM B/I (printed anthologies) CPM - British Library catalogue of printed music A/II – RISM A/II (music manuscripts) BL MSS – British Library catalogue of manuscripts H-H – Catalogue of Manuscript Music in the British Museum, ed. A. Hughes-Hughes
  16. 16. 16 Transforming the data from MARC21 library format MARC21 format
  17. 17. 17 Transforming the data from MARC21 library format Spreadsheet row
  18. 18. 18 Transforming the data from MARC21 library format MARCedit tool used to transform library catalogue records into TSV files http://marcedit.reeset.net/
  19. 19. 19 Library data diversity: date information • [WM 1825] • [ca. 1825] • [1825?] • [1825] • 1825 • [1825-1830] • [before 1825] • [after 1825] • [between 1825 and 1830] Row Labels Count of Dates 1825 1 [1825?] 1 [1825] 1 [1825-1830] 1 [after 1825] 1 [before 1825] 1 [between 1825 and 1830] 1 [ca. 1825] 1 [WM 1825] 1 Grand Total 9
  20. 20. 20 Data preparation Date Date Date Date [WM 1825] 1825 1820s 19th century [ca. 1825] 1825 1820s 19th century [1825?] 1825 1820s 19th century [1825] 1825 1820s 19th century 1825 1825 1820s 19th century [1825-1830] 1820s 19th century [before 1825] 19th century [after 1825] 19th century [between 1825 and 1830] 1820s 19th century
  21. 21. 21 Data preparation Date Date Date Date [WM 1825] 1825 1820s 19th century [ca. 1825] 1825 1820s 19th century [1825?] 1825 1820s 19th century [1825] 1825 1820s 19th century 1825 1825 1820s 19th century [1825-1830] 1820s 19th century [before 1825] 19th century [after 1825] 19th century [between 1825 and 1830] 1820s 19th century Row Labels Count of Dates 1825 5 Grand Total 5 Row Labels Count of Dates 19th century 9 Grand Total 9 Row Labels Count of Dates 1820s 7 Grand Total 7
  22. 22. 22 Open Refine (http://openrefine.org/)
  23. 23. 23 Open Refine (http://openrefine.org/)
  24. 24. 24 Handel publications by date, as assigned in British Library catalogue 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
  25. 25. 25 The rise and fall of music printing, 1500-1700 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1490s1500s1510s1520s1530s1540s1550s1560s1570s1580s1590s1600s1610s1620s1630s1640s1650s1660s1670s1680s1690s RISM A/I and B/I data Total
  26. 26. 26 Single-composer prints (RISM A/I) versus anthologies (RISM B/I), 1500-1700 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1490s 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s AI BI
  27. 27. 27 Petrucci anthologies Harmonice musices Odhecaton [Canti A] (Venice, 1501)
  28. 28. 28 Monumentalising the composer Lassus, Magnum opus musicum, Munich 1604
  29. 29. 29 Music printing by year, 1500-1649 0 50 100 150 200 250 1493 1501 1504 1507 1510 1513 1516 1519 1522 1526 1529 1532 1535 1538 1541 1544 1547 1550 1553 1556 1559 1562 1565 1568 1571 1574 1577 1580 1583 1586 1589 1592 1595 1598 1601 1604 1607 1610 1613 1616 1619 1622 1625 1628 1631 1634 1637 1640 1643 1646 1649 RISM A/I and B/I data
  30. 30. 30 Music printed in major centres, 1500-1649 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1493 1503 1507 1511 1516 1520 1526 1530 1534 1538 1542 1546 1550 1554 1558 1562 1566 1570 1574 1578 1582 1586 1590 1594 1598 1602 1606 1610 1614 1618 1622 1626 1630 1634 1638 1642 1646 Venice Rome Paris Nuremberg London Antwerp
  31. 31. 31 Venice – dips in 1571 and 1576/7 Battle of Lepanto, 1571 Plague, 1576/7 (including Titian’s funeral)
  32. 32. 32 Venice, 1571 Il primo libro delle Napolitane à tre voci, Giosef Policretto, & altri eccellentissimi musici (Venice, 1571)
  33. 33. 33 Lifespan of early modern industries ‘the typical pattern of a sharp rise followed by an abrupt fall can very easily be imagined as the probable profile in the pre-industrial economy’ (Fernand Braudel, Civilization and capitalism: the wheels of commerce, trsl. London 1982)
  34. 34. 34 Main music-printing centres, 1570s 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1570s Erfurt Leuven Magdeburg Mühlhausen Munich Nuremberg Paris Strasbourg Venice Wittenberg
  35. 35. 35 All music-printing centres, 1570s
  36. 36. 36 All music-printing centres, 1640s
  37. 37. 37 Main music-printing centres, 1690s 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1690s Amsterdam Antwerp Augsburg Bologna London Nuremberg Paris Rome Stettin Venice
  38. 38. 38 Composer case-study: Palestrina
  39. 39. 39 Palestrina – the archetypal Catholic composer? Palestrina presenting his music to Pope Julius III. Liber primus missarum (Rome, 1554)
  40. 40. 40 RISM A/I and B/I data Palestrina: places & dates published
  41. 41. 41 The myth of Palestrina as saviour of polyphony Music would have come very near to being banished from the Holy Church by a sovereign pontiff had not Giovanni Palestrina found the remedy, showing that the fault and error lay, not with music, but with the composers, and composing in confirmation of this the Mass entitled Missa Papae Marcelli Agazzari, 1607
  42. 42. 42 RISM A/I data Palestrina: genres and places
  43. 43. 43 RISM A/I and B/I data Palestrina: places & dates published
  44. 44. 44 Palestrina in the Protestant periphery Palestrina’s madrigal ‘Vestiva i colli’ Englished in Musica transalpina (London, 1588)
  45. 45. 45 RISM A/II data Palestrina manuscripts
  46. 46. 46 The cult of Palestrina ‘By Aloysius, the master, I refer to Palestrina, the celebrated light of music…to whom I owe everything that I know of this art, and whose memory I shall never cease to cherish with a feeling of deepest reverence’ Fux, Gradus ad parnassum (Vienna, 1725)
  47. 47. 47 BL Aleph data: The rise of ‘Scottish’ music 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1680s 1690s 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
  48. 48. 48 from Restoration ‘Scotch songs’… A New Scotch Song sung to the King at Windsor, c.1685
  49. 49. 49 …to Ossian and the noble savage Address to the Sun from … Ossian, c.1783
  50. 50. 50 Queen Victoria’s visits from 1842 ‘Scotia’s welcome to Victoria’, arr. Henry Bishop c.1842 The Balmoral Quadrilles c.1850
  51. 51. 51 Contact stephen.rose@rhul.ac.uk sandra.tuppen@bl.uk A Big Data History of Music was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council

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